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Probabilities of loneliness as a function of pet ownership and living status. Note: The interaction shown is adjusted for mood (coded as happy mood), age (mean age), and seasonal status (non-seasonal). The same pattern of results emerged when the graph was depicted with alternate codings of the covariates. Probabilities were calculated by the recommendation of Cohen et al. (2003): probability 1⁄4 1/(1 þ EXP( À 1 Â (logits))). 

Probabilities of loneliness as a function of pet ownership and living status. Note: The interaction shown is adjusted for mood (coded as happy mood), age (mean age), and seasonal status (non-seasonal). The same pattern of results emerged when the graph was depicted with alternate codings of the covariates. Probabilities were calculated by the recommendation of Cohen et al. (2003): probability 1⁄4 1/(1 þ EXP( À 1 Â (logits))). 

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Objectives: Older adults who report feelings of loneliness are at increased risk for a range of negative physical and mental health outcomes, including early mortality. Identifying potential sources of social connectedness, such as pet ownership, could add to the understanding of how to promote health and well-being in older adults. The aim of thi...

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... a subsequent model, we also used logistic regression to test an interaction between pet ownership and living status (i.e., alone vs. with another human being). To interpret the form of the inter- action, we plotted the probabilities of loneliness as a func- tion of pet ownership separately for those who live alone or live with others, according to the recommendations of Cohen, Cohen, West, and Aiken (2003 (F(1, 753) ¼ 11.62, p < 0.001) and less likely to live alone (x 2 ¼ 5.48, p < 0.05) than non-pet owners. Due to these differences, both age and living sta- tus (i.e., alone vs. not alone) were entered as covariates in subsequent models. ...
Context 2
... there was a significant interaction between pet ownership and living alone (b ¼ À1.60, p < 0.001), such that the odds of loneliness depended on both pet ownership and living sta- tus, even after controlling for age, seasonal status, and mood (see Table 3). The form of the interaction indicated that living alone and not owning a pet was associated with the greatest odds of reporting feelings of loneliness (see Figure 1). ...

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... In many cases, pets can serve as an ice-breaker or a neutral topic to start conversations. Therefore, having a pet reduces the risk of being socially disconnected from others and may improve older adults' mental health by attenuating feelings of loneliness (Anderson et al. 2008;Stanley et al. 2014). Finally, pets can also help to deal with stressful life events by bringing support and companionship to older adults in the face of adversity (Edney 1995). ...
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... Unexpectedly, no significant influence of pet ownership on resilience and loneliness was observed, which contrasted with previous pre-pandemic research. 5,18 Although a reasonable sample size was recruited for this study, future research would benefit from recruiting an even larger sample to replicate the current study and ensure effects between groups can be appropriately identified. Examinations of future explanatory models for quality of life, resilience and loneliness could also include other contributory variables that are beyond the scope of the current research question (e.g. ...
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Owning a pet has often been associated with improved mental health among owners, including enhanced quality of life, and decreased levels of depression and loneliness. The aim of this study was to identify whether owning a cat and/or dog was associated with better psychological wellbeing during a strict lockdown period in Victoria, Australia, during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Data were analysed from a large‐scale mental health study: the COvid‐19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy (COLLATE). The impact of pet ownership on levels of resilience, loneliness and quality of life were examined in a sample of 138 pet owners and 125 non‐pet owners. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that pet ownership was significantly associated with poorer quality of life, but not significantly associated with resilience or loneliness, after accounting for situational factors (e.g. job loss) and mood states. Contrary to expectations, the findings suggest that during a specific situation such as a pandemic, pets may contribute to increased burden among owners and contribute to poorer quality of life.