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Primary and Secondary endosymbiosis.

Primary and Secondary endosymbiosis.

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Photosynthesis is a phenomenon of carbon fixation from inorganic to organic form and producing carbohydrates by photoautotrophs with the help of sunlight, water and chlorophyll. The growth and metabolism of all living systems on Earth either directly or indirectly depends on photosynthesis for organic matter and energy. In this book the authors hav...

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... photosynthetic bacteria or cyanobacteria are engulfed by the modern heterotrophic eukaryotes resulting in the formation of chloroplast in algae, which further evolved into higher plant chloroplast. In the year 1960, Lynn Margulis worked on endosymbiosis and attempted to explain the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplast ( Figure 2). She established her results based on biochemical, cytological and paleontological evidences (Margulis 1970). ...
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... primary and secondary endosymbiosis resulted in the formation of simple and complex plastids. In primary endosymbiosis, a heterotrophic eukaryote engulfs a photosynthetic cyanobacterium to form simple plastid bearing eukaryotes such as chlorophytes, glaucophytes and rhodophytes ( Figure 2). In secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis, the simple plastid or plastid bearing eukaryotes are engulfed by one or two heterotrophic eukaryotes, which leads to the formation of complex plastid bearing eukaryotic organisms; belonging to the group of Euglenophyta, Dinophyta Apicomplexa, Cryptophyta, Chlorarachniophyta, Heterokontophyta and Haptophyta. ...
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... two membranes of chloroplast E. R. and three thylakoids per band evolved in the group of Prymnesiophyta and Heterokontophyta. The evolution had been carried out with primary and secondary endosymbionts, and the evolution of chromalveolates was noticed (Figure 2) (Nosenko 2006). The recent discovery of green and red algae genes in diatom has suggested the presence of additional secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary endosymbiosis during the early evolution of chromalveolates ( Moustafa et al. 2009;Chan and Bhattacharya 2010). ...
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... dual activity of Rubisco proceeds through carboxylation and oxygenation reaction ( Figure 20). Carboxylation reaction involves photosynthetic carbon fixation into C3 and C4 compounds by Calvin cycle and Hatch-Slack pathway. ...
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... photosynthesis is the main event of regulating CO2 in the atmosphere, Rubisco reactions are used as dynamic pathway for climate change through CO2 mitigation. Figure 20. Dual activity of Rubisco-CO2 fixation through Calvin cycle and Photorespiration (RuBPRibulose-1,5-bisphosphate; PGA-Phosphoglyceric acid; PG-Phosphoglycolate; ADP-Adenosine disphosphate; ATP-Adenosine triphosphate; NADPH-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; Rubisco-Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). ...
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... assimilation happens in the light independent phase of photosynthesis popularly known as dark reaction. Like higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria use NADPH2 and ATP to produce organic molecules in the form of carbohydrates (Figure 20). NADPH2 and ATP are produced in the light reaction of photosynthesis as discussed previously. ...

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Most marine algae preferentially assimilate CO 2 via the Calvin-Benson Cycle (C 3) and cat-alyze HCO 3 − dehydration via carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a CO 2-compensatory mechanism, but certain species utilize the Hatch-Slack Cycle (C 4) to enhance photosynthesis. The occurrence and importance of the C 4 pathway remains uncertain, however. Here, we de...