Prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy potential risk factors. 

Prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy potential risk factors. 

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Context 1
... 3 indicates a prevalence of 25.8% for hypertension in pregnancy with an estimated 10.7% thought to have occurred before mid-pregnancy (20 weeks of gestation), while about 15.1% was thought to have occurred after mid pregnancy. Figure 1 shows that the most prevalent risk factor was family history of hypertension (45.3%), and obesity (38.4%). Family history of hypertension in pregnancy (35.8%), previous history of hypertension in pregnancy was also substantial (32.1%), as well as extreme maternal age and excessive salt consumption (23.3%), previous history of hypertension (19%), oral contraceptives use (15.7%), and history of preterm delivery (10.1%). ...
Context 2
... difference between the prevalence before and after mid gestation tended to reflect the consistent thought in literature that gestational hypertension represents a higher percentage of hypertension experience during pregnancy [6,7,24]. The most prevalent risk factor according to Figure 1 was family history of hypertension (45.3%). Hypertension during pregnancy had been reported to be affected by family history of hypertension especially in the father and siblings [2]. ...

Citations

... Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is one of the commonest causes of both maternal 1 as well as neonatal mortality 2 and morbidity that develops as a result of pregnancy and generally regresses after delivery, affecting about 5-8 % of pregnant women, moreover 5-22% of pregnancies especially in developing countries. 3 The mortality is closely associated with the severity of hypertension as 22% of maternal deaths accounts only due to eclampsia in Nepal, 4 further leads to the frequency of induced labor, fetal growth restriction, admission to neonatal intensive care unit 5 and even high incidence on those having the previous history of PIH. 6 With the advancement in maternity services, decline in the incidence of PIH is seen, but still contributes highly to poor maternal and fetal outcome. 7 There are very few studies on PIH and its' outcome in Nepal. ...
Article
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Introduction: Pregnancy Induced Hypertension is a major health issue with limited studies conducted so far in Chitwan, Nepal regarding adverse perinatal outcomes in obstetric population. This study aimed to find prevalence of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women delivering in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital of Chitwan, Nepal during the study period of six months from 15th Jan 2019- 16th July 2019 after getting ethical approval from Chitwan Medical College-Institutional Review Committee (Reference number-2075/076042). Women were selected via convenience sampling technique. Face to face interview was conducted to collect socio-demographic and obstetric data whereas, data related to the fetomaternal outcomes were obtained from patient charts and delivery record books. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for data analysis. Point estimate at 95% confidence interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. Results: The prevalence of pregnancy induced hypertension was found to be 91 (6.43%) (3.83-9.03 at 95% Confidence Interval) representing 71 (78.1%), 12 (13.2%), and 8 (8.7%) as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia respectively. Conclusions: The burden of pregnancy induced hypertension was found quite higher as compared to other similar studies done in Nepal. Gestational hypertension was most common type.
... Finally, we included 27 articles in this systematic review and out of 27 studies, 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis study (see Fig 1). The majority of the articles, 15 articles included in this review were cross-sectional [16,17,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35], nine were case-control [15,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43], and the remaining three were of a longitudinal study design [34,44,45]. Studies from ten countries were included in this review. ...
... Eleven studies found maternal age was an associated factor for HDP [15, 16, 23-25, 28, 30, 33, 36, 39, 40]. In this review, we identified that eight out of ten studies revealed older age women experience a higher odds of developing HDP than younger women [16,23,24,28,30,36,39,40]. For example, a study conducted in Tanzania found the odds of HDP in pregnant women aged 35 years or older were 5.3 times more as compared to younger women (AOR: 5.32; 95% CI: 2.55, 11.10) [23]. ...
... A case-control study conducted in Ethiopia reported that the odds HDP in pregnant women aged 30 years or older were seven times more than younger women (AOR: 6.59; 95% CI: 2.99, 14.50) [36]. Although the age categorization differed, similar findings were observed in other studies conducted in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Ghana [16,24,28,30,39,40]. On the other hand, a study conducted in Kenya reported that younger women had a higher odds of developing HDP compared to older women (AOR: 17.0; [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are common complications of pregnancy globally, including sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Although it has a high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, evidence on the risk of the problem is limited. Therefore, the aim of this review was to systematically examine factors associated with HDP among women in SSA countries. Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed. Articles conducted in SSA and published in English from January 2000 to May 2020 from electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL were included. Articles, which focused on HDP and found to be relevant through the reference check, were included. Additional articles found through a hand search of reference lists were also included. The quality of papers was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) scale. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted, and assessed the quality of the articles. STATA 16 software was used to compute the pooled estimated odds ratios for each of the identified associated factor. Both random and fixed effect models were used for analysis. Heterogeneity of the studies and small study bias were checked by I² and asymmetric test, respectively. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Significant associations with HDP were identified through meta-analysis for the following variables: being primiparous (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.44), having previous HDP (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.05, 5.45), family history of HDP (OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.85, 3.6), and lower maternal educational level (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.13). Due to the limited number of studies found specific to each variable, there was inconclusive evidence for a relationship with a number of factors, such as maternal nutrition, antenatal care visits, birth spacing, multiple birth, physical activity during pregnancy, use of contraceptives, place of residency, family size, and other related associated factors. Conclusions The risk of developing HDP is worse among women who have a history of HDP (either themselves or their family), are primiparous, or have a lower maternal educational level. Therefore, investment in women’s health needs considered to reduce the problem, and health service providers need to give due attention to women with at increased risk to HDP. Additionally, interventions need to focus on increasing women’s access to education and their awareness of potential associated factors for HDP.
... The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy found in this study was 5.5%. This figure is close to the 5.4% reported in India [24] and 8.5% reported by Wolde in Jimma [25] but less than 25.8% reported by Azubuike in Katsina [26] and 17% reported by Singh in Sokoto. [2] This lower prevalence might be due to the poor health-seeking behavior of women in our setting such that patients present to the hospital as a last resort, in most cases with severe disease. ...
... Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a global problem [1] which Hypertension in pregnancy affects about 5-22% of pregnancies worldwide [2]. PHI is an emerging clinical and public health problem in Nigeria. ...
... Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a global problem [1] which Hypertension in pregnancy affects about 5-22% of pregnancies worldwide [2]. PHI is an emerging clinical and public health problem in Nigeria. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Nigeria, women frequently suffer the outcomes of serious hypertensive disorders in pregnancy that may lead to death. Delay in seeking care is a key contributor to worsening the complications of Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). This study therefore aimed at contributing to the available body of research on the knowledge and Health seeking behaviour among pregnant women (18 to 40 years) diagnosed with PIH in Ekiti-state, Nigeria. Data was collected through the use of questionnaire from pregnant women who have been diagnosed with PIH. Research findings show that the level of knowledge of pregnancy induced hypertension among expectant mothers aged 18 to 40 years with PIH complications in Ekiti-state Nigeria is so low (15%). Again, the rate at which they seek healthcare (15.8%), calls for urgent attention. In order to checkmate early complications of unmanaged PIH, maternal, foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity; it is therefore recommended that appropriate health interventions and education programmes for the pregnant women with PIH should be designed by the government of Ekiti-State, Nigeria. For interventions to work, the knowledge gained via this study would sensitize midwives on knowledge needs of pregnant women with PIH previously unrealized thereby strengthening the quality of antenatal care education. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between the level of knowledge of expectant mothers and the frequency at which they seek health care, the point at which they seek healthcare; as well as the alternative choices available to them.
Article
Introduction: Pregnancy-related hypertension (PRH) is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Knowledge and prevention strategy of PRH among pregnant women is imperative to promote favourable outcomes. This study examined the knowledge and awareness of PRH, including exercises as a preventive strategy and factors related to it, among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design. A structured questionnaire guided the collection of data from a sample of 296 women aged 18 years and above in multiple centres across the state. Results: 68.6% of respondents know PRH, while 52.36% know antenatal exercises as a preventive strategy for PRH. The level of education and maternal age were factors significantly associated with knowledge of PRH and exercises as a preventive strategy, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that knowledge of PRH is high, while the knowledge and use of exercises to prevent the condition is average among expectant mothers.
Chapter
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in pregnancy may represent true cardiovascular syndromes that preexist before pregnancy or may manifest for the first time due to the hemodynamic changes of pregnancy, which by themselves may mimic cardiovascular diseases, even though physiological. This chapter describes the physiological basis of the hemodynamic changes in pregnancy which may mimic, precipitate, or potentiate adversity in cardiovascular diseases and discusses ways to identify true disease. It also details the spectrum of cardiac risk factors and cardiovascular diseases prevalent in the developing countries, explaining the mechanisms for causation of threats to maternal health and fetal well-being; the clinical presentation and management of the disease conditions.