Prevalence of Isolated Diastolic Hypertension according to some lifestyle practices 

Prevalence of Isolated Diastolic Hypertension according to some lifestyle practices 

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Background: In the past, diastolic hypertension was the main criterion for treatment, but currently, systolic pressure is the main criterion because it was thought that Isolated Diastolic Hypertension (IDH) is not associated with complications. Studies later revealed that IDH carries significant risks. Quantifying the magnitude and risk factors of...

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... was not significantly associated with place, educa- tion or income. IDH was significantly higher among smokers, but it was not related to physical activity and diet, as shown in Table 2. Table 3 shows the prevalence of IDH according to some comorbidities. ...

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... Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of IDH between urban and rural subjects, possibly due to rapid economic progress and urbanisation in recent years. 18 Consistent with most previous studies, 17 19 the IDH prevalence was higher in men than in women across all age groups, and the high prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption in men was possibly responsible for this sex-related difference. Similar to previous studies, we found that the IDH prevalence decreased with advancing age, the highest prevalence of IDH in people aged 40-49 years was 7.2%, and the lowest IDH prevalence was found in subjects aged ≥70 years (1.5%), possibly due to increased vascular stiffness, or changed to non-IDH type as SBP increased significantly with age. ...
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Objectives Little is known about the prevalence and impact of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in northeast China. We aimed to investigate the current epidemiology of IDH and to illustrate whether IDH accounted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A population-based study carried out in northeast China. Participants We built a community-based study of 18 796 residents aged ≥40 years who were living in northeast China with blood pressure measurements between September 2017 and March 2019. Outcome measures Information on CVD death was obtained from baseline until 31 July 2021. IDH was defined as a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg together with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg among hypertensive population. Results The overall prevalence of IDH was 3.9%, which decreased significantly with advancing age (p<0.001) and ranged from 7.2% (95% CI: 6.3% to 8.2%) among participants 40–49 years to 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1% to 2.0%) among participants ≥70 years. Moreover, the IDH prevalence was higher in men than in women (5.2% vs 3.1%, p<0.001). The awareness and treatment rates of IDH were 25.7% and 17.7%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of patients with non-IDH (50.1% and 21.7%, p=0.009, respectively). During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 314 subjects died due to CVD (rate 4.84/1000 person-years). IDH and non-IDH were both significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD death (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.35 to 4.82; HR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.81 to 3.38) when compared with participants with non-hypertension. Conclusions IDH was mainly prevalent among young and middle-aged populations, and the awareness and treatment rates in IDH were lower than those in non-IDH hypertension. Additionally, IDH and non-IDH were significantly related to an increased risk of CVD mortality. Early management of IDH is urgently required in northeast China.
... The report also revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was higher (65%) among individuals who are 65 and older, and it was varied across different geographical areas of the Kingdom. Figure In a recent study, Saeed conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension among residents of Saudi Arabia (A. A. W. Saeed, 2017). A community-based survey containing information about blood pressure and other relevant factors was conducted, and a total of 4588 individuals aged from 5 -64 years were randomly selected from 20 regions and primary health care centers to participate in the study. ...
... In the same context, Saeed also conducted a study to identify the potential risk factors that influence high blood pressure in Saudi Arabia (A. A. W. Saeed, 2017). Demographics and lifestyle characteristics such as gender, age, education, occupation, region, family income, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking status were included in the study. ...
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Saudi Arabia is among the countries that have very high prevalence rates of diabetes and hypertension, with prevalence rates of almost 18% and 25%, respectively. The majority of patients with diabetes and hypertension fail to manage their diseases and to show up for their follow up appointments. Mhealth technology is among the interventions that have been recently adopted to overcome these issues and improve the quality of healthcare services. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile phone application named diabetes and hypertension application (DHA Tracking) to promote adherence for patients with diabetes and hypertension in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The proposed intervention was designed to promote adherence via two features, namely, refill medication reminder (RMR) and doctor appointment reminder (DAR). The third feature, which is managing the number of unnecessary visits, was covered by the cumulative blood sugar test (Hemoglobin A1c) for patients with their doctors. The study examined the difference in adherence level before the intervention and after the intervention with samples of n = 199 and n = 165 for diabetes and hypertension, respectively. The mhealth intervention was found to have significant effects on both the refill medication reminder and the doctor's appointment reminder. Also, it was found that the intervention was efficient in reducing the number of unnecessary follow-up visits to around 20%. This study supports the evidence in the literature on the effectiveness of mhealth in promoting adherence to medication for patients with chronic diseases in the developing countries and specifically in Saudi Arabia. Positive social change that may result from this study is for better management of chronic disease symptoms and increase the awareness of using mhealth applications. This would improve the quality of life for patients, their families, and the community.
... The WHO estimated that chronic diseases were responsible for almost sixty percentage of deaths worldwide [6]. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, chronic diseases were responsible for 67% of all deaths in 2004, and hypertension was responsible for 37% of them [6].The prevalence of hypertension was about A Ad dv va an nc ce es s i in n B Bi io or re es se ea ar rc ch h © 2020 Society of Education, India 22% worldwide in adults, and that was responsible for more than nine million deaths (WHO, 2014) [7].The prevalence in 2016 of hypertension in adults' Saudi patients was 21% [8].Heart diseases were responsible for about 46% of mortality rate in KSA, but 24% of this rate was attributed to hypertension [3,7].Other authors found that46.2% of males were nonadherent to treatment and females were 53.9% [9].Complex drug prescription, unsatisfied treatment and effectiveness of therapy were found to be the most common risk factors for poor adherence to antihypertensive drugs [10,11].Many recent studies proved the relationship between hypertensive patients' socio-demographic factors and their adherence to drug treatment regimens. Bandi et al. (2017) found that, older patients reported good adherence to antihypertensive drugs and had better knowledge about their condition than younger patients [12].They were also found that males are more adherent than females but were less consistent in receiving medications [13]. ...
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The prevalence of hypertension was about twenty-two percentage worldwide in adults and was responsible for more than nine million deaths. Heart diseases were responsible for about 46% of mortality rate in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-four percentage of this mortality rate was due to poor adherence to anti-hypertensive drugs, none healthy lifestyle, little physical activities, unhealthy diet, that led to uncontrolled blood pressure. Our aim to assess the extent of patient adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment and factors predicting this behavior in Hail, Saudi Arabia. In addition, evaluation of patient's knowledge and perceptions about hypertension, risk factors, and medication side effects. Data were collected by well-trained doctors during August and September 2019 among 231 patients (129 males and 102 females)from Hail University Medical Polyclinic, Hail, KSA. The results showed that cholesterol level was more than 200 mg/dl in males(46.5%) Vs 40.2% in females. About 92% of patients reported regular visits to their physicians for regular checkups but with different frequencies. About 68% of the participants with complete adherence to treatment with anti-hypertensive drugs, 90.3% of them their age >60 years old. High percentages (68.5%) of married patients showed good adherence to treatment, but the level of education had no great effects on drug adherence. Our conclusion was that advises from physicians, pharmacists and with health-care system might solve the poor adherence to treatment. Also, better interventions and good patient knowledge's about disease nature and drugs treatment could be of a great importance.
... However, majority of them agreed that greater amount of knowledge regarding health concerns was acquired through electronic media. Saeed (2016) studied Isolated Diastolic Hypertension in various adults, residing in Saudi Arabia. Risk factors such as; obesity, smoking, stress was provided major concern. ...
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Background: Hypertension (HTN) is recognized as a global healthcare challenge. It is considered as the leading mortality inducing factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, renal diseases, and retinopathy. Objective: The study aims to assess the hypertension prevalence among adults in Khartoum, Sudan. It also examined the potential risk factors that are associated with hypertension. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional research design using a quantitative approach. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 138 adults aged 16-75 years, from March-April 2015, in the Riyadh district of Khartoum, Sudan. Using simple random sampling, the study recruited the participants from ward number 5 of Riyadh municipality. Data were collected related to the socio-demographic factors and hypertension risk factors. Results: The findings showed a prevalence of 28 percent, whereas the majority of hypertension cases were reported for the age group from 45-60 years group (13.7%). The findings revealed a substantial impact of age, stress, social status, and diabetes on hypertension with a p-value of 0.001, 0.010, 0.001, and 0.50, respectively. Conclusions: It concludes that more research needs to be conducted for the analysis of the factors which can assist the detection of hypertension. It also stresses towards instigation of the awareness programs with effective preventive interventions.
... ISH ranges from 20.3% in primary care patients to 35% in general population [18]. A study in Saudi revealed 7.6% of ISH among adults associated with education, obesity, DM, and dyslipidemia [19]. Prevalence of 43.6% was reported in Nigerian adults associated with increased age [20]. ...
... Educational status of ≤ grade 8 were 2.9 times more likely to develop ISH than those in College and above level. This finding is similar with a study in Australia which reported that, decreased education level was associated with increased hypertension [34], Boston [33] and Saudi [19]. The probable reason for higher ISH in lower education level might be lack of awareness about lifestyle modification among patients who attained lower educational level. ...
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Objectives: Systolic blood pressure rise among T2DM patients was main risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Objective of this study was to identify predictors of isolated systolic hypertension among T2DM patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, 2016. We conducted cross sectional study using simple random sampling and interviewer administered questionnaire. Isolated systolic hypertension is SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and < 90 mmHg. Data entered and analyzed using Epi Data and SPSS respectively. Predictor factor was declared at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 315 T2DM took part. Prevalence of ISH was 27.6% [95% CI (22.7, 32.5%)]. One hundred sixty and two (51.4%) patients were males with mean age of 54.1 from 22 to 87 years. Male sex [AOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.21-4.72, p = 0.012], unemployment [AOR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.48-7.03, p = 0.003], age of 47-55 [AOR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.03-6.70, p = 0.044], single [AOR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.13-4.51, p = 0.021], ≤ Grade 8 [AOR = 2.94, 95% CI 1.10-7.85, p = 0.03] and income (ETB) 501-800 [AOR = 21.9, 95% CI 7.62-63.1, p < 0.001], 801-1500 [AOR = 5.78, 95% CI 2.55-13.1, p < 0.001] and > 1500 [AOR = 4.23, 95% CI 1.74-10.30, p = 0.001] were significant factors of ISH. The health sector has to establish preventive strategies for ISH among T2DM patients by giving special attention to predictor factors.
... Our findings that young age, male sex, obesity, DM, alcohol consumption, and prior cardiovascular events are positively associated with IDH prevalence supports and expands on the associations previously described in the literature but with smaller numbers of patients with IDH. 1,3,20,[25][26][27] For example, Franklin et al 20 and Liu et al 25 showed that younger age, male sex, and BMI were predictors of IDH in a small population of IDH patients. In this study, we identified additional factors associated with IDH including DM, alcohol consumption, history of prior cardiovascular event, and showed that these associations were consistent across tens of thousands of individuals with IDH and across diverse population subgroups. ...
... The prevalence rates of IDH found in our study were also comparable with those reported previously in studies not only from Chinese cohorts (for example, Huang et al 3 found a prevalence of 4.4% among adults aged 35 to 74 and Sun et al 11 found a prevalence of 5.8% among adults >35 years), but also from other lowand middle-income countries. 26,27 Second, to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the awareness of having hypertension among a large Chinese population with IDH compared with other hypertension subtypes, and to identify characteristics that are associated with awareness. Our findings suggest that even though awareness among participants with IDH increases with age, it is significantly lower as compared with awareness among participants with other hypertension subtypes, across all age groups. ...
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Background Characterizing and assessing the prevalence, awareness, and treatment patterns of patients with isolated diastolic hypertension ( IDH ) can generate new knowledge and highlight opportunities to improve their care. Methods and Results We used data from the China PEACE (Patient‐centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) Million Persons Project, which screened 2 351 035 participants aged 35 to 75 years between 2014 and 2018. IDH was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure of <140 and ≥90 mm Hg; awareness as self‐reported diagnosis of hypertension; and treatment as current use of antihypertensive medications. Of the 2 310 184 participants included (mean age 55.7 years; 59.5% women); 73 279 (3.2%) had IDH , of whom 63 112 (86.1%) were untreated, and only 6512 (10.3%) of the untreated were aware of having hypertension. When compared with normotensives, participants who were <60 years, men, at least college educated, had body mass index of >28 kg/m ² , consumed alcohol, had diabetes mellitus, and prior cardiovascular events were more likely to have IDH (all P <0.01). Among those with IDH , higher likelihood of awareness was associated with increased age, women, college education, body mass index of >28 kg/m ² , higher income, diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular events, and Central or Eastern region (all P <0.05). Most treated participants with IDH reported taking only 1 class of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions IDH affects a substantial number of people in China, however, few are aware of having hypertension and most treated participants are poorly managed, which suggests the need to improve the diagnosis and treatment of people with IDH .
... In 2014, the prevalence of hypertension worldwide in adults was around 22%, and that was responsible for 9.4 million deaths [2]. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of hypertension in adults was reported to be 21% in 2016 [3]. In addition, cardiovascular diseases account for around 46% of mortality rate in Saudi Arabia, but 24% of this rate is attributed to hypertension [2,4]. ...
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To assess the prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications among adults attending Primary Healthcare Clinics (PHCs) in Al-Hasa Region. This cross-sectional study included participants from a variety of clinics in the region and each of them had been interviewed to complete the questionnaire. The participants were selected by random sampling from eight different PHCs. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire that was adopted from two different scales to determine the association between adherence and socioeconomic and health status characteristics. We included 372 participants with a mean (±standard deviation) age of 53 ± 12.4 years and most of them were male (62%, n = 231). The overall mean adherence based on our adapted scale was 5.3 ± 2.3. Among participants taking more than six medications, the percentage of nonadherent participants was significantly higher than the percentage of adherent participants (85% vs. 15%, p = 0.016). Participants with single comorbidity were more likely to be adherent than patients with multiple comorbidities (odds ratio = 1.52, p = 0.049). In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications in the Al-Hasa community and the main association factor was found to be the presence of comorbidity. Such high rate sends alarming messages for the need of potential interventions to improve adherence outcome.
... The prevalence of DES in central Saudi Arabia as such is very high 26 and the prevalence of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity among Saudi adults is also very high. 27,[28][29][30] Therefore, higher rates of chronic diseases among patients with DES noted in the present study could be a chance of observation. Further stud- ies with larger sample and with comparison group of patients without DES will confirm the findings of our study. ...
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Purpose: To study the magnitude of chronic diseases among patients suffering from Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) and compare them with published findings in the literature. Methods: Patients diagnosed in 2016 suffering from DES based on presenting symptoms and findings of ocular examination were included in this study. The demographic information included age and gender. Chronic diseases among them were identified through case records, assessment and ongoing medications. Results: This case series had 62 patients (58% males) of DES. The mean age was 60.2 ± 16.6 years. The prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes among them was 48.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 31.5–65.5), 55.9% (95% CI 40.1–71.7) and 47.1% (95% CI 29.8–64.4) respectively. The rate of thyroid diseases (16.2%), renal diseases (6.5%), and liver diseases (6.7%) was not significant in this series. Conclusions: This series in central Saudi Arabia suggests that the magnitude of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia seems to be higher in patients with DES compared to the population.