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Figure 3 - Body Mass Index, Sex, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Figure 3: Prevalence by age and body mass index category of cardiovascular disease risk factors: hypertension (upper left); diabetes (upper middle); high low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C) level (upper right); low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) level (lower left); hypertriglyceridemia (lower middle); high C‐reactive protein (CRP) level (lower right). Smoothed curves display the age‐ and sex‐specific prevalence of each CVD risk factor within groups defined by normal weight, BMI ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m2; overweight, BMI ≥25 and <30 kg/m2; class I obesity, BMI ≥30 and <35 kg/m2; and class II to III obesity, BMI ≥35 kg/m2. Black curves represent males and red curves represent females. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose of ≥126 mg/dL, 2‐hour postload glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c level of ≥6.5%, or use of antidiabetic medication. High LDL‐C level was defined as (calculated) LDL‐C of ≥160 mg/dL or statin use. Low HDL‐C level was defined as <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as ≥200 mg/dL. High CRP was defined as 3 to 10 mg/L (individuals with CRP levels >10 mg/L were excluded from analyses). Smoothed curves were drawn by using local polynomials estimation using the svysmooth procedure with a bandwidth of 20 in the R statistical program. BMI indicates body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease.
Prevalence by age and body mass index category of cardiovascular disease risk factors: hypertension (upper left); diabetes (upper middle); high low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C) level (upper right); low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) level (lower left); hypertriglyceridemia (lower middle); high C‐reactive protein (CRP) level (lower right). Smoothed curves display the age‐ and sex‐specific prevalence of each CVD risk factor within groups defined by normal weight, BMI ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m2; overweight, BMI ≥25 and <30 kg/m2; class I obesity, BMI ≥30 and <35 kg/m2; and class II to III obesity, BMI ≥35 kg/m2. Black curves represent males and red curves represent females. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose of ≥126 mg/dL, 2‐hour postload glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c level of ≥6.5%, or use of antidiabetic medication. High LDL‐C level was defined as (calculated) LDL‐C of ≥160 mg/dL or statin use. Low HDL‐C level was defined as <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as ≥200 mg/dL. High CRP was defined as 3 to 10 mg/L (individuals with CRP levels >10 mg/L were excluded from analyses). Smoothed curves were drawn by using local polynomials estimation using the svysmooth procedure with a bandwidth of 20 in the R statistical program. BMI indicates body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease.
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