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Prediction of sales of insects as food and feed, from open data 

Prediction of sales of insects as food and feed, from open data 

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Article
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FAO has considered insects as food since 2003 [1] and is promoting consumption of insects (entomophagy) in the Western world because of the possibilities for sustainable production it offers. Insects as food are considered to leave smaller ecological footprints than conventional livestock (beef, pigs, and poultry) regarding feed, land and water nee...

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Context 1
... overall numbers have been openly published. In Figure 1, we compare available data from some reports ( As can be seen in Figure 1, there are three predictions (curves) for the general market for edible insects in the world, one point for edible insects in Europe, and one for beetles (mostly mealworm) in Europe. For the world market curves, it is clear that the estimates from the different reports differ very significantly, even in annual growth rates, ...
Context 2
... overall numbers have been openly published. In Figure 1, we compare available data from some reports ( As can be seen in Figure 1, there are three predictions (curves) for the general market for edible insects in the world, one point for edible insects in Europe, and one for beetles (mostly mealworm) in Europe. For the world market curves, it is clear that the estimates from the different reports differ very significantly, even in annual growth rates, ...
Context 3
... business intelligence report not shown in Figure 1 (Lux Research) provides volume data for alternative proteins [103]. Estimating world annual consumption as far as until 2054, they conclude that out of the 943 million tonnes of protein consumed in 2054, 312 million tonnes (33.0%) will be alternative proteins (proteins that are not derived from meat or seafood). ...

Citations

... Therefore, sustainable diets with reduced amount of meat or the use of alternative protein sources are needed. Insects are this alternative and can be regarded as available food for humans or feed for livestock [1,10,11,12,13]. ...
... Insects as food are usually regarded as a healthy, nutritional alternative to conventional meat products such as chicken, pork and beef. They are rich in protein (in general, from 40 to 70% on a dry weight basis), minerals (calcium, iron and zinc) [26] and vitamins; their essential amino acid content is similar to beef and soybean; the unsaturated acid content is 10-30% of dry matter [12,13,27]. ...
... Western consumers are reluctant to eat whole insects and, therefore, insect-based food ingredients included in the composition of other products can be alternative ingredients [13]. In addition, fats, chitin, minerals and vitamins can be extracted from them. ...
Article
The current state and research priorities in the field of using insects as foods and their components are examined. At present, entomophagy is practiced in Africa, South America and Asia. It is shown that the growing world population, which is increasingly limited in resources upon the rising demand for animal protein, has stimulated the interest to new food sources that can include insects as future alternative sources of animal protein. In the forming global model based on the growing share of renewable energy sources, entomophagy fits in as a renewable source of food energy. Over the last decade, the potential of edible insects as a new ingredient has been studied. It is noted that edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact compared to cattle. Insects have a huge potential at all life cycle stages as a source of nutritional and active substances and are a rich source of animal protein, contain essential amino acids, minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and P), vitamins (В-group, А, D, Е, К and С) and unsaturated fatty acids. Assimilability of insect protein is 76–98%. Insect carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin contained in a range from 2.7 mg to 49.8 mg/kg of fresh matter. There are data that different insect species can have immune stimulating, sugar reducing, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activities, as well as the positive effect in cardiovascular and nervous disorders. In the western countries, different methods of insect processing were developed. The review summarizes advantages and risks of eating insects and legal practices of their consumption. Possible ways and strategies of stimulating edible insect consumption are analyzed taking into account that the majority of population in western countries reject the idea of eating insects. The review of performed studies notes the necessity to eliminate emotional and psychological barriers on the way of accepting edible insect consumption.
... Considering the novelty of the insect-based food industry, it is definitely difficult to forecast its future market values and business opportunities. For instance, Berg et al. (2017) compared three market research reports and concluded that the estimates of annual growth differ significantly, ranging from 7 to 70%. However, what is clear is that the edible insect market can be expected to grow at a considerable pace in the next years. ...
Article
Latin America has an old tradition of entomophagy and is currently the second largest market for edible insects in the world. However, the number of start-ups producing edible insects is still very low, when compared to Europe and North America. This review analyses the potential of farming and processing edible insects in Latin America using the systemic competitiveness approach in order to list the main opportunities and challenges for the development of the sector in the region. First, the meta level appears diffuse since there are no clear regional or national strategies towards the development of an insect-based food industry, and despite the tradition of entomophagy, the majority of the urbanised population have a bias against insects. However, there is a huge potential related to reviving the traditional knowledge. The macro level is characterised by a lack of local and international regulation on food safety, production and commercialisation, but there is an opportunity related to the reformed Novel Food Regulation (Regulation (EU) No. 2015/2283) that may ease the exports to the European market. In the meso level, although investment and funding of insect-based start-ups are increasing internationally, a lack of research and training institutions is noticeable in the region. Finally, the main constraints identified in the micro level are the high prices of edible insects due to an existing disrupted supply chain and the lack of technology to mass produce insects, while the main opportunity is to develop innovative products based on the traditionally-known organoleptic and functional properties of insects. Indisputably, more efforts must be done in Latin America to take a leadership in the world, boosting the local framework for producing edible insects and promoting entopreneurship. These efforts should be coordinated among all stakeholders involved in the different systemic levels: entrepreneurs, research institutions, government and the society.
... Insects emit considerably less greenhouse gas than most livestock, requiring smaller spaces and having high fecundity with fast-growth. In addition, insects are rich in proteins, energy, fats, minerals, and vitamins [3,4]. In general, proteins contents in insects are 40% to 65%, similar to protein contents of fish meal, poultry meal, and meat meal [1,3]. ...
... Fermented poultry by-product 3) Hydrolyzed fish soluble 4 68% and 36.8 (g/16 g nitrogen) respectively, and the essential AA content was higher than those of other three proteins. The CP content was calculated by multiplying the nitrogen content by a factor of 6.5, which was not an accurate method for insect proteins because mealworm larvae proteins were mainly composed of proteins derived from the exoskeleton, chiefly cuticular non-protein nitrogen known to contain chitin, a linear polymer of β-(1-4) N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units with a chemical structure similar to that of cellulose [20,26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae hydrolysate on nutrient ileal digestibility compared to those of dried mealworm larvae meal, fermented poultry by-product, and hydrolyzed fish soluble in growing pigs. Methods: A total of 12 crossbred ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc) growing pigs with average body weight of 28.70±0.32 kg were surgically equipped with simple T-cannulas. A total of 12 pigs were assigned to individual metabolic crates and allotted to one of four treatments with 3 replicates in a fully randomized design. Results: Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM) was the highest in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of crude protein (CP) were higher in pigs fed HML and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the other two diets. AID of total amino acid was higher (p = 0.06) in pigs fed HML diet. AIDs of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) were similar in pigs fed DMLM and HML diets, but were higher (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p = 0.05, respectively) than those in pigs fed FPBM or HFS diet. Pigs fed HML diet had higher standardized ileal digestibilities (SIDs) of DM and CP (p<0.05 and p<0.05, respectively) compared to pigs fed the other FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of total amino acid were not different (p = 0.06) between treatments. For SIDs of Lys, Met, and Thr, pigs fed HML and DMLM diets showed higher SIDs (p = 0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) than pigs fed FPBM and HFS diets. SIDs of non-essential amino acids (aspartic acid, glycine, and alanine) were higher (p<0.05, p< 0.05, and p<0.05, respectively) in pigs fed HML, FPBM, and DMLM diets than those in pigs fed the HFS diet. AID and SID of glutamic acid were higher in pigs fed HML and FPBM diets. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary supplementation of mealworm larvae hydrolysate had higher digestibility in DM, CP, Lys, Met, and Thr compared to dietary supplementation with fermented poultry by-product and hydrolyzed fish soluble.
... Recently, edible insects have been accepted in Europe under the classification "novel food products" (EU, 2018) and nowadays they can be even found in some European supermarkets of the countries that tolerate their marketing (House, 2016;Schouteten et al., 2016). Moreover, according to Berg et al. (2017), the sales of insects as food and feed is predicted to grow in the coming years. The growing interest in insects as a new food has stemmed from the various benefits that make them a sustainable meat alternative (Marone, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose Even though insect products increasingly receive attention as a sustainable food alternative to meat, consumer acceptance remains low. The purpose of this paper is to test consumer acceptance of two different insect species with varying degrees of processing which led to different degrees of insects’ visibility. Design/methodology/approach Insect dishes that varied according to species and degree of visibility were presented to participants of a self-administered personal survey within a meal context. Consumer acceptance was measured through the willingness-to-try the different dishes, and a hierarchical linear regression was applied to estimate the role of insect species. Findings Consumer acceptance can be improved by focusing on different forms of food processing and different insect species. The lower the visibility of insects, the higher the consumer acceptance, independent of insect species. However, this is not sufficient to overcome consumers’ widely held rejection. Main barriers for consumer acceptance seem to be low social and cultural acceptance, fear of trying unknown products and a lack of taste experience. Originality/value A huge body of literature has examined determinants of insect consumption, but the majority of these studies did not consider the effects of insect species. The study’s main objective is to close this research gap while checking the most relevant individual traits as identified through a literature review: food neophobia and familiarity, social and cultural norms, awareness of benefits of insect production, meat consumption and socio-demographics.
... Particularly after the BSE crisis in the mid 1990s, all protein is vegetable-based such as soya which has a high protein content and either maize and wheat for their high energy content too. Berg et al. (2017) posited that feeding animals vegetable protein, which could be ingested by humans, was deemed not to be a very efficient way to produce food. This is because many animals are not very efficient in transforming feed into food. ...
Conference Paper
This article addresses issues of sustainability emanating from increased demand for animal protein in the future. Entomophagy has gained in interest in recent years due to it becoming a viable ingredient in food formulation. Insects are likely to become a viable alternative protein sources in the future, because they are a very good source of nutrition and have been consumed in many parts of the world. However, especially in more economically developed countries consumers find it ghastly. Food neo-phobia plays an important barrier in new products being brought to market. Consumers who are not acquainted with a product would reject them without trying. Thus understanding consumers' acceptability is important. The objective of the study was to determine consumers' perception of insect protein as food source. Primary research conducted with a sample of 427 UK residents was analysed statistically. It was found that British consumers were willing to include insect within their diet if it was beneficial for the environment and sustainability, however they fully rejected the idea to replace meat for insect protein. There were many factors such as education and adventurousness of a participant affecting whether they were more willing to try new foods or not. Consumers were generally not bothered about insect protein should it be used as an animal feed with most deeming it acceptable. More research should be undertaken to find possible market openings for products containing insect protein within the UK.
Article
Sustainable production of healthy food for a growing global population, in the face of the uncertainties of climate change, represents a major challenge for the coming decade. Livestock provide food with high nutritional value but are frequently fed on human-edible crops and are associated with significant production of greenhouse gases. Recent years have seen increasing interest in the farming of insects as a sustainable source of human food, or as a replacement of ingredients such as soya or fishmeal in the feeds of terrestrial livestock or fish. This review provides an overview of insect physiology and growth regulation, considers the requirements for insect farming and mass production, and summarizes the nutritional value of the 10 most commonly studied insect species, before reviewing the literature on the use of insects as feed and food. We highlight the challenges required to develop a sustainable, safe, and affordable insect farming industry. PLEASE USE THE FOLLOWING URL FOR FREE ACCESS TO THE FULL PAPER: http://www.annualreviews.org/eprint/PYRNCYYRNAIYVJCEMUIA/full/10.1146/annurev-animal-021419-083930
Article
Full-text available
Recently, insects have received increased attention as an important source of sustainable raw materials for animal feed, especially in fish, poultry, and swine. In particular, the most promising species are represented by the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI), the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, TM), and the common house fly (Musca domestica, MD). Although rapid development is expected, insects remain underutilized in the animal feed industry mainly due to technical, financial, and regulatory barriers. In addition, few works have analyzed consumer and stakeholder points of view towards the use of insects as animal feed. In this article, we summarize the main findings of this body of research and provide a discussion of consumer studies regarding the consumption of animals fed with insects. Our review suggests that consumer acceptance will not be a barrier towards the development of this novel protein industry. Furthermore, we conclude that it will be of interest to understand whether the use of this more sustainable feed source might increase consumer willingness to pay for animal products fed with insects and whether the overall acceptability, from a sensory point of view, will be perceived better than conventional products. Finally, the main challenges of the feed farming industry are addressed.