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| Power output profile during the 5-km time trial at pre-(open symbols), mid-(gray symbols) and post-training (black symbols) in IPC and PLA. Power outputs were as follows: pre-(IPC: 271 ± 13 W; PLA: 276 ± 18 W), mid-(IPC: 273 ± 13 W; PLA: 279 ± 17 W), and post-training (IPC: 285 ± 13 W; PLA: 281 ± 17 W). Within-group difference between time points are indicated in the square box for the first half (1/2) and the entire TT (all). ( †) and ( ‡) indicate clear differences between-groups (IPC vs. PLA) at post-compared to pre-and mid-, respectively. Values are mean ± SE.

| Power output profile during the 5-km time trial at pre-(open symbols), mid-(gray symbols) and post-training (black symbols) in IPC and PLA. Power outputs were as follows: pre-(IPC: 271 ± 13 W; PLA: 276 ± 18 W), mid-(IPC: 273 ± 13 W; PLA: 279 ± 17 W), and post-training (IPC: 285 ± 13 W; PLA: 281 ± 17 W). Within-group difference between time points are indicated in the square box for the first half (1/2) and the entire TT (all). ( †) and ( ‡) indicate clear differences between-groups (IPC vs. PLA) at post-compared to pre-and mid-, respectively. Values are mean ± SE.

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Optimizing traditional training methods to elicit greater adaptations is paramount for athletes. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve maximal exercise capacity and up-regulate signaling pathways involved in physiological training adaptations. However, data on the chronic use of IPC are scarce and its impact on high-intensity training is still...

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... Several studies have investigated the effects of IPC on swimming [16], cycling [17], and running performance [18]. In addition, studies have investigated the effect of IPC on resistance exercise [19][20][21], high-intensity interval training [22,23], and isometric exercise [13,24]. Considering that IPC promotes acute improvements in muscle strength in both males and females [14,19,21] and aerobic conditioning [18,22,25] in young people, we hypothesize that IPC could represent a relevant strategy to acutely increase muscle strength and, thereby, functional capacity in the elderly. ...
... In addition, studies have investigated the effect of IPC on resistance exercise [19][20][21], high-intensity interval training [22,23], and isometric exercise [13,24]. Considering that IPC promotes acute improvements in muscle strength in both males and females [14,19,21] and aerobic conditioning [18,22,25] in young people, we hypothesize that IPC could represent a relevant strategy to acutely increase muscle strength and, thereby, functional capacity in the elderly. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the acute effect of IPC on isometric handgrip strength and functional capacity in active elderly women. ...
... In fact, shear stress and local tissue hypoxia induced by the maneuver increase nitric oxide (NO) levels, a potent vasodilator [47], and activate vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF-α) gene expression [48]. Unsurprisingly, therefore, IPC has been associated with improvements in local vasodilation, blood flow [49] and, ultimately, O 2 uptake [24], muscle Hb/Mb deoxygenation [13,22], and phosphocreatine and ATP stores [50]. These upregulated physiological responses could therefore explain part of the acute performance improvements in the HIST and FTs after IPC. ...
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Background: Aging decreases some capacities in older adults, sarcopenia being one of the common processes that occur and that interfered with strength capacity. The present study aimed to verify the acute effect of IPC on isometric handgrip strength and functional capacity in active elderly women. Methods: In a single-blind, placebo-controlled design, 16 active elderly women (68.1 ± 7.6 years) were randomly performed on three separate occasions a series of tests: (1) alone (control, CON); (2) after IPC (3 cycles of 5-min compression/5-min reperfusion at 15 mmHg above systolic blood pressure, IPC); and (3) after placebo compressions (SHAM). Testing included a handgrip isometric strength test (HIST) and three functional tests (FT): 30 s sit and stand up from a chair (30STS), get up and go time (TUG), and 6 min walk distance test (6MWT). Results: HIST significantly increased in IPC (29.3 ± 6.9 kgf) compared to CON (27.3 ± 7.1 kgf; 7.1% difference; p = 0.01), but not in SHAM (27.7 ± 7.9; 5.5%; p = 0.16). The 30STS increased in IPC (20.1 ± 4.1 repetitions) compared to SHAM (18.5 ± 3.5 repetitions; 8.7%; p = 0.01) and CON (18.5 ± 3.9 repetitions; 8.6%; p = 0.01). TUG was significantly lower in IPC (5.70 ± 1.35 s) compared to SHAM (6.14 ± 1.37 s; -7.2%; p = 0.01), but not CON (5.91 ± 1.45 s; -3.7%; p = 0.24). The 6MWT significantly increased in IPC (611.5 ± 93.8 m) compared to CON (546.1 ± 80.5 m; 12%; p = 0.02), but not in SHAM (598.7 ± 67.6 m; 2.1%; p = 0.85). Conclusions: These data suggest that IPC can promote acute improvements in handgrip strength and functional capacity in active elderly women.
... Since IPC had shown positive protection effects on myocardial cells for events of limited blood flow [3], this maneuver became a target for several sports scientists, assuming that the hyperemia upon reperfusion could improve muscle performance in some way. Thus, IPC was shown to improve maximal cycling performance [4], sprint performance [5], enhance performance in resistance exercise [6,7] and reduce marathon-induced inflammation [8]. However, so far, no study has investigated the influence of the IPC protocol on balance. ...
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Citation: de Oliveira BG, Maior AS. Ischemic Preconditioning Contribute to Improving the Static and Dynamic Stability of Male Trained.
... Since LIPC and RIPC can escalate metabolic efficiency and total work, they can strengthen the training quality of a sprint interval training (SIT) program. This finding has partly supported the result of a study conducted by Paradis-Deschênes et al. [33], who found that the inclusion of LIPC in a 4-week SIT program could improve the aerobic and anaerobic performance of endurance athletes. However, at present, there has been no research on the chronic effect of RIPC interventions. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of local (LIPC) and remote (RIPC) ischemic preconditioning on sprint interval exercise (SIE) performance. Fifteen male collegiate basketball players underwent a LIPC, RIPC, sham (SHAM), or control (CON) trial before conducting six sets of a 30-s Wingate-based SIE test. The oxygen uptake and heart rate were continuously measured during SIE test. The total work in the LIPC (+2.2%) and RIPC (+2.5%) conditions was significantly higher than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). The mean power output (MPO) at the third and fourth sprint in the LIPC (+4.5%) and RIPC (+4.9%) conditions was significantly higher than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). The percentage decrement score for MPO in the LIPC and RIPC condition was significantly lower than that in the CON condition (p < 0.05). No significant interaction effects were found in pH and blood lactate concentrations. There were no significant differences in the accumulated exercise time at ≥80%, 90%, and 100% of maximal oxygen uptake during SIE. Overall, both LIPC and RIPC could improve metabolic efficiency and performance during SIE in athletes.
... This investigation was part of a larger project examining the impact of IPC on endurance performance adaptations and blood markers of angiogenesis and hypoxic signaling. These data have been published elsewhere [13]. Since short-term endurance performance can also be influenced by anaerobic capacity, we also investigated the effects of training with IPC on this endurance performance determinant and the concurrent neuromuscular function changes. ...
... Fifteen participants completed the study, but complete sets of mechanical and neuromuscular data on all investigated muscles were kept on twelve of them due to methodological issues with EMG data acquisition and analysis. Twelve participants were determined sufficient by power analysis with JMP software (version 10, Cary, NC, USA) to detect a Sports 2021, 9, 124 3 of 12 difference in primary outcome variables over time between conditions, with an alpha level of 0.05 and a desired power of 0.90 and based on the average effect (d = 0.22) observed in our laboratory with similar equipment [6,11,13]. Participants were healthy endurancetrained male cyclists, triathletes, and runners with experience in cycling (6.5 ± 0.5 h/week of training at the time of study, VO 2 peak 60.0 ± 9.1 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 , age 29.6 ± 9.9 years, mass 75.38 ± 9.71 kg), with at least 2 years of training experience in their respective sport. They competed at the regional and national levels and were in their pre-season phase. ...
... Pressure of either 220 mmHg for IPC or 20 mmHg for PLA was applied for 5 min on one leg, then released when the other leg was being compressed for 5 min. The process was repeated 3 times, allowing 5-min of reperfusion between compressions to each leg, adding up to a total IPC time of 30 min [13]. Participants in the IPC group were familiarized with the procedure during the familiarization session. ...
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This preliminary study examined the effect of chronic ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on neuromuscular responses to high-intensity exercise. In a parallel-group design, twelve endurance-trained males (VO2max 60.0 ± 9.1 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a 30-s Wingate test before, during, and after 4 weeks of sprint-interval training. Training consisted of bi-weekly sessions of 4 to 7 supra-maximal all-out 30-s cycling bouts with 4.5 min of recovery, preceded by either IPC (3 × 5-min of compression at 220 mmHg/5-min reperfusion, IPC, n = 6) or placebo compressions (20 mmHg, PLA, n = 6). Mechanical indices and the root mean square and mean power frequency of the electromyographic signal from three lower-limb muscles were continuously measured during the Wingate tests. Data were averaged over six 5-s intervals and analyzed with Cohen’s effect sizes. Changes in peak power output were not different between groups. However, from mid- to post-training, IPC improved power output more than PLA in the 20 to 25-s interval (7.6 ± 10.0%, ES 0.51) and the 25 to 30-s interval (8.8 ± 11.2%, ES 0.58), as well as the fatigue index (10.0 ± 2.3%, ES 0.46). Concomitantly to this performance difference, IPC attenuated the decline in frequency spectrum throughout the Wingate (mean difference: 14.8%, ES range: 0.88–1.80). There was no difference in root mean square amplitude between groups. These preliminary results suggest that using IPC before sprint training may enhance performance during a 30-s Wingate test, and such gains occurred in the last 2 weeks of the intervention. This improvement may be due, in part, to neuromuscular adjustments induced by the chronic use of IPC.
... Most reports to date have conducted their exercise testing acutely on the same day as the IPC stimulus. However, a minority of studies have conducted exercise testing after repeated daily IPC exposure ranging from 7 days to 6 weeks (Banks et al., 2016;Jeffries et al., 2019;Mieszkowski et al., 2020;Paradis-Deschênes et al., 2020a;Surkar et al., 2020). There also is substantial variation in whether IPC is administered unilaterally or bilaterally to the limb(s), which may influence the magnitude of response. ...
... The evidence that central humoral, neural, and systemic ischemic protection mediate IPC benefits suggests that the location of the application of IPC may not have an optimal site of application. Alternatively, muscle deoxygenation responses during exercise preceded by local (Paradis-Deschênes et al., 2016, 2020a, but not always remote IPC (Barbosa et al., 2015), may suggest that the IPC stimulus is optimized when administered in close proximity to the exercising tissues. Without a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms most likely to elicit an ergogenic response, it is difficult to determine if there are advantages favoring remote or local IPC in terms of the probability of an ergogenic effect. ...
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Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been repeatedly reported to augment maximal exercise performance over a range of exercise durations and modalities. However, an examination of the relevant literature indicates that the reproducibility and robustness of ergogenic responses to this technique are variable, confounding expectations about the magnitude of its effects. Considerable variability among study methodologies may contribute to the equivocal responses to IPC. This review focuses on the wide range of methodologies used in IPC research, and how such variability likely confounds interpretation of the interactions of IPC and exercise. Several avenues are recommended to improve IPC methodological consistency, which should facilitate a future consensus about optimizing the IPC protocol, including due consideration of factors such as: location of the stimulus, the time between treatment and exercise, individualized tourniquet pressures and standardized tourniquet physical characteristics, and the incorporation of proper placebo treatments into future study designs.
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Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) may improve exercise performance. However, the influence of RIPC on aerobic performance and underlying physiological mechanisms during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure remains relatively uncertain. Here, we systematically evaluated the potential performance benefits and underlying mechanisms of RIPC during HH exposure. Seventy-nine healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive sham intervention or RIPC (4 × 5 min occlusion 180 mm Hg/reperfusion 0 mm Hg, bilaterally on the upper arms) for 8 consecutive days in phases 1 (24 participants) and phase 2 (55 participants). In the phases 1, we measured the change in maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO 2 max) and muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) on the leg during a graded exercise test. We also measured regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO 2 ) on the forehead. These measures and physiological variables, such as cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters and heart rate variability index, were used to evaluate the intervention effect of RIPC on the changes in bodily functions caused by HH exposure. In the phase 2, plasma protein mass spectrometry was then performed after RIPC intervention, and the results were further evaluated using ELISA tests to assess possible mechanisms. The results suggested that RIPC intervention improved VO 2 max (11.29%) and accelerated both the maximum (18.13%) and minimum (53%) values of SmO 2 and rSO 2 (6.88%) compared to sham intervention in hypobaric hypoxia exposure. Cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters (SV, SVRI, PPV% and SpMet%) and the heart rate variability index (Mean RR, Mean HR, RMSSD, pNN50, Lfnu, Hfnu, SD1, SD2/SD1, ApEn, SampEn, DFA1and DFA2) were evaluated. Protein sequence analysis showed 42 unregulated and six downregulated proteins in the plasma of the RIPC group compared to the sham group after HH exposure. Three proteins, thymosin β4 (Tβ4), heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), and heat shock protein-90 (HSP90), were significantly altered in the plasma of the RIPC group before and after HH exposure. Our data demonstrated that in acute HH exposure, RIPC mitigates the decline in VO 2 max and regional oxygenation, as well as physiological variables, such as cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters and the heart rate variability index, by influencing plasma Tβ4, HSP70, and HSP90. These data suggest that RIPC may be beneficial for acute HH exposure.
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RESUMO: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico [do termo em inglês ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] é uma estratégia caracterizada por breves ciclos de restrição do fluxo sanguíneo seguidos de reperfusão, realizados nos membros superiores ou inferiores com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho físico. Essa intervenção tem chamado atenção devido a sua característica não invasiva, seu baixo custo e a fácil aplicação. Uma vez que não há um consenso sobre a sua efetividade como uma estratégia ergogênica, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o seu estado atual de produção científica, o efeito sobre o desempenho físico e o efeito do nível de treinamento dos participantes e diferentes exercícios/testes utilizados para avaliação do desempenho. Sessenta e sete artigos, envolvendo 984 participantes (177 mulheres) de diferentes níveis de treinamento, preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Sete exercícios (ciclismo, exercício resistido, corrida, natação, patinação, futebol, remo) e cinco níveis de treinamento (destreinados, recreacionalmente treinados, treinados, bem treinados, profissional) foram identificados. A maioria da produção científica sobre IPC e desempenho físico foi publicada a partir de 2015. Mais da metade dos estudos apresentaram um efeito positivo do IPC sobre o desempenho físico (59,7%, n=40). O teste exato de Fischer mostrou que existe uma relação entre o efeito do IPC sobre o desempenho físico e o nível de treinamento dos participantes [X2(8) = 15,149; p = 0,026], mas não entre o efeito do IPC e exercício/teste [X2(12) = 19,528; p = 0,129]. Na última década, houve um aumento substancial na produção cientifica sobre IPC e desempenho físico. Nossos achados sustentam um efeito benéfico do IPC na melhora do desempenho físico, sendo este efeito mais pronunciado em indivíduos destreinados e recreacionalmente treinados, independente do exercício/teste realizado.
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An acute bout of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been reported to increase exercise performance. Nevertheless, the ineffectiveness of acute IPC on exercise performance has also been reported. Similarly, the effect of a shot-term intervention of IPC on exercise performance remains controversial in previous studies. In this study, we examined the effects of short-term IPC intervention on whole and local exercise performances and its-related parameters. Ten healthy young males undertook a 2-weeks IPC intervention (6 days/weeks). The IPC applied to both legs with three episodes of a 5-min ischemia and 5-min reperfusion cycle. Whole-body exercise performance was assessed by peak O2 consumption (VO2: VO2 peak) during a ramp-incremental cycling test. Local exercise performance was assessed by time to task failure during a knee extensor sustained endurance test. A repeated moderate-intensity cycling test was performed to evaluate dynamics of pulmonary VO2 and muscle deoxygenation. The knee extensor maximal voluntary contraction and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area measurements were performed to explore the potentiality for strength gain and muscle hypertrophy. The whole-body exercise performance (i.e., VO2 peak) did not change before and after the intervention (P = 0.147, Power = 0.09, Effect size = 0.21, 95% confidence interval: −0.67, 1.09). Moreover, the local exercise performance (i.e., time to task failure) did not change before and after the intervention (P = 0.923, Power = 0.05, Effect size = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, 0.89). Furthermore, no such changes were observed for all parameters measured using a repeated moderate-intensity cycling test and knee extensor strength and quadriceps femoris size measurements. These findings suggest that a 2-weeks IPC intervention cannot increase whole-body and local exercise performances, corresponding with ineffectiveness on its-related parameters in healthy young adults. However, the statistical analyses of changes in the measured parameters in this study showed insufficient statistical power and sensitivity, due to the small sample size. Additionally, this study did not include control group(s) with placebo and/or nocebo. Therefore, further studies with a larger sample size and control group are required to clarify the present findings.