Plots of copper (Cu) versus zinc (Zn) concentrations for: (a) garden (G), park (P) and woodland (W) sites investigated in this study (n = 10 samples each); and (b) various soils, road dust, and fly ash in Singapore (from Table 1), along with median values from this study. Background (BKG), Threshold Risk Concentrations (TRC), Potential Risk Concentrations (PRC), and Elevated Risk Concentrations (ERC) are listed in Table 4 (top panel). In panel a, all thirty values for each land use type are shown. In panel b, element concentrations beyond the ERC thresholds are considered to have a substantial anthropogenic enrichment (as in the case of fly ash and most road dust samples)

Plots of copper (Cu) versus zinc (Zn) concentrations for: (a) garden (G), park (P) and woodland (W) sites investigated in this study (n = 10 samples each); and (b) various soils, road dust, and fly ash in Singapore (from Table 1), along with median values from this study. Background (BKG), Threshold Risk Concentrations (TRC), Potential Risk Concentrations (PRC), and Elevated Risk Concentrations (ERC) are listed in Table 4 (top panel). In panel a, all thirty values for each land use type are shown. In panel b, element concentrations beyond the ERC thresholds are considered to have a substantial anthropogenic enrichment (as in the case of fly ash and most road dust samples)

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Background Urban agriculture is potentially an important piece of the food security puzzle for a rapidly growing urban world population. Community gardening is also promoted as a safe and viable form of exercise for aging populations in crowded settings where opportunities to participate in other action activities may be limited. Knowledge of poten...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... observed median values of Cu (18-30 mg/kg) and Zn (50-52) for the three treatments are at the high end of the range of central tendency values (reported means, median, midpoints of ranges) associated with soils in forests and natural spaces determined by others for Singapore (Table 2; Fig. 5). The median concentrations for garden soils were slightly higher (43 and 125 mg/kg Cu and Zn, respectively), and therefore, resembled the lower values associated with disturbed soils in Singapore (Table 2). Comparison with reservoir sediment values supports the idea of some degree of anthropogenic enrichment above the natural ...

Citations

... Pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is becoming a serious and widespread issue in all environmental matrices because of accelerated population growth rate, rapid industrialization and urbanization, and other changes which have occurred in most parts of the world in the last few decades [1][2][3]. The increasingly worrying concern about the presence of PTEs in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health because of their persistence and biotoxicity [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is becoming a serious and widespread issue in all environmental matrices because of accelerated population growth rate, rapid industrialization and urbanization, and other changes which have occurred in most parts of the world in the last few decades [...]