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Plastic bag wastes clogging sewerage lines (or drains) (in Jimma City).

Plastic bag wastes clogging sewerage lines (or drains) (in Jimma City).

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Plastic bag wastes pose serious environmental pollutions and health problems in humans and animals. The situation is worsened in economically disadvantaged countries like Ethiopia. The objective of this survey was to assess usage of plastic bags and their environmental impacts in Jimma City of Ethiopia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to c...

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... Different bioplastics such as PHB and their blends with PLA are most widely used for manufacturing agricultural nets due to their high tensile strength (Kusuktham and Teeranachaideekul, 2014). Production of PHA-based grow bags sequesters nitrogen from the water, does not pollute the surrounding water bodies, prevents root reformation, and avoids pollution concerns (Adane and Muleta, 2011). Agricultural mulch films are critical for increased crop yield and protection, apart from grow bags. ...
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Indiscriminate usage, disposal and recalcitrance of petroleum-based plastics have led to its accumulation leaving a negative impact on the environment. Bioplastics, particularly microbial bioplastics serve as an ecologically sustainable solution to nullify the negative impacts of plastics. Microbial production of biopolymers like Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polyhydroxybutyrates and Polylactic acid using renewable feedstocks as well as industrial wastes have gained momentum in the recent years. The current study outlays types of bioplastics, their microbial sources and applications in various fields. Scientific evidence on bioplastics has suggested a unique range of applications such as industrial, agricultural and medical applications. Though diverse microorganisms such as Alcaligenes latus, Burkholderia sacchari, Micrococcus species, Lactobacillus pentosus, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Rhizobium sp., Enterobacter sp., Escherichia sp., Azototobacter sp., Protomonas sp., Cupriavidus sp., Halomonas sp., Saccharomyces sp., Kluyveromyces sp., and Ralstonia sp. are known to produce bioplastics, the industrial production of bioplastics is still challenging. Thus this paper also provides deep insights on the advancements made to maximise production of bioplastics using different approaches such as metabolic engineering, rDNA technologies and multitude of cultivation strategies. Finally, the constraints to microbial bioplastic production and the future directions of research are briefed. Hence the present review emphasizes on the importance of using bioplastics as a sustainable alternative to petroleum based plastic products to diminish environmental pollution.
... Around 80% of water pollution is caused by plastics bags that come from the land with around 267 species being affected as a whole and 1 lac marine animals being killed every year due to this problem (Alam et al 2018). As a consequence, degradation of the natural environment occurs (Adane and Muleta 2011). Various other pretty common items associated with plastic waste are the death of marine species, and wild/domestic animals, etc. Closure of sewage systems is also a very common problem that has arisen because of plastic bags in urban areas (Menicagli et al 2019). ...
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Plastic used in different packaging materials for food etc. and improper disposal poses a threat to humans, animals and environment. Due to the non-corrosive environment, plastic creates a harmful impact on the ecosystem. Few countries like Pakistan, Yemen, and Kenya, have prohibited the plastic bags usage due to the harmful impact on the ecosystem. Dumping plastic waste imposes danger to the ecosystem. The dumping of plastic waste in the maritime ecosystem threatens the survival of various species along with many species declared endangered. This study explores the dangers of single-used shopping bags of polyethylene and presents emerging approaches to deal with plastic waste. This review also adds information for the policymakers to monitor the manufacturing and use of plastic bags specifically designing packaging material for the food products. The environmental protection regulatory bodies need to take necessary actions to impose regulations on every plastic industry and follow the global waste management protocol. Further research on bio remedial procedures to reduce plastic contamination. Developing public awareness about plastic disposal in proper containers and further processing disposed plastic bags to safe waste management needs to be explored to ensure a healthy environment for humans and other living organisms.
... Among other things, these impacts include deaths of the cattle that consume them [8,9], and adverse health issues in humans [10]. Plastic bags also exacerbate floods, thus harming lives and property [11]. Research into the deadly flooding of Bangladesh in 1989, for example, has indicated that the disaster was greatly aggravated by the obstruction of the country's drainage systems by plastic bags [2]. ...
... Although in theory, bans aim to disrupt consumer behavior by eliminating the choice to use certain products [19], in practice, the effectiveness of these bans on plastic bags has varied among different countries. Legislation is not always a successful response to the plastic bag problem, as in some areas, plastic products are being widely used even with bans in place [11]. In the year 2012, for example, a plastic bag ban imposed in Seattle, Washington (USA) was only able to reduce overall consumption by 50% [20]. ...
... Forgetting to bring a bag from home is frequently cited as a major contributor to plastic bag usage [49,50]. The low cost, convenience, and ease of obtaining plastic bags all contribute to the consumer's opportunity cost of using reusable bags [11,51]. These findings suggest that the burden inflicted by a ban is a critical factor in determining the support and effectiveness of a plastic bag ban. ...
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The excessive consumption of single-use plastic bags in recent years has fueled plastic pollution leading to considerable adverse consequences for human health and the environment. To control the high rates of plastic pollution and its marked effects in Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad, the government imposed a ban on single-use plastic bags in August 2019. Hence, to overcome plastic pollution and successfully implement bans in other parts of the country, it is critical to study this ban’s effectiveness and identify factors that contribute to its success. As research on this matter currently remains limited, present study attempts to understand the drivers for ban’s support and evaluate the role that awareness, education and the availability of alternatives play in increasing support for this ban. The survey results exhibited a positive relationship between the aforementioned variables and support for the plastic bag ban. Although plastic bag consumption fell for 77.5% of the sample after the ban, it failed to be entirely effective in eradicating plastic bag usage as bags were widely available in small shops. Respondents felt that increasing awareness would reduce resistance against the ban, and the government, non-government organizations, and the general public should all take part in conducting these awareness campaigns.
... Even where they are appropriately disposed of, they can still be washed by rain or blown by storm into rivers, oceans, or other water bodies, ultimately affecting marine life. [2,4] Furthermore, reports have shown that they can block sewage and drainage systems, resulting in flooding. [5,6] In addition, they are known to accumulate water that serves as potential breeding grounds for the mosquito that transmits infections such as malaria; malaria is a disease of public health concern that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ...
... Paper bags are a widely recognized substitute for plastic bags, among other notable substitutes like bags made from cotton and jute. [3,4] These substitutes are biodegradable, recyclable, reusable, and environmentally friendly. Moreover, many of them can withstand more pressure than plastic bags. ...
... They are also produced in different colors and sizes; hence, they can be adapted to several situations. [4] Due to their training, it is widely believed that health-care workers should be aware of potential environmental and health implications associated with the use of plastic bags and are presumed to be in a better position to highlight the demerit(s) of plastic bags and suggest alternatives, especially in rural communities. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the awareness of the health and environmental effects in this part of the country, especially among health-care workers. ...
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Objective: This study assessed health‑care workers’ awareness of the health and environmental hazards associated with plastic bags and available substitutes. Methods: This cross‑sectional questionnaire‑based survey was carried out in two rural hospitals in Northwest Nigeria over a 4‑week study period. It included permanently employed health workers who were residents in the study community. The data were analyzed using SPSS version‑20; the association between respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and awareness of the harmful effects of plastic‑bags was determined using the Chi‑square test. Results: There were 200 respondents aged 20–55 years with a mean of 31.7 ± 8.6 years. Most, 45% (90/200), respondents were nurses/midwives; 21% (42/200) were doctors. Most respondents, 49% (98/200), would throw away the plastic bags after a single use; 23.5% (47/200) would keep and reuse, while 45.5% (91/200) use reusable bags for shopping. Most respondents, 91% (182/200), were aware of the harmful effect on the environment, while 74% (148/200) knew it could be harmful to health. Respondents’ age (>30 years) was significantly associated with awareness of the harmful effects of used plastic bags (P = 0.03), while male gender, age >30 years, being married, and of non‑Hausa/Fulani ethnicity were associated with awareness of plastic‑bag substitutes. Conclusions: Most respondents were aware of the health and environmental hazards of plastic bags and the available substitutes. Promoting reuse of plastic bags and the use of available substitutes will help to control this growing hazard
... Another study report from Ethiopia similarly shows that 76.5% of the respondents reported using plastic bags more frequently for shopping. 31 This is comparable with the utilization in other developing countries. For instance, on average, an adult person in Jordan uses over 500 plastic bags per year. ...
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... However, a previous study that assessed Microplastic concentration and that equally gauged public awareness of Microplastic pollution on beaches surrounding Hong Kong profoundly observed a very low level of awareness on the subject: 82% of respondents in their sample have never heard of Microplastics. Though other similar studies observed higher level of awareness on health risks associated with plastic's use in the environment [26,27,28]. Based on insights drawn from other literature, Hartley et al. [29] suggests that that young people are for the most part aware of various environmental problems, such as pollution, litter, and hazardous waste, but may have greater difficulty understanding the causes of and solutions to environmental issues. ...
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Microplastic pollution is now globally flagged as a foremost menace to livelihoods, biodiversity, and public health due the pervasive nature of plastic wastes, poor knowledge of its ecological impact and poor attitude towards sustainable waste management practices. Hence, this paper explores public awareness, knowledge, attitude and perception on Microplastic pollution and its ecological health implication through a survey data collected from residents, students, fishermen and local tourist around Lagos Lagoon, a significant area in Lagos. This study relied on psychometric model of inquiry (through indirect questions} were employed to extrapolate the study's unbridle goal. Data were collected, coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics on the IBM SPSS 28 version. Findings revealed that though awareness on microplastics was apparently high (over 50%), however, public knowledge was fairly acceptable and poor perception of Microplastic pollution was observed. Respondents (with a mean attitude score of 3.40±1.485) generally shows a good attitude towards learning more on this subject and a shared commitment to support government through cleanup volunteering and advocacy. This study succinctly observed that a good number of respondents that were aware about microplastics and its associated risks had the knowledge through social media campaigns, followed by internet sources. In light of this findings, this study recommends that government, academia and relevant stakeholders should intensify efforts to educate the public more on sources, contamination, fate and effects of microplastics and other issues of public health importance through massive campaigns, learned community activities and strategies that may reinforce positive environmental attitude.
... Plastic bags have been introduced in the 1970s and widely used among households, retailers and consumers since then (Chitotombe, 2014). It was estimated around 500 billion plastic bags are used every year worldwide (Adane & Muleta, 2011). According to Jambeck and his associates in 2015, Malaysia is ranking eighth out of 192 coastal countries in the world for the largest producing mismanaged plastic wastes. ...
... According to Poortinga, Whitmarsh, & Suffolk, (2013), a duration of six months or more is needed to build a new habitual routine of bringing a bag to the shops. The common reasons why plastic bags has become a selection of consumer is because of their durability, cheapness, feasibility, and lightweight (Adane & Muleta, 2011;Joseph et al., 2016). In addition, the mismatched sizes and unwieldy shapes of most recycled or reusable bags make it difficult to be used and kept. ...
... In addition to that, it has been presented that this practice adds a lot of value to solid waste management via the informal sector which signifies the lack in cooperation between government sector and private sector [44]. The results indicated that the larger proportion (76.52%) of the population used plastic bags more frequently than any other plastic products regardless of their age, occupation, and economic and educational status [2][3][4]45]. As different types of plastic materials are in use, zero attention is given to their environmental concern. ...
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The persistent nature of single use plastics has become a cause for major health and environmental concerns worldwide as a result of commercialization. Africa as a continent generates considerable amounts of single use plastic wastes from the total plastic wastes generated. The prolonged use and mismanagement of existing wastes poses environmental and public health risks. Current practices involve managing single use plastic wastes in combination with other municipal and medical wastes. As many countries in Africa have put into law some legislation on the use of single use plastics, the level of enforcement and implementation is questionable provided that no tangible measures have been put in practice. This is evidenced by the ever-present single use plastics strewn around. Although infrastructural and skill-related challenges are pertinent to the management of single use plastics across the continent, single use plastic waste reduction, community-based indigenous model practices which are cost effective should be encouraged. This waste reduction and recycling practice in the long run make a positive impact on people’s lives by achieving sustainable development goals.
... Beach cleanup data show disposable plastic bags made of polyethylene (hereafter plastic bags) are a major source of plastic pollution in coastal environments (Ocean Conservancy 2020). Plastic bags clog storm drains and pipes causing road (Adane and Muleta 2011;Xanthos and Walker 2017) or basement flooding. In response, government policies at various jurisdictional levels (citywide to statewide) are being implemented in the United States to curb the environmental, economic, and infrastructure issues arising from the improper disposal of plastic bags (Sea Grant Law Center 2020). ...
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Society's use of plastic is increasing, while the ability to properly manage plastic waste is decreasing. In response, improved waste management systems and the adoption of reusable products made from sustainable materials are needed. Municipal governments in the United States are beginning to institute policies reducing unlimited free access to plastic products such as bags, straws, and Styrofoam. However, some state governments in the Great Lakes region, and elsewhere, have responded by making these pro-environmental policies illegal. Such policies shift the onus of using less plastic to local businesses and conscious consumers. In response, this project sought to determine the effectiveness of a plastic bag ban, supported by targeted education and outreach, at several local businesses in northeast Ohio. Results suggest that the initial implementation and non-enforcement phase of the bag ban did not lead to a reduction in the use of plastic bags. However, survey respondents indicate they are supportive of policies reducing accessibility and unlimited availability of plastic bags. Results further show most people have access to their own reusable bags and support businesses who charge for, or no longer offer, plastic bags. In conclusion, voluntary reduction of bag use by customers is not effective and store policies or legislation is needed to reduce the use of plastic bags.