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Plastic bag wastes clogging sewerage lines (or drains) (in Jimma City).

Plastic bag wastes clogging sewerage lines (or drains) (in Jimma City).

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Plastic bag wastes pose serious environmental pollutions and health problems in humans and animals. The situation is worsened in economically disadvantaged countries like Ethiopia. The objective of this survey was to assess usage of plastic bags and their environmental impacts in Jimma City of Ethiopia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to c...

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Citations

... Mismanagement of waste and exposure to environmental elements (ultraviolet radiation and wind) breaks down plastic into smaller fragments (Wright and Kelly, 2017), which have been reported in food and drinks, such as seafood (Gabriel et al., 2018;Karbalaei et al., 2019) and beer (Liebezeit and Liebezeit, 2014). Plastic pollution has also been linked to increased flooding and spreading of diseases through, for example, blocking drainage systems (Adam et al., 2020;Adane and Muleta, 2011;Jambeck et al., 2018;Rayne, 2008). ...
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The growing visibility of plastic pollution, particularly negative environmental impacts of single-use plastic bags, has entered the political debate, triggering policy interventions to control its manufacturing and use. This trend was also felt in Southern Africa, a region with high urbanization, leading to increased resource use and plastic consumption, heavily reliant on tourism, an industry highly impacted by plastic pollution. This paper reviews existing single-use plastic bag reduction policies in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). All 16 SADC members have announced a plastic bag reduction policy, but interventions vary in stages of implementation. Waste management emerged as the most important policy driver and over 55% of SADC members adopted a top-down approach in developing these policies to address these environmental challenges. Most SADC members with existing policies did not conduct public awareness campaigns, raising effectiveness issues. Further research on effective plastic bag reduction policy development, enforcement and monitoring would address an important knowledge gap.
... As a result, there is excessive and careless use of plastic bags. In such circumstances, a major proportion of plastic bags are often disposed of indiscriminately after a single-use (Adane and Muleta 2011). Moreover, the lightness and mobility of plastic bags make them more likely to end up as litter, as they can be transported easily by wind and water. ...
... Moreover, the lightness and mobility of plastic bags make them more likely to end up as litter, as they can be transported easily by wind and water. Once littered they are visually intrusive and can persist into the environment up to 1000 years without being decomposed by sunlight and/ or microorganisms (Stevens 2001, as quoted by Adane and Muleta 2011;Miller 2012). Accumulation of plastic bag wastes is the source of multifarious environmental problems. ...
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Plastic carry bags are increasingly seen as environmental hazards that threaten human and animal welfare, rather than being modern conveniences. Environmental impacts resulting from improper disposal of plastic bags have been well documented in the literature. To overcome these impacts, many countries around the globe have taken actions either to ban or limit the use of plastic bags. Likewise, in Mauritius, a regulation banning the use of plastic bags was introduced in 2016. Whether this regulation has been successful in stopping the usage of banned plastic bags or not, is the overall objective of the present study. The study was conducted on the Mauritian population. It equally investigated: the quantity of plastic bags utilized before and after regulation; the alternatives to plastic bags used; the level of awareness on environmental and health impacts resulting from indiscriminate disposal of plastic bags; and the perception of the regulation. 65% of the respondent population claimed that the regulation has failed to prohibit the usage of banned plastic bags. A statistical test result supported that the extensive plastic bags users have less preference for alternatives to plastic bags such as cloth bags. The study further examined the possible reasons for the failure and proposes recommendations for the complete banning of plastic bags in Mauritius.
... However, it is interesting to note that consumers also used the highest percentage of words with negative associations ( Fig. 2 ) and reacted with feelings and emotions towards plastics in the wider context. It has been reported that plastics are increasingly perceived as problematic by consumers ( Adane and Muleta, 2011 ), an observation that is further confirmed by the association of 'plastic' with 'sustainability' or 'waste' on social media ( Richardson et al., 2016 ). This is in line with the findings of Dilkes-Hoffman et al. (2019b) where an investigation of consumers' reactions to plastics showed that 38% of the analysed words were associated with negative connotations. ...
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... Results are consistent with other studies that show availability and low price are the main reasons for high levels of use [26]. Availability, durability, convenience, and low cost are the main reasons for making plastic products extremely popular worldwide [27]. Most respondents strongly believe that the use of plastic products in the city increases at an alarming rate, and that this will get worse. ...
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The paper reports a study in Tangail municipality, Bangladesh, to assess public awareness of the problems of using and disposing of plastics. Results showed that a significant proportion of respondents (40.5%) use plastic containers, and 30.5% use polythene bags. Most of the respondents (>90%) are aware of the adverse effect of plastic use. The respondents’ awareness of the issue is related to their education level, and 80.3% would like to reduce plastics use. Most respondents (90.5%) are willing to use environment-friendly alternatives when available at affordable prices. Changes are desirable in management of waste and some are proposed.
... The United States petrochemical industries first presented and encouraged the production of plastic bags, followed by Western Europe and then to the whole world (Clapp & Swanston, 2009). At the start, it looked like users were unaware of its harmful effects (V & HR, 2011), they continued its use as a comfortable and affordable material (Adane & Muleta, 2011). Plastic production companies might be aware of the harmful environmental effects of plastic but like some of the other technological innovations (Mulder, 2013), nobody told the hazardous effects of this innovation until the substantial consequences were observed by the environmentalists and masses (Imran & Abbas, 2020). ...
... Plastic bags obstruct the sewerage system in populated areas and towns. Such a situation creates bad smells and becomes a source of various bacteria that could increase a large number of diseases (Adane & Muleta, 2011). Still, in urban areas, where wildlife is relatively limited, plastic bags cause significant environmental harm. ...
... The questionnaire was selected from the research article. The measurement instrument to conduct the study was extracted from the research article by Adane and Muleta (2011). Format of the research and data collection is similar to the case study mentioned earlier. ...
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Plastic bags are one of the most commonly used products in our daily life. The current research aims to investigate the common causes of its usage and public perception about its effect on the natural environment, including land, air and water pollution. The researchers collected data from 173 individuals from Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities of Pakistan using a non-probability convenience sampling technique. Empirical results reveal that 53% of participants are extensively using plastic bags. Moreover, to dispose of, 46.82% prefer to openly dump it while 30.63% prefer to burn. Most of the respondents (30.63%) valued the significant role of TV and Radio in communicating the unfavourable effects of plastic bag wastes. Interestingly, an equal number of participants opined increase and decrease trend in the usage of plastic bags however most of them considered cloth bags as an alternative solution for the problem. This study can help to access the severity of the problem, identify the reasons and provide alternative solutions considering public perspective located in the targeted region.
... The accretion of plastic bags and their wastes causes many types of environmental pollution, which can be manifested in a variety of ways. The primary concern is the deterioration of the natural environment and its beauty [4]. Many other common issues coupled with plastic wastes are deaths of wild as well as domestic animals, marine species, etc. ...
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Thousands of plastic factories are manufacturing tons of plastic products and plastic goods. Plastic-made products and bags are widely used worldwide due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and cheapness. Because of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic causes many negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem and environment. Recently many countries, including Pakistan, Yemen, Bangladesh, South Africa, India, Nigeria, and Kenya, have banned the plastic bags because of the pressing concerns over the negative and hazardous impact on the water, land, and marine ecosystem and natural environment. The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. The trend of dumping plastic garbage into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections with plastic scraps. Many species have already announced to be endangered due to anthropogenic activities. Marine animals are affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic litter. Tackling plastic waste is one of the major issues of environmental pollution. Many steps are necessary to be taken by the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and to bring innovations in the waste management. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. This review paper emphasizes the hazardous of single-use polyethylene shopping bags on the environment and the emerging trends to tackle the management of plastic wastes. It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags.
... However, both primary and secondary school educators highlighted that it was difficult to ban plastics from entering the school premises as most of the food items are sold packaged in plastics. Similarly, Adane and Muleta [35] and O'Brien and Thondhlana [19] highlighted widespread use, easy availability, and lack of alternatives as key drivers for continued plastic use. Therefore, both studies and the current indicated that there is motivation for promoting pro-environmental behavior, however the learners' demographic background makes it challenging as there are few single-use plastic alternatives. ...
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Plastic pollution is a major global issue and its impacts on ecosystems and socioeconomic sectors lack comprehensive understanding. The integration of plastics issues into the educational system of both primary and secondary schools has often been overlooked, especially in Africa, presenting a major challenge to environmental awareness. Owing to the importance of early age awareness, this study aims to investigate whether plastic pollution issues are being integrated into South African primary and secondary education school curriculums. Using face-to-face interviews with senior educators, we address this research problem by investigating (i) the extent to which teachers cover components of plastic pollution, and (ii) educator understandings of plastic pollution within terrestrial and aquatic environments. The results indicate that plastic pollution has been integrated into the school curriculum in technology, natural science, geography, life science, life skills and life orientation subjects. However, there was a lack of integration of management practices for plastics littering, especially in secondary schools, and understanding of dangers among different habitat types. This highlights the need for better educational awareness on the plastic pollution problem at both primary and secondary school level, with increased environmental programs needed to educate schools on management practices and impacts.
... The accretion of plastic bags and their wastes causes many types of environmental pollution, which can be manifested in a variety of ways. The primary concern is the deterioration of the natural environment and its beauty [4]. Many other common issues coupled with plastic wastes are deaths of wild as well as domestic animals, marine species, etc. ...
... Grow bags, also referred to as seedling bags or a planter bags stabilizes the temperature in the soil, retains soil moisture and also allows specific use of growing media [257,258]. The use of non-biodegradable seedling bags and other associate plastic products has necessitated the imposition of tax and outright ban by some government across the globe [259,260]. With this proscription, agriculturist and forestry practitioners around the globe have developed a more sustainable environmental-friendly alternative for trees and crops propagation [261][262][263][264][265]. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is the commonest polyethylene (PE) material employed in agricultural, horticultural and packaging purposes [266]. ...
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Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that have in recent times received growing research interest as a result of being eco-friendly and close characteristics with petrochemical based plastics. Alternatives to utilization of synthetic plastics are being explored since synthetic plastics are non-recyclable and non-biodegradable in nature. One of the innovations of Green Chemistry is utilization of renewable feedstocks such as biomass to achieve sustainable development with future circular economy. Bio-based products are of great interest to sustainable development as a result of diminishing fossil fuel reserves and rising environmental concerns. This review summarizes the productions of PHAs from renewable feedstocks such as lignocellulose, crude glycerol, levulinic acid (LA), palm-oil mill effluents (POME) and waste oils. The production of bio-based polymers has become much more professional and differentiated in recent years. Presently, there are bio-based alternatives for practically every application, therefore, this review presents applications of PHA in bio-refinery, medical sectors, agriculture sector, construction industry, and in packaging industry. The cost analysis of PHA from renewable sources with commercially available ones and potential to attain circular economy were also stressed. The reasons for this shift are connected to the non-renewability of fossil-based resources, the deteriorating environmental impacts, and the lack of biodegradability of the petroleum-produced materials.
... Secondly, it can positively remove nitrogen from water. Thus, the application of PHA grow bags do not contaminate the surrounding water bodies [114]. These bags are root-friendly as they do not cause any root deformity compared to PE bags. ...