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Pioneer Run oil field in 1859. Photo used with permission from the Pennsylvania Historical Collection and Musem Commission, Drake Well Museum Collection, Titusville, PA. 

Pioneer Run oil field in 1859. Photo used with permission from the Pennsylvania Historical Collection and Musem Commission, Drake Well Museum Collection, Titusville, PA. 

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Context 1
... Drake's oil well was not the first -according to one source, the Chinese beat Drake by about 2200 years -but it may have been the first drilled through rock, and it certainly triggered the Pennsylvania oil rush. Figure 1 shows some of the closely spaced wells that sprang up in 1859 in the Pioneer Run oil field a few miles from Titusville. According to a report issued in 1860 by David Dale Owens, 12 the state geologist of Arkansas: ...
Context 2
... heavy fuel oil and/or asphalt residue drops to the bottom of the tower, where it is drawn off. The vapors rise through the distillation trays, which contain perforations and bubble caps ( Figure 10). Each tray permits vapors from below to bubble through the cooler, condensed liquid on top of the tray. ...
Context 3
... traditional solvent deasphalting, residual oil and propane are pumped to an extraction tower at 150 to 250°F (65 to 120°C) and 350 to 600 psig (2514 to 4240 kPa). Separation occurs in a tower, which may have a rotating disc contactor ( Figure 11). Liquid products are evaporated and steam stripped to recover the propane solvent, which is recycled. ...
Context 4
... extraction is used to remove aromatics and other impurities from lube and grease stocks. The feedstock is dried, then contacted with the solvent in a counter-current or rotating disk extraction unit ( Figure 11). The solvent is separated from the product stream by heating, evaporation, or fractionation. ...
Context 5
... it means that heavy molecules are split ("cracked") into a smaller molecule with a higher H/C and another smaller molecule with a lower H/C. Molecules with low H/C - polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) -can condense to form coke ( Figure 12). Condensation reactions release hydrogen, lowering H/C even more. ...
Context 6
... HCGO can go either to an FCC unit or a hydrocracker. Figure 12. Representative thermal-cracking reaction. ...
Context 7
... Steam Figure 13. FCC riser-reactor and regenerator sections ...
Context 8
... one extent or another, all of the chemical reactions listed in Table 15 occur in hydrotreaters and hydrocrackers. The reactions are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 14. Figure 14 illustrates the process flow for a fixed-bed hydrotreater. At moderate-to-high pressure -300 to 1800 psig (2170 to 12,512 kPa) -mixtures of preheated oil and hydrogen pass down over fixed beds of catalyst, in which the desired reactions occur. ...
Context 9
... process flow scheme in Figure 14 can describe a gas-oil hydrotreater, a mild hydrocracking, or a once-through high-conversion hydrocracker. In a hydrocracker, the first few beds are likely to contain hydrotreating catalyst while subsequent beds contain hydrocracking catalyst. ...
Context 10
... conversion of naphthenes to aromatics and the isomerization of normal paraffins provide a huge boost in octane. H 2 is produced by dehydrocyclization of paraffins and naphthene dehydrogenation, which are shown in Figure 15. Figure 15. ...
Context 11
... 2 is produced by dehydrocyclization of paraffins and naphthene dehydrogenation, which are shown in Figure 15. Figure 15. Dehydrocyclization and dehydrogenation ...
Context 12
... and isomerization reactions are shown in Figure 16 and Figure 17, respectively. Hydrocracking, which is undesirable in this process, occurs to a greater extent at high temperatures. ...
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... and isomerization reactions are shown in Figure 16 and Figure 17, respectively. Hydrocracking, which is undesirable in this process, occurs to a greater extent at high temperatures. ...
Context 14
... are three major process flows for catalytic reforming: Figure 18 shows a semi-regenerative reformer, a fixed-bed unit in which catalyst cycles last from 6 to 12 months. A catalyst cycle ends when the unit is unable to meet its process objectives -typically octane and overall C 5 -plus yields. ...
Context 15
... Gas Figure 18. Semi-regenerative catalytic reforming Some catalytic reformers operate at low pressure (100 psig, 791 kPa), while others operate at >500 psig (3549 kPa). ...
Context 16
... a CCR unit (Figure 19), the hydrotreated feed mixes with recycle hydrogen and goes to series of adiabatic , radial-flow reactors arranged in a vertical stack. Catalyst flows down the stack, while the reaction fluids flow radially across the annular catalyst beds. ...
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... Liquids Figure 19. CCR catalytic reforming ...
Context 18
... main purpose of n-paraffin isomerization is to produce iso- paraffins with substantially higher octane numbers. An isomerization reaction for normal hexane was shown in Figure 17. ...
Context 19
... on the process make higher olefins and aromatics such as cumeme for petrochemical applications. Figure 21 shows the main chemical reaction for the dimerization of isobutylene. ...
Context 20
... oil industry has been consolidating since oil prices exploded during 1978-81, after the revolution in Iran. According to the United States Energy Information Administration, 56 in 1981 there were 324 refineries in the United States ( Figure 31 1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 Refineries 1949Refineries -2002 It's tempting to conclude that 171 refineries were shut down during the past 20-plus years and the remaining plants got a whole lot bigger. Indeed, there were a lot of shut-downs and expansions, but that's not the whole story. ...
Context 21
... Dietz invented a flat-wick kerosene lamp in 1857. The Dietz lamp was arguably the most successful of several devices designed to burn something other than animal fats. The availability of kerosene got a sudden boost on August 27, 1859, when Edwin L. Drake struck oil with the well he was drilling near Titusville, Pennsylvania. By today’s standards, the well was shallow – about 69 feet (21 meters) deep and it produced only 35 barrels per day. Drake was able to sell the oil for US$20 per barrel, a little less than the price of lard oil and 70% less than the price of whale oil. In 1861, US$700 per day was a tidy sum, equivalent to US$5 million per year in 2002 dollars. 11 Drake’s oil well was not the first – according to one source, the Chinese beat Drake by about 2200 years – but it may have been the first drilled through rock, and it certainly triggered the Pennsylvania oil rush. Figure 1 shows some of the closely spaced wells that sprang up in 1859 in the Pioneer Run oil field a few miles from ...

Citations

... Diesel fuel plays an important role worldwide because of its widespread use in diesel engines, particularly in road and rail vehicle engines [1,2]. Diesel is mainly composed of aromatic, aliphatic, and olefinic hydrocarbons (carbon numbers C9-C20) with boiling points in the range of 163-357 • C [1][2][3][4]. ...
... Diesel fuel plays an important role worldwide because of its widespread use in diesel engines, particularly in road and rail vehicle engines [1,2]. Diesel is mainly composed of aromatic, aliphatic, and olefinic hydrocarbons (carbon numbers C9-C20) with boiling points in the range of 163-357 • C [1][2][3][4]. Nevertheless, it also contains low amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, water, and other elements derived from the original crude oil source. The chemical and physical composition of diesel, as well as its properties, depends on several factors, such as the geographical origin of the crude oil and the quality of the refining unit [5]. ...
... Diesel, as a final product, is formed by blending middle distillates that are produced from refined crude petroleum oil by distillation and fractionation under atmospheric pressure [1,2]. These petroleum products are obtained at mid-height level in the distillation tower at boiling temperature ranges of 170-340 • C [1], where the heavy middle distillate, light middle distillate, and naphtha condense. ...
Article
The properties of middle distillates, which form diesel fuels, must be monitored during production according to the specific requirements established by standard analytical test methods. Although these test methods are accurate and well accepted, they are time-consuming and expensive. Hence, the best solution is to apply a method that reduces investment, maintenance costs, and time. The aim of this study was to determine seven properties of middle distillates (kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point, pour point, contents of sulfur, mono-, di-, and poly-aromatics) using rapid and inexpensive method, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics multivariate calibrations and the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. The root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) were applied as basic chemometric diagnostic tools to optimize the NIR model predictions. We confidently predicted satisfactory results: the calibration samples were equally distributed along the line of the NIR models and observed a significant correlation between the reference values obtained by the standard methods and the calculated values by the NIR model. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy is an efficient tool for simultaneously determining several diesel fuel properties, which makes it an excellent option for online monitoring during fuel production.
... This reduces the efficiency of FFC catalyst and thus reduces the efficiency of the process. As a result, the cost of producing oil derivatives of good quality will increase in refineries [10][11][12]. Therefore, it is necessary to remove this metal from crude oil or reduce it to the lowest possible level in order to maintain the safety of equipment and catalysts and prolong their operational life and also improve the quality of oil products. ...
Article
The existence of heavy metals together with the essential hydrocarbon components of crude oil causes a significant issue that leads to harmful effects on many petroleum processes industries in addition to reducing the value of oil product produced from refineries. The current research aims to study the possibility of removing the nickel element from Iraqi crude oil by a simple pre-treatment method based on adsorption technology. Treating of crude oil was performed using two types of adsorbents, the first one that had a high surface area, namely commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) and the other was non-valuable material, i.e., white egg shells (WES). The adsorption process was conducted in a batch mode unit and at different operating parameters of the adsorbent media amount, (water/crude oil) ratio, the contact time and the agitation speed in order to optimize the conditions for the best removal of the nickel substance from crude oil. The results indicated that the GAC had a high adsorption capacity reached to 87%, while the WES had a modest efficiency of about 45% removed of total nickel content. The results also showed that the efficiency of the treatment was increased with increase in the amount of adsorbent material, the (water/crude oil) ratio, the contact time and the agitation speed to a certain limit and then fixing or decreasing according to the type of variable. The present paper provides a simple pre-treatment method for removing one of the harmful heavy metals from crude oil in an easy and eco-friendly layout accessing to zero residue level concept.
... This reduces the efficiency of FFC catalyst and thus reduces the efficiency of the process. As a result, the cost of producing oil derivatives of good quality will increase in refineries [10][11][12]. Therefore, it is necessary to remove this metal from crude oil or reduce it to the lowest possible level in order to maintain the safety of equipment and catalysts and prolong their operational life and also improve the quality of oil products. ...
... Bitumen (called asphalt in some countries, including the United States of America) is manufactured in large quantities since its main use is for road building and waterproofing of constructions. Bitumen is a black or dark brown highly viscous thermo-plastic materials typically resulting from nondestructive distillation of crude oil, at either atmospheric pressure or under reduced pressure [1]. Bitumen is composed predominantly of high-molecular weight hydrocarbons (usually with more than 25 carbon atoms) with a high carbon-to-hydrogen ratio [2]. ...
... But several other micro-structural models have been proposed, such as the Yen-Mullins model in which there are three distinct structures, namely asphaltene molecules, asphaltene nanoaggregates, and clusters of nanoaggregates [9,10]. The actual composition of bitumen may vary to some extent based on the crude oil it is produced from and the refinery process applied [1,3]. Especially the presence of crystallizable components, referred to as natural wax, has a distinct effect on the micro-structure [2,13]. ...
... The total flow rate was 25 L/ min. The cooler temperature was set to 5 • C. The demisters (volume 1.5 L) contained steel wool onto which the higher boiling fraction of the fumes condensed or already formed aerosol droplets deposited, coagulated and dripped into the collection flasks [1,3]. The components with the low boiling points condensed in the gas cooler and were collected in flask 4. 220 • C, where they evaporated. ...
Article
Full-text available
The prenatal developmental toxicity of bitumen fume was tested by nose-only inhalation in the rat. The fumes for exposure were collected from the headspace of a storage tank filled with a bitumen corresponding in composition to an anticipated worst-case occupational exposure. The composition of these fumes was compared to actual paving site fumes to ensure its representativeness for workplace exposures. In a dose-range-finding study male and female rats were exposed to 0, 103, 480 or 1043 mg/m³ of fume (as total organic mass), for 6 h/day during 20 days post conception (p.c.). Dose-related effects on body weight and lungs were observed in the mid- and high-dose groups. In the main study, dams were exposed to 0, 52, 151 and 482 mg/m³ of fume, for 6 h/day during 19 days p.c. The maternal NOAEL was 52 mg/m³. In the high-dose group treatment-related effects on body weight (gain), food consumption, lung weights, and histopathological changes in lungs and larynx were observed. In the mid-dose group only histopathological changes in the larynx and lungs were found. The NOAEL for prenatal developmental toxicity was 151 mg/m³ based on reduced fetal weight in the high-dose group (482 mg/m³). However, these changes are most likely a consequence of the maternal toxicity, in particular the reduction of maternal body weight gain by 26 % as compared to control. Nose-only exposure to bitumen fumes in concentrations up to 482 mg/m³ from days 1–19 p.c. did not induce any significant fetal anomalies.
... [4,5] Therefore, the removal of sulfur compounds has always been the essential task of petroleum processing. [6] Characterizing the molecular composition of sulfur compounds in petroleum and its products is always instructive for the design and optimization of petroleum processing technologies. ...
Article
Molecular characterization of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum is of great significance not only for the oil refining but also for geochemical applicatioin. Recently, one practical approach for the characterization is to convert nonpolar sulfur compounds into methyl sulfonium with methyl iodide/AgBF4 and analyzed by electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry. However, the derivatization requires a very long reaction time, which limits the wide application of this method. In this study, we found a new derivatization reagent, silver hexafluoroantimonate (AgSbF6), which can significantly reduce the reaction time. The method was validated by model sulfur compounds and successfully applied on a crude oil and a diesel fraction. A comparison between AgBF4 and AgSbF6 was conducted to evaluate the advantages of this method. The new reagent provides high conversion yield, low structural discrimination, and thus can be used to characterize the trace amount refractory sulfur compounds in deep hydrodesulfurization fuels. In addition, the quickly methyaltion will be more important for the selective separation of thiophenes and sulfides from petroleum fractions base on the methylation/demethylation method.
... Mineral oils can be classified as paraffinic, naphthenic or aromatic based on the predominant type of structure in the crude, as illustrated in Figure 2 (Totten et al., 2003). Paraffinic hydrocarbon fractions are saturated linear (n-paraffin) or branched (iso-paraffin) alkanes (Robinson, 2006). Paraffins have good viscosity-temperature characteristics, which leads to better performance for applications such as for engine oils (Rudnick, 2013). ...
... Aromatic oils are cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons comprising one or more benzene rings (Robinson, 2006). Aromatic oils have poor oxidative stability and pour viscosity-temperature properties that limit its use for lubricant formulations. ...
... Aromatic oils have poor oxidative stability and pour viscosity-temperature properties that limit its use for lubricant formulations. However, they have the best solvency power for additives, making their combination with paraffins advantageous (Robinson, 2006;Totten et al., 2003). ...
Article
This work presents an updated overview of waste lubricant oil (WLO) management practices in Europe to promote a circular economy. The characteristics of virgin and waste oil, their hazardous properties and the impacts of improper disposal are addressed. Current treatment routes and regeneration technologies adopted in Europe are presented. An overview of life cycle assessment (LCA) of WLO management strategies are summarized. Finally, future developments and concerns about the regeneration process are discussed. The current objectives of European Union toward a circular economy represent a challenge for Member States which must maximize the collection and recycling rates. EU management indicators show an overwhelming trend for recycling. However, there is a competition between recycling by regeneration to produce base oil and reprocessing for energy recovery. EU legislation states that priority should be given to options that provide better overall environmental outcome. However, LCA studies, are not unanimous about regeneration being the soundest environmental option. Other factors such as lubricant market, energy consumption, distance to treatment facilities, operation costs and product quality should be accounted for. Selective segregation of WLO is extremely important to increase the regeneration rate and obtain high-quality base-stocks. However, this means a significant increase in the collection costs.
... But its specific compositions highly depend on the constitution of feed stock, the gasification temperature and pressure, the amount of gasifying agent, etc. (Smoot and Smith 2013) The potential important reactions related with the key components of syngas have been explored and illustrated by Eqs. (1)-(15) (Robinson 2006;Speight 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing pollutant emissions due to the development of science and technology creates tough challenges for the whole world. As one of the main causes, the utilization of solid fuels, like coal and biomass, has attracted the attentions of researchers. To alleviate this pollution, gasification technology is widely promoted in many fields of modern industry, especially in its application for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. Improving the simulation of gasifier is one of the most effective and essential ways to mature gasification technology. In this paper, a novel simplified equilibrium model is proposed for IGCC gasification unit. Through the analysis of gasification mechanism, Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) is verified as the control step to determine the compositions of syngas. The simplified model based on the equilibrium of WGSR is proposed, developed and validated with experimental data. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is completed to demonstrate the influences of key factors on syngas compositions, such as reaction temperature, oxygen feed ratio and water feed ratio. Finally, the IGCC gasification unit operation conditions are optimized and the Cold Gas Efficiency is improved approximately 10% after optimization.
... Fuels with higher sulphur, if burned by combustion engine in vehicles or power plants, also pollute the environment, beside lead to acid rain. For several refining processes, sulphur is a promoter poison likewise nitrogen is also promoter of poison, thus, refiners offer a large quantity of time and money to eliminate heteroatoms from intermediate streams and finished products [17]. [17]. ...
... For several refining processes, sulphur is a promoter poison likewise nitrogen is also promoter of poison, thus, refiners offer a large quantity of time and money to eliminate heteroatoms from intermediate streams and finished products [17]. [17]. ...
... In the substantial fractions such as resins and asphaltenes organometallic compounds like nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) are originate and their concentrations have to be condensed by altering the oil to transportation fuel form. The concentration of metal compounds ranges between little ppm to 200 ppm for nickel (Ni) and up to 1200 ppm for vanadium (V) [17]. [17]. ...
... Fuels with higher sulphur, if burned by combustion engine in vehicles or power plants, also pollute the environment, beside lead to acid rain. For several refining processes, sulphur is a promoter poison likewise nitrogen is also promoter of poison, thus, refiners offer a large quantity of time and money to eliminate heteroatoms from intermediate streams and finished products [17]. [17]. ...
... For several refining processes, sulphur is a promoter poison likewise nitrogen is also promoter of poison, thus, refiners offer a large quantity of time and money to eliminate heteroatoms from intermediate streams and finished products [17]. [17]. ...
... In the substantial fractions such as resins and asphaltenes organometallic compounds like nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) are originate and their concentrations have to be condensed by altering the oil to transportation fuel form. The concentration of metal compounds ranges between little ppm to 200 ppm for nickel (Ni) and up to 1200 ppm for vanadium (V) [17]. [17]. ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Increase by agency protocols, international organisation regulations, and government regulations in many countries, demand for uncontaminated fuel and the use of more environmentally friendly transportation fuels with minor contents of sulphur compound (SOx) and aromatics compound lead to the search of pre-sulphur. In the present time, the demand for transportation fuels has been increasing in many countries for the past two decades. The study reported the compared oxidation-extraction desulphurization of heavy crude oil using combined oxidants potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide (KMnO 4 +H 2 O 2) over acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and Formic acid (HCOOH) catalysis. The following results were obtained; formic acid (HCOOH) with higher sulphur reduction by (73.00%), while acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) with lower sulphur reduction by (27.02%). The study concluded that combined oxidants (KMnO 4 +H 2 O 2) with formic acid (HCOOH) catalysed reaction system is better than using combined oxidants (KMnO 4 +H 2 O 2) with acetic CH 3 COOH catalyst. Moreover DMSO was found to be a pathetic and inadequate solvent for extraction of oxidized sulphur since, it present more sulphur into the oxidised oil higher than that up fresh sample.
... Typical western oil refineries have at least three HDS units [39] to process various different feeds. HDS was first patented by Raymond Fleck and Paul Nahin of Union Oil in 1950 [40,41] and continued to be the dominant method of desulfurization in refineries. The process involves reaction of sulfur compounds with H 2 to form hydrocarbons and H 2 S gas, which is removed by amine washing using the Claus process. ...
Article
Sulfur compounds in transportation fuels are a pressing issue currently due to the more stringent limits of sulfur content. Sulfur compounds lead to SOx emissions which cause many environmental and health problems. The conventional refinery desulfurization process, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), is conducted at elevated temperatures and pressures, using expensive hydrogen gas and catalysts. This review aims to discuss the merits and drawbacks of the major areas of alternative desulfurization technologies, including biodesulfurization, adsorption, extractive and oxidative desulfurization, with special emphasis on the role of ionic liquids (ILs) as distinctive multi-task fluids. With the rapid development of ILs in the last decades, more effective and reliable desulfurization techniques are foreseeable.