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Picture of stalwart Mifune Kyūzō 三船久蔵 (18831965), 6 th dan (later 10 th dan) and training partners aside the water well following practice (Keiko-go no idobata 稽古後の 井戸端) taken in 1919. Individuals depicted on the picture and marked by numbers have been identified as follows: #1: Sakuraba Takeshi 櫻庭武 (1892-1941), 4 th dan (later 8 th dan), #2: Yoshida 吉田, 3 rd dan, #3: Bokuya 牧野, 3 rd dan, #4: Nakano Shōzō 中野正三 (1888-1977), 1 st dan (later, one day prior to his death, promoted to 10 th dan), #5 Mifune Kyūzō, 6 th dan, #6: Ishiguro Keishichi 石黒敬七 (1897-1974), 4 th dan (later 8 th dan), #7: Fujio 藤生, 4 th dan, #8: Baba Jukichi/Hisakichi/Toshikichi/ Hisayoshi 馬場寿吉 (1894-1952), 4 th dan (later 9 th dan), #9: Fukui 福井, 4 th dan, #10: Matsumoto 松本, 3 rd dan, and #11: Funazaki 船崎, 4 th dan [From Yūkō no Katsudō, June 1919]. 

Picture of stalwart Mifune Kyūzō 三船久蔵 (18831965), 6 th dan (later 10 th dan) and training partners aside the water well following practice (Keiko-go no idobata 稽古後の 井戸端) taken in 1919. Individuals depicted on the picture and marked by numbers have been identified as follows: #1: Sakuraba Takeshi 櫻庭武 (1892-1941), 4 th dan (later 8 th dan), #2: Yoshida 吉田, 3 rd dan, #3: Bokuya 牧野, 3 rd dan, #4: Nakano Shōzō 中野正三 (1888-1977), 1 st dan (later, one day prior to his death, promoted to 10 th dan), #5 Mifune Kyūzō, 6 th dan, #6: Ishiguro Keishichi 石黒敬七 (1897-1974), 4 th dan (later 8 th dan), #7: Fujio 藤生, 4 th dan, #8: Baba Jukichi/Hisakichi/Toshikichi/ Hisayoshi 馬場寿吉 (1894-1952), 4 th dan (later 9 th dan), #9: Fukui 福井, 4 th dan, #10: Matsumoto 松本, 3 rd dan, and #11: Funazaki 船崎, 4 th dan [From Yūkō no Katsudō, June 1919]. 

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and Study Aim: The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive study of gonosen-no-kata [“Forms of Post-Attack Initiative Counter Throws”], a non-officially accepted kata of Kōdōkan jūdō made popular in Western Europe by Kawaishi Mikinosuke (1899-1969). Material and Methods: To achieve this we apply historical methods and source crit...

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... Ishiguro Keishichi 石黒敬七 (1897Keishichi 石黒敬七 ( -1974 was merely two years older than Kawaishi and had entered the Kōdōkan in 1915. Ishiguro can be seen as a 4 th dan- holder on a picture with Mifune , 6 th dan at the time, and other strong fighters, that was taken in 1919 ( Figure 2 University. Unfortunately, Kawaishi Norikazu was unable to provide us with the first names of these teachers and the corresponding kanji, without which their identifica- tion became virtually more challenging. ...

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and Study Aim: The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of nage-waza ura-no-kata [“Forms of Reversing Throwing Techniques”], a non-officially accepted kata of Kōdōkan jūdō made famous by the late Mifune Kyūzō (1883-1965), of which the date of creation has not been previously established, nor under what circumstances it...

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... Katapredetermined and choreographed physical exercises, which together with free exercises (randori), lectures (kōgi) and discussions (mondō) form the four critical pillars of Kōdōkan jūdō education [31]. ...
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... It was probably a kata devised by Koizumi and Tani." (R. Bowen, 2011b;8) Another occasion where Koizumi and Tani did Shinri-no-kata was the 29 November 1932 Oxford University enbu. The event program describes Shinri-no-kata as containing "locks, holds, methods of strangling, etc." 45 (Oxford University Judo Club, 1932;De Crée, 2015). Recall from earlier that it was also at this enbu that Koizumi and Tani did their "Kime-no-kata" featuring knife, pistol and stick attackspossibly the first public showing of Budokwai Kime-no-kata. ...
... Kata -predetermined and choreographed physical exercises, which together with free exercises (randori), lectures (kōgi) and discussions (mondō) form the four critical pillars of Kōdōkan jūdō educatinn [36]. ...
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Background: Randori (free practice combat exercise) and kata (formal codified practice exercise) are complementary in learning judo. Traditionally taught by imitation (relationship between sensei and senpai/kohai; SHU phase of the SHU-HA-RI method) and after randori, kata are often perceived as an obstacle for promotion to a higher rank. Active teaching methods may help us in changing this perception. Aim: A personal expression or personal free practice of concepts of kata may precede formal expression or formal codified practice in learning kata. Methods: From 2011 to 2018, the personal expression based on the concepts of gonosen-no-kata (kata of counterattacks) was analyzed in 38 bachelor-level students at the University of Montpellier (France). Subjects mastered the nage-no-kata (mandatory for 1st dan black belt) but were not knowledgeable in the gonosen-no-kata (mandatory for 4th dan black belt). During 4 hours of class, they had to perform freely all or part of 4 series: 3 different counterattacks after 3 different attacks, 1 identical counterattack after 3 different attacks, 3 different counterattacks after 1 identical attack, and 3 free counterattacks after 3 free attacks. Results: Subjects performed 95 series containing 282 attacks/ counterattacks: 231 attacks and 47 counterattacks corresponded to those codified in the gonosen-no-kata, reflecting the students' insights. Techniques banned in competition by the International Judo Federation in 2011 were not used by the students. No significant differences were found between women and men in choices of defense used for dodging and sen-no-sen, and in techniques used for counter attacking. Men and women did, however, significantly differ in blocking attacks. Conclusions: • Active teaching methods for learning gonosen-no-kata are valuable and might be expanded; • Students are creative in choosing techniques; • Personal expression may precede formal expression in learning kata. There may be unexpected challenges for French judo technical staff in developing methods to include gonosen-no-kata in warm-up and techniques.