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Pictograms of Krzemionki flint mines: a) random marks; b) anthropomorph. 

Pictograms of Krzemionki flint mines: a) random marks; b) anthropomorph. 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... in the banded flint mines in Krzemionki in south-eastern Poland may be considered as the oldest. The mines were discovered in 1922 by Jan Samsonowicz. Archaeologists established that the flint mines in Krzemionki were explored by peoples associated with Neolithic cultures of the Funnelbeaker (3700-1900 BCE), Globular Amphora (3100-2600 BCE) and Mierzanowice (2300-1600 BCE) periods. There are forty pictograms and most of them depict irregular black signs -it is possible these are traces of torches which were rubbed against the wall after having burnt out. But it is worth noting that a few pictograms are not just random marks (Fig. 2a). One of the earliest researchers investigating Krzemionki mines was Stefan Krukowski. It is through his efforts that we have information about pictograms discovered in two large chambers located in the inner part of the mining field: a depiction of a 'dagger' and footprints. Unfortunately, these chambers did not survive to the present day because of illegal exploitation of limestone by local people. According to the diary of Krukowski, the chambers were probably 8-9 m below the ground surface. These chambers were between 150 and 200 cm high, with a diameter of several metres. It is worth noting that the chambers were not filled with limestone rubble, which precludes their usage for mining and utilitarian purposes (Krukowski 1939: 65-66). During the investigation of the underground complex many stone, flint and antler mining tools were found, of which a substantial part was undamaged and still in a usable condition (Bąbel 2015: 92). The best-known pictogram from Krzemionki is an anthropomorph (Fig. 2b). For a long time it functioned as the symbol of the mine and in 2012 it was also chosen as the official logo of the Archaeological Museum in Krzemionki. It should be noted that some researchers are of the opinion that this pictogram is a forgery -that it was made by a student during internships in the 1960s; others, however, point out that it was discovered several years before these internships took place and therefore its authenticity should not be questioned (Bąbel 2015: 123 ...
Context 2
... in the banded flint mines in Krzemionki in south-eastern Poland may be considered as the oldest. The mines were discovered in 1922 by Jan Samsonowicz. Archaeologists established that the flint mines in Krzemionki were explored by peoples associated with Neolithic cultures of the Funnelbeaker (3700-1900 BCE), Globular Amphora (3100-2600 BCE) and Mierzanowice (2300-1600 BCE) periods. There are forty pictograms and most of them depict irregular black signs -it is possible these are traces of torches which were rubbed against the wall after having burnt out. But it is worth noting that a few pictograms are not just random marks (Fig. 2a). One of the earliest researchers investigating Krzemionki mines was Stefan Krukowski. It is through his efforts that we have information about pictograms discovered in two large chambers located in the inner part of the mining field: a depiction of a 'dagger' and footprints. Unfortunately, these chambers did not survive to the present day because of illegal exploitation of limestone by local people. According to the diary of Krukowski, the chambers were probably 8-9 m below the ground surface. These chambers were between 150 and 200 cm high, with a diameter of several metres. It is worth noting that the chambers were not filled with limestone rubble, which precludes their usage for mining and utilitarian purposes (Krukowski 1939: 65-66). During the investigation of the underground complex many stone, flint and antler mining tools were found, of which a substantial part was undamaged and still in a usable condition (Bąbel 2015: 92). The best-known pictogram from Krzemionki is an anthropomorph (Fig. 2b). For a long time it functioned as the symbol of the mine and in 2012 it was also chosen as the official logo of the Archaeological Museum in Krzemionki. It should be noted that some researchers are of the opinion that this pictogram is a forgery -that it was made by a student during internships in the 1960s; others, however, point out that it was discovered several years before these internships took place and therefore its authenticity should not be questioned (Bąbel 2015: 123 ...

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Thus far, prehistoric rock art has not been featured in the discourse concerned with the archaeology of Poland due to the absence of finds there belonging to this category. This text presents the very first identified specimens of cup marks in the present-day territory of Poland; all differ significantly in terms of context, which consequently determines the potential for interpreting the finds. The first is a boulder which was put in place as grave-marker at a Wielbark Culture site dated to Late Iron Age. The find appears to overlap with the general pattern of regularities observed in the funerary rituals of the Wielbark communities. The second instance is an isolated boulder with cup marks – most likely positioned ex situ – discovered at Wilcza (Greater Poland). Regarding the latter, available information contributes little to determination of chronology of the cup marks and the original location of the boulder in the landscape, thus obscuring the primary function of the feature. The third boulder yielded the most contextual information; it is situated within a complex of numerous Middle Bronze Age barrows in Smoszew, at a site which constitutes a part of the Bronze Age cultural landscape that has survived in the Krotoszyn Forest in southern Greater Poland. For the authors, this very feature served as a basis for a contextual and chronological analysis of rock art which has hitherto remained unknown in Poland. In light of obtained data, the cup-marked boulder from Smoszew should be approached as an element of the funerary landscape created by the Tumulus Culture community and evidence of broader cultural processes which linked particular regions of Europe in the Bronze Age.