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Physiological variables in the HUNT 3 Fitness study stratified by sex and age groups.

Physiological variables in the HUNT 3 Fitness study stratified by sex and age groups.

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To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20) were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. The highest...

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... other age groups, regardless of sex, had PAI scores in the range 2.67-3.70, which are considered to indicate medium activity [26] (Table 2). ...
Context 2
... EqVO 2max in females aged 30-39 and 40- 49 years compared to corresponding groups of males. Addition- ally, EqVO 2max increased by 3% (p,0.05) between the two most senior male groups ( Table 2). ...

Citations

... In addition to CRF data, information about anthropometric variables (weight, height) was extracted to compare sample characteristics. The obtained Brazilian pooled reference standard values for Vo 2peak were later compared with treadmill reference values from the US provided from the FRIEND Registry 23 and from the Norwegian study by Loe et al. 24 The study by Loe et al 24 was selected to represent European CRF, as it is the most recent and largest study performed on the treadmill from this continent. The Norwegian study by Edvardsen et al 26 was not included because of the smaller sample size. ...
... Finally, an age subgroup >80 yr could not be analyzed, despite the available data for US, 23 as this subgroup is underrepresented in the Brazilian data, and the age subgroup >70 yr was merged in a single subgroup in the Norwegian study. 24 ...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to propose reference standards for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for Brazil from a pooled analysis and to compare peak oxygen uptake (V˙o2peak) in Brazilian, United States (US), and Norwegian samples, exploring possible national and international differences. Methods: Reference values for treadmill V˙o2peak in three different Brazilian regions were assessed from previous publications. We analyzed available samples to assess possible differences, generate weighted average data for Brazil, and compared them with US and Norwegian data. Results: Brazilian reference values had a lower V˙o2peak value for the Northeast region and a higher V˙o2peak value for the Southeast region for all sex and age groups. International comparisons with the Brazilian pooled data (n = 26661) revealed higher values for the Norwegian sample (n = 3810) and lower values for the US sample (n = 16278). The observed heterogeneity in CRF is possibly related to differences in anthropometric (weight, height) and socioeconomic factors, which differed among the samples. Also, Brazilian data showed a curvilinear V˙o2peak age reduction trend rather than the linear characteristic commonly utilized, and the regression curves were different from those for US and Norwegian data. Conclusion: This study provides new CRF reference standards for Brazil. After pooling data from three Brazilian regions, a comparison revealed notable differences between regions, evidencing a negative gradient from Southern to Northern regions. Similarly, the international comparisons between Brazil, US, and Norway data revealed CRF heterogeneity, with differences in the V˙o2peak values and in the age relationship patterns. These findings reinforce the importance of using national- or regional-specific V˙o2peak reference values, ensuring proper CRF evaluation.
... en términos relativos (ml·kg·min -1 ), las mujeres supervivientes mostraron un aumento de 0.18 LO 2 ·min -1 en comparación con el grupo control (1.74 vs. 1.56 LO 2 ·min -1 , respectivamente), presentando un tamaño de efecto desde moderado hasta alto. Estos resultados no están relacionados con estudios previos, que consideraron un valor promedio más alto en mujeres adultas (2.3 LO 2 ·min -1 ) (Loe, et al. 2013), con valores de referencia de 27.9 ± 7.7 ml·kg·min -1 entre los 40 y 49 años (Kaminsky, Arena, & Myers, 2015) los que fueron mayores a los del GC de nuestro estudio (25 ± 5.4 ml·kg·min -1 ). ...
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Resumen. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la predicción del VO 2 máx. entre mujeres supervivientes de cáncer de mama y un grupo control (GC) de mujeres sin antecedentes de cáncer. Estudio de caso-control en que diecisiete mujeres en el grupo supervivientes de cáncer de mama (49.4 ± 8.9 años, índice de masa corporal [IMC] de 27.8 ± 2.7 kg·m-2) y 17 en el GC (47.9 ± 7.4 años, IMC de 26.2 ± 4.4 kg·m-2) fueron evaluadas. La prueba de caminata de seis minutos (PC6M) se evaluó con monitor de frecuencia cardíaca, tensiómetro digital, oxímetro de pulso y escala de Borg. El VO 2 máx. se estimó con ecuación que consideró la distancia recorrida, el peso corporal y la edad. El grupo de supervivientes caminó 34.8 metros más que el GC (p = .15; d = .51). También mostró una tendencia (p = .05), con un tamaño del efecto moderado (d = .76), hacia un aumento del VO 2 máx. (1.74 ± .26 L·min-1) comparado con el GC (1.56 ± .21 L·min-1). No hubo diferencias entre los grupos para las variables de frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial y esfuerzo percibido durante la prueba (p > .05). Las participantes que recorrieron más distancia tuvieron más probabilidades de un mayor VO 2 máx. (odds ratio = 12.7; p = .002). Existieron diferencias en el VO 2 máx. entre los dos grupos, esta aptitud física debería considerarse para el tratamiento y control post-operatorio. Abstract. The aim of the study was to compare the prediction of the VO 2 max in breast cancer survivors and a control group (CG) of women without a history of cancer. It is a case-control study. Seventeen women in the breast cancer survivors (49.4 ± 8.9 years, body mass index [BMI] of 27.8 ± 2.7 kg·m-2) and 17 in the CG (47.9 ± 7.4 years, BMI of 26.2 ± 4.4 kg·m-2) were evaluated. The six-minute walk test (SMWT) was evaluated with a heart rate monitor, digital blood pressure monitor, pulse oximeter and the Borg scale. The VO 2 max it was estimated with an equation that considered the distance traveled, body weight and age. The survivors group walked 34.8 meters more than the CG (p = .15). In addition, group showed a trend (p = .05), with a moderate effect size (d = .76), towards an increase in VO 2 max (1.74 ± .26 L·min-1) compared to the CG (1.56 ± .21 L·min-1). There were no differences between the groups for the variables of heart rate, blood pressure and perceived exertion during the test (p > .05). The participants who covered the longest distance had a better chance of a VO 2 max higher (odds ratio = 12.7; p = .002). There were differences in the VO 2 max between groups, this physical fitness should be considered for post-operated treatment and monitoring.
... High body fat is a negative factor [54] limiting the performance of females during Tai Chi training. Also, for participants who practiced Tai Chi, males have better CRF than females, a difference estimated to be 20% [55], which is consistent with our findings. e average O 2 pulse in females is less than what is observed in males. ...
Article
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in elderly people using meta-analysis. Methods: This study used seven electronic databases and data retrieved from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the role of Tai Chi on CRF in the elderly. All these 24 RCTs were screened and selected from 7 literature databases. The Stata 11.2 software (StataCorp, USA) was used for the meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and bias test, while the Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used for the assessment of the risk of bias (RoB). 4 researchers independently participated in sample selection, data extraction, and RoB assessment. Results: Following the inclusion criteria, 24 eligible studies were included in our analysis. The meta-analysis indicated that Tai Chi practice significantly increased the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.25 to 6.26, P < 0.1), leading to an overall reduction in the heart rate (HR) (WMD = -1.84, 95% CI: -2.04 to -1.63, P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in the O2 pulse (WMD = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.28, P ≤ 0.001) in individuals who practiced Tai Chi regularly compared with those who did not. The subgroup analysis suggested that overall in those who practiced Tai Chi, males (WMD = 1.48, 95% CI: 0.85 to 2.12, P ≤ 0.001) had higher O2 pulse than females (WMD = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.12, P ≤ 0.001). The subgroup analysis also showed an increase in the vital capacity (VC) (WMD = 316.05, 95% CI: 239.74 to 392.35, P ≤ 0.001) in individuals practicing Tai Chi. When the samples were further stratified by Tai Chi practicing time, the subgroup analysis suggested that individuals practicing Tai Chi over a period of 24 weeks showed no significant difference in VC (WMD = 82.95, 95% CI: -98.34 to 264.23, P=0.370), while those practicing Tai Chi over a period of 48 weeks showed a significant increase (WMD = 416.62, 95% CI: 280.68 to 552.56, P ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that the increase in VC is significantly correlated with the Tai Chi practicing time (WMD = 344.97, 95% CI: 227.88 to 442.06, P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Regular Tai Chi practice could improve the CRF in the elderly, as indicated by significant improvement in indicators including VO2 max, O2 pulse, VC, and HR. However, gender and practice time might influence the overall beneficial outcomes.
... Alongside physiological differences between men and women (i.e. body size, muscle and fat mass, cardiac output etc.) [33][34][35][36], physical inactivity as a behaviour, has been identified as a stronger determinant of CRF in women [37], with the literature reporting an estimated average difference in CRF up to 20% between the sexes (in both active and inactive adults) [37][38][39]. ...
Article
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Introduction Obesity in women has more than doubled in the past thirty years. Increasing research suggests that increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can largely attenuate the negative health risks associated with obesity. Though previous literature suggests that combined training may be the most effective for improving CRF in adults with obesity, there is minimal research investigating the efficacy of combined and resistance programmes in women with obesity. This article outlines a protocol for a parallel pilot study which aims to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of three exercise modalities in women with obesity for increasing CRF and strength and improving body composition and other health outcomes (i.e. quality of life). Methods and analysis Sixty women (aged 18–50) with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 and/or waist circumference ≥ 88 cm) who are physically inactive, have no unstable health conditions and are safe to exercise will be recruited from September 2021 to December 2022. The main outcome will be feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and procedures. Trial feasibility outcomes will be evaluated to determine if a definitive trial should be undertaken. Trial acceptability will be explored through follow-up qualitative interviews with participants. Secondary outcomes will include CRF (predicted VO 2 max), anthropometrics (i.e. BMI), strength (5RM bench press, leg dynamometry, grip strength) and other health outcomes (i.e., pain). Participants will be block randomised into one of four trial arms (aerobic exercise, resistance training and combined training groups, non-active control group) and measurements will be completed pre- and post-intervention. The exercise groups will receive an individualised supervised exercise programme for 3× sessions/week for 12 weeks. The change in mean values before and after intervention will be calculated for primary and secondary outcomes. ANOVA and t -tests will be applied to evaluate within-group and between-group differences. If sufficient participants are recruited, the data will be analysed using ANCOVA with the age and BMI as covariates. Discussion This pilot will provide data on the feasibility and acceptability of trial procedures and of the programmes’ three progressive time-matched exercise interventions (aerobic, resistance and combined) for women living with obesity, which will help inform future research and the potential development of a full-scale randomised clinical trial. Trial registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN13517067 . Registered 16 November 2021—retrospectively registered.
... Tab. 1. Detaillierte Darstellung der einzelnen Muskelfasertypen mit den entsprechenden Eigenschaften (mod. aus Raeder, Vuong & Ferrauti in Ferrauti, 2020, S. 200 (Wolf, 2010, S. 243 (Wolf, 2010, S. 243 Tab. 6. Sauerstoffverbrauch und die bestimmenden Faktoren bei maximaler Ausdauerbelastung bei trainierten Männern (Tanaka & Seals, 2008 Loe et al., 2013) Tab. 9. Normwerte für die durchschnittliche Leistung (in Watt) beim Wingate Anaerobic Test (nach Maud & Shultz, 1989 ...
Thesis
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High-intensity interval training, characterized by repetitive short to long bouts of high-intensity exercise separated by recovery periods, represents a time-efficient training methodology for improving athlete performance. Previous research indicates that physiological and anatomical differences in men and women may result in divergences in training response. Furthermore, the state of research suggests that changes in skeletal muscle and different functional systems over the course of age may induce different responses to an exercise stimulus. In this regard, the results show that there is a sexual dimorphism in load and recovery during interval exercise. Furthermore, it was found that good trainability is possible in old age, which in turn may counteract age-related changes and their influence on load and recovery behavior.
... However, longitudinal studies indicate that the decline in CRF accelerates markedly with each successive decade of adulthood (50,51), exceeding a 21% per decade reduction in those over the age of 70 years (50). Consequently,VO 2 max (orVO 2 peak) at >70 years is typically only approximately 25-35% of that at middle age (50,52). It is widely accepted that the capacity for oxygen delivery (circulatory capacity) is primarily responsible for the decline in CRF with aging, although impairments in skeletal muscle oxygen utilization may exert a larger impact with advanced age or chronic disease (53,54). ...
Article
The global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of all ages. Herein, we review the role of structured exercise training in the oldest old on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength and power, attributes critical for physical function, mobility, and independent living. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Different brain tissues may hence be differentially sensitive to the effect of exercising and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Since the mean VO 2peak level in our sample was similar to that in people of the same age in a large Norwegian general population study [39], our results should be generalizable to older cognitively intact communitydwelling adults. The absence of an association between VO 2peak and WMH volume and change in VO 2peak and change in WMH volume at any timepoint during the intervention makes it unlikely that VO 2peak by itself is a central mechanism in preventing WMH. ...
Article
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We investigated if a five-year supervised exercise intervention with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus control; physical activity according to national guidelines, attenuated the growth of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We hypothesized that supervised exercise, in particular HIIT, reduced WMH growth. Older adults from the general population participating in the RCT Generation 100 Study were scanned at 3T MRI at baseline (age 70-77), and after 1-, 3- and 5-years. At each follow-up, cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with ergospirometry, and physical activity plus clinical data collected. Manually delineated total WMH, periventricular (PWMH), deep (DWMH), and automated total white matter hypointensity volumes were obtained. No group by time interactions were present in linear mixed model analyses with the different WMH measurements as outcomes. In the combined exercise (MICT&HIIT) group, a significant group by time interaction was uncovered for PWMH volume, with a larger increase in the MICT&HIIT group. Cardiorespiratory fitness at the follow-ups or change in cardiorespiratory fitness over time were not associated with any WMH measure. Contrary to our hypothesis, taking part in MICT or HIIT over a five-year period did not attenuate WMH growth compared to being in a control group following national physical activity guidelines.
... Therefore, a number of CRF reference standards have been published. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] However, the majority of these previously published reference standards were developed using data from Peterman et al Cardiorespiratory Fitness Reference Standards: CVD apparently healthy individuals. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] One study created reference standards using data from patients with CVD entering a cardiac rehabilitation program, 25 demonstrating a lower CRF compared with age-and sex-matched apparently healthy individuals. ...
... [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] However, the majority of these previously published reference standards were developed using data from Peterman et al Cardiorespiratory Fitness Reference Standards: CVD apparently healthy individuals. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] One study created reference standards using data from patients with CVD entering a cardiac rehabilitation program, 25 demonstrating a lower CRF compared with age-and sex-matched apparently healthy individuals. These CRF reference standards for patients with CVD, however, were derived only from tests conducted on a treadmill at 2 centers and covered the time period of 1996 to 2004. ...
... This analysis provides practical and current CRF normative reference standards for patients with CVD that can be used for interpreting results from either treadmill or cycle ergometer CPX. Similar to findings in apparently healthy individuals, [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] CRF was significantly lower in the older age groups, as well as for women compared with men. Previous research has reported declines in the CRF of healthy individuals ranging from 7% to 10% per decade whether using treadmill or cycle ergometer CPX. ...
Article
Background The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for stratifying risk and guiding clinical decisions in patients with cardiovascular disease is well‐established. To optimize the clinical value of cardiorespiratory fitness, normative reference standards are essential. The purpose of this report is to extend previous cardiorespiratory fitness normative standards by providing updated cardiorespiratory fitness reference standards according to cardiovascular disease category and testing modality. Methods and Results The analysis included 15 045 tests (8079 treadmill, 6966 cycle) from FRIEND (Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database). Using data from tests conducted January 1, 1974, through March 1, 2021, percentiles of directly measured peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) were determined for each decade from 30 through 89 years of age for men and women with a diagnosis of coronary artery bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or heart failure. There were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO 2peak ( P <0.001). The mean VO 2peak was 23% higher for men compared with women and VO 2peak decreased by a mean of 7% per decade for both sexes. Among each decade, the mean VO 2peak from treadmill tests was 21% higher than the VO 2peak from cycle tests. Differences in VO 2peak were observed among the age groups in both sexes according to cardiovascular disease category. Conclusions This report provides normative reference standards by cardiovascular disease category for both men and women performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. These updated and enhanced reference standards can assist with patient risk stratification and guide clinical care.
... The inclusion of only cognitively healthy participants could potentially mask beneficial intervention effects in a specific group akin to those uncovered in other studies (Young et al., 2015). Overall, our participants had higher CRF at inclusion (30.11 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) than in earlier interventional studies, but comparable to values found in the same age group in another Norwegian general population (Loe et al., 2013). Our sample should therefore be representative of older Norwegians. ...
... Furthermore, there was no significant decline in CRF across the 5 years. Previous studies suggest a decline of approximately 3 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 in this age range in Norwegian general population samples (Aspenes et al., 2011;Loe et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Aerobic exercise is proposed to attenuate cognitive decline in aging. We investigated the effect of different aerobic exercise interventions and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) upon cognition throughout a 5-year exercise intervention in older adults. Methods: 106 older adults (52 women, age 70-77 years) were randomized into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; ∼90% peak heart rate), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; ∼70% peak heart rate), or control for 5 years. The HIIT and MICT groups performed supervised training twice weekly, while the control group was asked to follow the national physical activity guidelines (30 min of physical activity/day). At baseline, 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up, participants partook in cognitive testing (spatial memory, verbal memory, pattern separation, processing speed, working memory, and planning ability), underwent clinical testing, and filled out health-related questionnaires. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effects of the exercise group and CRF (measured as peak and max oxygen uptake) on each cognitive test. The effects of changes in CRF on changes in each cognitive test score throughout the intervention were also assessed. The associations between baseline CRF and cognitive abilities at the follow-ups were investigated using linear regressions. Results: There was no group-by-time interaction on the cognitive measures, and neither HIIT nor MICT participation was associated with better cognitive performance than control at any time point during the 5-year intervention. All groups increased their CRF similarly during the 1st year and subsequently declined back to baseline levels after 5 years. A higher CRF was associated with higher processing speed throughout the intervention while increasing CRF during the intervention was associated with better working memory and worse pattern separation. Higher CRF at baseline predicted consistently better processing speed and verbal memory performance. Conclusion: In this first 5-year randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of HIIT, MICT, and physical activity according to national guidelines on cognition, we observed no effect of exercise intervention group on cognition when compared to following the national physical activity guidelines. Still, the results showed that higher CRF and increasing CRF benefited multiple, but not all, cognitive abilities in older adults. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier [NCT01666340].
... Indeed, those who volunteered for brain MRI had a high CRF level at inclusion compared to many previous exercise intervention studies. [11][12][13][14]16,17 Nevertheless, their CRF level was similar to that of Norwegians in their 70s from another general population study, 80 indicating that the findings in our study are generalizable to healthy older Norwegian adults who participated in similar studies. Across all groups, CRF only increased during the first year of the intervention and then declined slowly to baseline level at 5 years. ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim was to examine the effect of a 5-year exercise intervention at different intensities on brain structure in older adults from the general population partaking in the randomized controlled trial Generation 100 Study. Participants and methods: Generation 100 Study participants were invited to a longitudinal neuroimaging study before randomization. A total of 105 participants (52 women, 70-77 years) volunteered. Participants were randomized into supervised exercise twice a week performing high intensity interval training in 4×4 intervals at ~90% peak heart rate (HIIT, n = 33) or 50 minutes of moderate intensity continuous training at ~70% of peak heart rate (MICT, n = 24). The control group (n = 48) followed the national physical activity guidelines of ≥30 min physical activity daily. Brain MRI at 3T, clinical and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured as peak oxygen uptake, were collected at baseline, and after 1, 3, and 5 years of intervention. Brain volumes and cortical thickness were derived from T1 weighted 3D MRI data using FreeSurfer. The effect of HIIT or MICT on brain volumes over time was investigated with linear mixed models, while linear regressions examined the effect of baseline CRF on brain volumes at later time points. Results: Adherence in each group was between 79 and 94% after 5 years. CRF increased significantly in all groups during the first year. Compared to controls, the HIIT group had significantly increased hippocampal atrophy located to CA1 and hippocampal body, though within normal range, and the MICT group greater thalamic atrophy. No other effects of intervention group were found. CRF across the intervention was not associated with brain structure, but CRF at baseline was positively associated with cortical volume at all later time points. Conclusion: Higher baseline CRF reduced 5-year cortical atrophy rate in older adults, while following physical activity guidelines was associated with the lowest hippocampal and thalamic atrophy rates.