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Phylogeography of the species Rupicapra spp. Subspecies and the species separation in years (according Perez et al., 2002)

Phylogeography of the species Rupicapra spp. Subspecies and the species separation in years (according Perez et al., 2002)

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Book
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The Action Plan for the Balkan chamois in Bulgaria examines the questions on the conservation of the species on the national level. It is developed based on the Terms of Reference of SFA, coordinated with MoEW and includes the plans and programmes developed until now for the population of the Balkan chamois in the Bulgarian National Parks. The Balk...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... R. pyrenaica pyrenaica (RPPy - figure 1) -Pyrenean chamois. It is found in the Spanish and the French part of the Pyrenees Mountains. ...
Context 2
... R. pyrenaica parva (RPParva - figure 1) -Cantabrian chamois. It inhabits the high parts of the Cantabrian Mountains with above 19 000 individuals (Alados, 1997). ...
Context 3
... R. rupicapra rupicapra (RRR - figure 1) -Alpine chamois. The most numerous and most widely distributed subspecies. ...
Context 4
... R. rupicapra cartusiana (RRCart. - figure 1) -it is found in restricted territory of around 350 km 2 in the Chartreuse limestone massif in the pre-Alps, France. Its population is decreasing and in 1985 it is evaluated to the least of 150 individuals (Roucher, 1997). ...
Context 5
... R. rupicapra tatrica (RRT - figure 1) -distributed in the high Tatra Mountains and it is introduced in Low Tatra National Park. In 1993 its population is estimated to 600 -640 individuals (Hrabe, 1997), and in the end of the 90ies it has decreased to 300 -400. ...
Context 6
... R. rupicapra asiatica (RRA - figure 1) -the Asian (Anatolian) chamois, is found in North-eastern and Eastern Anatolia and south of Trabzon. There are no reliable determined numbers available (Kence and Tarhan, 1997). ...
Context 7
... R. rupicapra caucasica (RRCau - figure 1) -Caucasian chamois. Distributed in the Caucasian Mountains along the river Pashada and in southeast, in around 900 km. to the mountain Babadag in Azerbaijan. ...
Context 8
... can be seen from Figure 1, the Balkan subspecies had separated from the Alpine (R. r. rupicapra) after the end of the last glacial period around 10 000 years ago. There is no certain method for distinguishing the Alpine from the Balkan subspecies using the external features. ...

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Citations

... The high genetic differentiation of the BGR population shown by both F ST and STRU CTU RE might be a result of the small effective population size in the Rhodopes at the end of the nineteenth century and the multiple genetic bottlenecks experienced by this population (Markov et al. 2016). According to the Action Plan for the Balkan chamois in Bulgaria (Valchev et al. 2006), the genetic differentiation of this population is the result of the absence of natural corridors between populations in West Rhodopes, Rila, Pirin and Tsentralen Balkan, as well as the internal fragmentation at the local population level. In addition to isolation by habitat fragmentation, another factor that could have led to such genetic differentiation could be hybridization with Alpine chamois, since individuals from this subspecies were introduced in 1977 in the Kormisosh hunting reserve (Valchev et al. 2006). ...
... According to the Action Plan for the Balkan chamois in Bulgaria (Valchev et al. 2006), the genetic differentiation of this population is the result of the absence of natural corridors between populations in West Rhodopes, Rila, Pirin and Tsentralen Balkan, as well as the internal fragmentation at the local population level. In addition to isolation by habitat fragmentation, another factor that could have led to such genetic differentiation could be hybridization with Alpine chamois, since individuals from this subspecies were introduced in 1977 in the Kormisosh hunting reserve (Valchev et al. 2006). The genetic differentiation of the SRB population from neighboring populations was not unexpected, since a similar pattern was observed in other species, including the Dinaric-Balkan wolf population (Canis lupus) where two subpopulations were recognized, the "western" subpopulation with individuals from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and the "eastern" subpopulation with individuals from Serbia and North Macedonia (Djan et al. 2014). ...
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... The high genetic differentiation of the BGR population shown by both F ST and STRU CTU RE might be a result of the small effective population size in the Rhodopes at the end of the nineteenth century and the multiple genetic bottlenecks experienced by this population (Markov et al. 2016). According to the Action Plan for the Balkan chamois in Bulgaria (Valchev et al. 2006), the genetic differentiation of this population is the result of the absence of natural corridors between populations in West Rhodopes, Rila, Pirin and Tsentralen Balkan, as well as the internal fragmentation at the local population level. In addition to isolation by habitat fragmentation, another factor that could have led to such genetic differentiation could be hybridization with Alpine chamois, since individuals from this subspecies were introduced in 1977 in the Kormisosh hunting reserve (Valchev et al. 2006). ...
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... The occurrence of hybrids between Balkan and Alpine chamois was confirmed by mtDNA analysis in the Velebit Mountains (Croatia), where both subspecies were introduced for hunting purposes (Šprem and Buzan 2016). Similar patterns may occur in the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria, although the signals of introgression (using microsatellites) for the Balkan population are equivocal (Markov et al. 2016) and further screenings are desirable (Valchev et al. 2006). Interbreeding has been suggested to occur also between Balkan and Carpathian chamois in the contact zone of the two subspecies in Djerdap National Park (Serbia) (Damm and Franco 2014). ...
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