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Phylogenetic tree derived from Bayesian analysis, based on nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 data. 1. Branches of subg. Leptonia subtree collapsed. Posterior probability (PP) values from the Bayesian analysis followed by bootstrap values from the Maximum Parsimony (BS, %) analysis are added to the left of a node (PP/BS). PP values ≥ 0.95 and BS values > 50 % are shown.

Phylogenetic tree derived from Bayesian analysis, based on nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 data. 1. Branches of subg. Leptonia subtree collapsed. Posterior probability (PP) values from the Bayesian analysis followed by bootstrap values from the Maximum Parsimony (BS, %) analysis are added to the left of a node (PP/BS). PP values ≥ 0.95 and BS values > 50 % are shown.

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This study reveals the concordance, or lack thereof, between morphological and phylogenetic species concepts within Entoloma subg. Leptonia in boreal-temperate Eurasia, combining a critical morphological examination with a multigene phylogeny based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences. A total of 16 taxa was investigated. Emended concepts of subg. L...

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... Leptonia but shown to be phylogenetically quite distant from the clamped Leptonia s. str. taxa (Morozova et al. 2014). The material in the present study comes from various sources. ...
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In anticipation of a phylogenetically revised monograph of Entoloma in Europe, six new species of subgenus Cyanula are described here. Entoloma cistocruentatum is associated with Cistus in Spain, E. dislocatum occurs in montane regions in Catalonia (Spain) and Tuscany (Italy), E. indikon is known from Denmark and three species are mainly distributed in the Nordic countries in Europe: E. calceus , E. perchalybeum and E. praecipuum . Entoloma incarnatofuscescens , from the /Rusticoides clade is neotypified. A fully amended description is given based on molecular evidence, which includes the recently described E. violaceoparkensis and E. klofacianum which became later synonyms.
... Noordeloos (1982: 452) was made in the framework of the subgenus Leptonia. The traditional morphology-based concept of Entoloma subgenus Leptonia (Noordeloos 1992(Noordeloos , 2004 appeared to be polyphyletic (Co-David et al. 2009, Morozova et al. 2014, and accordingly section Cyanula was raised to the rank of Entoloma subgenus Cyanula (Noordeloos & Gates 2012). In concordance to the other opinion, Leptonia is considered as a separate genus (e.g., Horak 1980, 2008, Largent 1977, 1994, and combinations Leptonia subgenus Cyanula (Romagn.) ...
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Three new species of Entoloma subgenus Cyanula (Entoloma argus, E. arion, and E. icarus) from Kon Chu Rang Nature Reserve and one species of subgenus Claudopus (E. daphnis) from Cat Tien National Park were discovered during an investigation of the diversity of the mycobiota of Central and South Vietnam and are described here. Illustrated descriptions of their macro- and microscopic features and discussion of similar taxa are given. Phylogenetic analysis was based on nrITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and nrLSU regions. The results confirm the polyphyletic origin of the pleurotoid basidiocarp form in the genus Entoloma.
... Co-David et al. (2009) demonstrated that a high number of subgroups in this classification were not monophyletic based on molecular phylogenetic results. With the incorporation of DNA sequence data, several subgenera have since been revised, viz., Pouzarella by He et al. (2013), Leptonia by Morozova et al. (2014a), Entoloma (as "Rhodopolia") by Kokkonen (2015), and Claudopus by He et al. (2019). The section Cyanula was elevated to the rank of subgenus by Noordeloos and Gates (2012) and two new subgenera, Cubospora and Cuboeccilia, were described by Karstedt et al. (2019). ...
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Entoloma (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is a species-rich genus with approximately 2000 species known worldwide. In Cen- tral America, however, information about the species of this genus is sparse, despite the generally high biodiversity in this region. Recently, 124 specimens of Entoloma were collected in Panama, Chiriquí Province. In the present publication, the morphology of 20 species represented by more than one specimen is described and depicted with photographs, line drawings, and scanning electron micrographs. Molecular phylograms based on ITS or concatenated ITS and partial nc LSU rDNA sequences are provided. The taxonomic status of these species is evaluated and 17 species of Entoloma are described as new to science. Only one species could be assigned to an already known species, viz. Entoloma belouvense. Nolanea albertinae, described from Brazil, appeared similar and is combined in E. belouvense on varietal level. The identifications of two fur- ther species are uncertain. At least 30 other species, including potentially new species, cannot formally be described due to insufficient material. A preliminary key to the species of the genus Entoloma in Panama is provided. The spatial shape of the polyhedroid basidiospores of Entoloma spp. is discussed based on literature and the micrographs generated for the present study. Our re-evaluations indicate that the type of polyhedroid basidiospore and the structure of its base are not reliable as diagnostic characters for the delimitation of subgenera in Entoloma.
... No tenim més dades sobre la relació entre l'Institut Komarov i Catalunya, fins que el coneixement dels treballs catalans per part d'una de nosaltres (O.M.), que ja havia coŀlaborat amb el primer autor (J.V.) (Morozova et al., 2014), la decidí a proposar una exploració micològica d'estiu als Pirineus catalans, visitant algunes de les localitats on havia estat Singer, entre altres. Vam acceptar amb interès, i planificàrem una exploració de baix cost, assumible reunint els recursos que s'esmenten als Agraïments. ...
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A visit of two mycologists from the Komarov Institute (St. Petersburg) was organized, which coincided with particularly favorable conditions for the study of fungi from alpine and subalpine communities, especially meadows. Between the valley of Ribes (Pardines and Núria, Girona) and the high valley of the Noguera Pallaresa (Lleida), numerous localities were prospected, between 1300 and 2200 m a.s.l. A selection of the most interesting species is as follows: Bryoglossum gracile, Hodophilus foetens, Entoloma azureopallidum, E. aranense, E. catalaunicum, E. glaucobasis, E. glaucodubium, E. linkii, E. minutigranulosum, E. montanum, E. muscoalpinum, E. porphyrogriseum, Hygrocybe turunda, Rhizomarasmius epidryas, Rhodophana nitellina.
... Occurrence of CHEGD MOTUs was transferred into a binary matrix based on a minimum threshold 0.01% of all amplicons per sample (two to four sequences per sample). Representative sequences of each CHEGD MOTU from both analyses were aligned within our CHEGD reference datasets built on relevant phylogenetic studies for Clavariaceae (Birkebak, Adamčík, Looney & Matheny, 2016), Hygrophoraceae (Ainsworth, Cannon & Dentinger, 2013;Lodge et al., 2013;Wang, Zhang, Li, Liang & Shen, 2018), Entolomataceae (Morgado, Noordeloos, Lamoureux & Geml, 2013;Morozova, Noordeloos & Vila, 2014), Geoglossaceae (Fedosova & Kovalenko, 2015;Fedosova, Popov, Lizoň & Kučera, 2017;Schoch, Wang, Townsend & Spatafora, 2010) and Tricholomataceae (Sánchez-García et al., 2021). For individual genera, the alignments were trimmed to ITS2 amplicon size and analysed by ML as fasta files using RAxML-HPC2 on XSEDE (8.2.12) (Stamatakis, 2014) under the GTR + GAMMA model with 1000 bootstrap iterations. ...
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Mulching (cutting of vegetation without removal of clippings) is used as a low-cost method for maintaining remote or abandoned grasslands in Slovakia. The likely consequence of mulching is seasonal nutrient enrichment resulting from decomposition of plant litter by saprotrophic organisms. The potential changes in biodiversity of the ecosystem caused by long-term application of mulching are to date only very poorly understood. In order to examine the impact of mulching on soil mycobiota, we compared six different grassland management regimes applied over nine years on a sub-montane oligotrophic Nardus pasture in the Central Slovakia. The diversity of soil fungi was assessed using DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 regions of the nrRNA locus performed by Illumina MiSeq. We focused on a particular group of macrofungi which is characteristic of traditionally managed and undisturbed European grasslands, and which are often the dominant soil fungi in these habitats. These are collectively known as CHEGD fungi (the acronym of the constituent taxa: Clavariaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Entolomataceae, Geoglossaceae and Dermoloma). We compared the relative abundance and diversity of CHEGD fungi with the total fungal and plant diversity. CHEGD fungi were dominant across all management treatments. Although there were no statistical effects of treatments on total fungal richness and diversity, CHEGD fungi and vascular plants diversity and richness were lower on plots where mulching or no management were imposed, suggesting that such management regimes would have a negative impact on grassland fungi. However, no single treatment covered the total CHEGD diversity of the study, indicating that the localized use of mulching in addition to traditional managements can enhance overall diversity of grasslands in the area. Our results also suggest that the impact of mulching depends on the season when the grassland is mulched and it might be reduced by combination with other management treatments. The high relative abundance and sensitivity of CHEDG fungi in oligotrophic grasslands to management treatments makes them excellent indicators of grassland natural quality and is consistent with the ecological importance of this fungal group.
... Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Conocybe dentatomarginata sequence (720 bp) obtained from this study (by taking maximum bootstrap value as 100% ) was 99.85% similar to the sequence JX968257 (668 bp) and 96.14% similar with the sequence JF908599 (619 bp) in GenBank database (Toth et al., 2013;Osmundson et al., 2013), and it seems sister of the clade C. aporos in the phylogenetic tree drawn by using Bolbitius titubans as an outgroup taxon (Figure 8). In the ITS phylogenetic tree created by using Lyophyllum decastes as an outgroup taxon (Figure 9), our sequence (673 bp) of the Entoloma lampropus clustered together with one sequence (KC898379) from Austria (Morozova et al., 2014) and showed similarity 99.83% with this sequence having the maximum support value (100%). Lactarius lilacinus sequence in this study showed similarity 100% with one sequence (KF133275) belong to L. lilacinus in GenBank database with high support value (97%) and clustered together with this sequence sampled from Belgium. ...
... Ninety-eight new specimens were evaluated to figure out the taxonomic and phylogenetic positions of the 16 taxa of Entoloma subg. Leptonia together with the previous related collections analysed using ITS rDNA and LSU rDNA gene regions by Morozova et al. (2014). Neotypes were published for E. dichroum, E. euchroum, and E. lampropus. ...
... Those two species, however, prefer different habitats. While the former grows both as terrestrial and on the deadwood of conifers, the latter only occurs on deadwood of deciduous trees such as beech, common hazel, and white birch (Morozova et al., 2014). Rochet et al. (2011) phylogenetically evaluated 61 specimens of Lactarius collected under four European alder species in different locations of France and other European countries using ITS rDNA, RPB2, GPD, and SSU rDNA sequences. ...
... bodies were morphologically identical to E. clypeatum (Noordeloos 1981), the rDNA ITS region sequences (LC533313-LC533316) showed 97-98% homology with the European E. clypeatum specimens analyzed by Morgado et al. (2013) and Morozova et al. (2014). The ITS sequences of each of the four strains showed 99-100% homology with each other. ...
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Entoloma clypeatum species complex (ECSC) forms ectomycorrhiza-like roots (EMLR) with host plant species of Rosaceae or Ulmaceae. The EMLR colonized with ECSC are characterized by a thick fungal mantle, absence of a Hartig net structure, and collapse of the apical meristem caused by hyphal invasion. Some researchers have suggested parasitism of ECSC because of this unique mode of colonization; however, the nature of the interaction between ECSC and host plants has not been investigated in co-culture because of the difficulty of culturing this group of fungi. We established a procedure to synthesize EMLR of ECSC on pear seedlings using fungal cultures. Three conspecific strains of ECSC isolated from basidiospores and one strain isolated from EMLR were tested. Cultured mycelia were inoculated onto a modified Norkrans’ C (MNC) or Hyponex-yeast-glucose (HYG) medium slant on the bottom of a polycarbonate jar and covered with autoclaved andosol or a vermiculite/sphagnum moss mixture (VSM); an axenically cultivated Pyrus betulifolia seedling was then planted in the jar. Five months after inoculation, the formation of EMLR with Hartig net-like hyphae was confirmed in all of the experimental plots. However, the rate of root colonization was significantly higher in experimental plots using andosol than in those using VSM. The growth of pear seedlings was similar irrespective of the level of root colonization, suggesting commensalism rather than parasitism of ECSC. One experimental plot using strain A3, an MNC slant, and andosol as a substrate produced ECSC fruiting bodies with mature basidia and basidiospores. The results suggested that our procedure enables the synthesis of EMLR of ECSC and cultivation of their fruiting bodies.
... Leptonia, but shown to be phylogenetically quite distant from the clamped Leptonia s. str. taxa (Morozova et al. 2014). ...
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2020) Three new Entoloma species of the Cyanula clade (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from (sub)alpine habitats in Northern Norway and Sweden.-Sydowia 73: 185-196. Three Entoloma species belonging to the Cyanula clade from (middle-) northern boreal and alpine areas are described as new to science. Entoloma montanum, E. nordlandicum, and E. septentrionale, recorded from the Holmvassdalen area at Grane, Northern Norway while E. montanum shows a wide distribution in Northern Scandinavia and the Caucasus. Entoloma nordlandicum, however, has recently been recorded also from the Netherlands. The three species are phylogenetically well defined based on analysis of the nrDNA ITS region and they are distant from their closest relatives. Morphological descriptions of each species are given, as well as their ecology, distribution and relationships towards similar species are discussed.
... Entoloma P. Kumm. is a very species-rich genus encompassing about 1500-2000 species Gates 2012, Morozova et al. 2014) distributed worldwide from equator to polar regions (Romagnesi 1941, 1956, Horak 1980, 1982, Baroni 1990, Noordeloos 1992, 2004, Largent 1994, Baroni and Halling 2000, Baroni and Ortiz 2002, Henkel et al. 2010, Karstedt and Capellari 2010, He et al. 2012, Noordeloos and Gates 2012, Morozova et al. 2014, Montañez et al. 2016, Kondo et al. 2017. Recent multigene phylogenetic studies have indicated that the genus is monophyletic and sister to the genera Clitopilus and Rhodocybe (Moncalvo et al. 2002, Matheny et al. 2006, Co-David et al. 2009, Baroni and Matheny 2011. ...
... undatum. Recent phylogenetic studies have been confirmed that E. undatum formed a separate branch within the Claudopus clade (Morozova and Noordeloos 2014, He et al. 2015, Morozova et al. 2018. E. undatum is common and wide-spread all over Europe (Noordeloos 1988, 1992, Breitenbach and Kränzlin 1995, Boccardo et al. 2008, Sesli and Denchev 2008, Morozova and Noordeloos 2014, Solak et al. 2015, He et al. 2015, Morozova et al. 2018, He et al. 2019. ...
... Recent phylogenetic studies have been confirmed that E. undatum formed a separate branch within the Claudopus clade (Morozova and Noordeloos 2014, He et al. 2015, Morozova et al. 2018. E. undatum is common and wide-spread all over Europe (Noordeloos 1988, 1992, Breitenbach and Kränzlin 1995, Boccardo et al. 2008, Sesli and Denchev 2008, Morozova and Noordeloos 2014, Solak et al. 2015, He et al. 2015, Morozova et al. 2018, He et al. 2019. Ecologically, E. undatum grows in open spots, grassy or mossy places, on poor, sandy soil, in deciduous forests, but also under Juniperus and in Pinus (Pinus brutia and P. pinea) plantations (Noordeloos 1992, Kaya and Öztürk 1999, Boccardo et al. 2008, Noordeloos 2008, Solak et al. 2015. ...
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In the present study, four interesting Entoloma species collected from Aegean and Black Sea Regions of Turkey have been analysed morphologically and molecularly (nrITS). Entoloma mougeotii var. mougeotii and E. queletii are reported for the first time from Turkey. In addition, the nrITS sequences of Entoloma conferendum var. conferendum and E. undatum are obtained for the first time as far as this country is concerned.
... Noordeloos 1992) and Leptonia s. str. (in the sense of Morozova et al. 2014), as well as some taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinity, which are new to Norway or at least little known. A third paper, on the large clade Cyanula (= Leptonia s. lat.) is in preparation for a later issue of Agarica. ...
... Microscopical observations were made using standard methods (see e.g. Morozova et al. 2014), and the molecular study was likewise performed according to standard methods, described in detail in the first paper in this series (Brandrud et al. 2018). ...
... Leptonia s. str. comprises species with often vivid lilac-violaceous colours, a strongly fibrillose pileus and fibrillose to squamulose stipe, hyphae with clamp connections and habitat on organic debris, litter-layer or on rotten wood (Morozova et al. 2014). The group forms a very distinct, well-supported clade, and was by Morozova et al. (2014) treated as an own subgenus. ...
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This is the second paper reporting major results from the Norwegian Entoloma project 20152017. Here we present species that are new to Norway or little known, from the following smaller clades: Caeruleopolitum, Claudopus, Entocybe, Leptonia, Prunuloides and Sphagneti. In addition, a few species taking a somewhat isolated position in our unpublished preliminary ITS tree are presented. The following species are here reported new to Norway: E. cuboidoalbum, E. jahnii, E. percoelestinum, E. pseudoconferendum, E. ritae, and E. venustum. The synonymy of E. mirum with the older E. juniperinum, is also discussed. Entoloma porphyrocephalum, formerly described as a variety, is now raised to species level based on its phylogenetic position.