Photomicrograph of typical microinjection sites. A Dye-spread patches in an otherwise non-stained 50 µm thick brainstem section resulting from two separate microinjection trials, each of 50 nL muscimol mixed with 1% pontamine sky blue dye (mouse # MISO51). The section is overlaid with structural boundaries
taken from the mouse brain atlas of (Franklin and Paxinos 2019). The section contains the center of the microinjection on the left; note the tear-shape tracking upward and the relatively dense dye in the center. The microinjection on the right is somewhat more tangential. B, C Images taken at a higher magnification show that the dye is taken up by a fraction of the neurons within the dye-spread patch

Photomicrograph of typical microinjection sites. A Dye-spread patches in an otherwise non-stained 50 µm thick brainstem section resulting from two separate microinjection trials, each of 50 nL muscimol mixed with 1% pontamine sky blue dye (mouse # MISO51). The section is overlaid with structural boundaries taken from the mouse brain atlas of (Franklin and Paxinos 2019). The section contains the center of the microinjection on the left; note the tear-shape tracking upward and the relatively dense dye in the center. The microinjection on the right is somewhat more tangential. B, C Images taken at a higher magnification show that the dye is taken up by a fraction of the neurons within the dye-spread patch

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The mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA) was identified in rats as a singular brainstem locus at which microinjection of minute quantities of GABAergic agents rapidly and reversibly induces loss-of-consciousness and a state of general anesthesia, while lesioning renders animals insensitive to anesthetics at normal systemic doses. Obtaining...