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Photograph of dorsal surface of tongue of camel showing circumvallate papilla. Cv -Circumvallate papilla, LCpLarge conical papilla, SCp -Small conical, LLp -Large lenticular papilla, SLp -Small lenticular papilla.

Photograph of dorsal surface of tongue of camel showing circumvallate papilla. Cv -Circumvallate papilla, LCpLarge conical papilla, SCp -Small conical, LLp -Large lenticular papilla, SLp -Small lenticular papilla.

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Article
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The present study was conducted on tongues obtained from 10 cadavers of adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). Gross anatomical features were studied. The tongue of camel was muscular and spatula shaped, comprised of 3 parts - the apex, body and the root. The mean length of tongue was 41.21 ± 0.527 cm. A median groove was present on the dorsal surface...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... were thickly populated on the dorsal surface, in front of the fossa linguae up to the tip and moderately populated on the ventral surface of the tip (Figs 2 and 5), Similar finding were reported ( Parvez and Rahaman, 2005) in cow. No filiform papillae were found on torus linguae and root (Fig 4). It was also reported by Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian camel however, contradicted with the findings of Mahabady et al (2010), according to which filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, with the filiform papillae on torus linguae shaped as caudally directed pointed spines or conical shape in Iranian buffaloes. ...
Context 2
... small conical papillae were located on lateral margins of torus rostrally to the circumvallate papillae and directed cranially. The free ends of conical papillae were pointed (Fig 4). Few horny conical papillae were also found on the ventral surface of the tip (Fig 2). ...
Context 3
... papillae were largest among the mechanical papillae, limited on the torus linguae (Fig 4) as described by Smuts andBezuidenhout (1987) in camel andMahabady et al (2010) in Iranian buffaloes. These were of two types, i.e. larger and smaller. ...
Context 4
... larger papillae were arranged in two parallel rows and located in the middle of the anterior two-third of the torus while the smaller papillae were distributed laterally in the posterior third of the torus. Their free surfaces were round or flattened (Fig 4). ...
Context 5
... papillae were maximally distributed on the dorsal and lateral aspects of the tip of the tongue, with few on the ventral surface of the tip (Figs 2 and 5) which were in agreement with Raghavan (1964) in ox andEl- Bakary andAbumandour (2017) in Egyptian water buffalo. No fungiform papillae were found on torus linguae and root (Fig 4) whereas, it was contrary to the findings of Mahmoud et al (2002) in donkeys. These were slightly elevated from the lingual surface as described by Mahabady et al (2010) in Iranian buffaloes. ...
Context 6
... shape and size of these papillae varied greatly and these were not identical or symmetrical in the lines of either side even in the same specimen (Fig 1 and 4) also reported in camels previously (El Sharaby et al 2012). In some specimens, two papillae were found surrounded by a common annular pad and primary grooves (Fig 4). ...

Citations

... One of these adaptations is that the dromedary camel has very sturdy mouth to maintain the efficient feeding of thorny and rough-stem plants which naturally grow in the arid regions (El Sharaby et al., 2012). In addition, several studies on the mouth of camel have described the anatomical features of camel tongue (Qayyum et al., 1988;Takehana et al., 2001;Peng et al., 2008;Salehi et al., 2010;El Sharaby et al., 2012;Thanvi et al., 2020). With regards to its dorsal surface, similar to ruminants, the tongue of camel is characterized by the presence of fungiform and vallate papillae, and the lack of foliate papillae as well (Thanvi et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, several studies on the mouth of camel have described the anatomical features of camel tongue (Qayyum et al., 1988;Takehana et al., 2001;Peng et al., 2008;Salehi et al., 2010;El Sharaby et al., 2012;Thanvi et al., 2020). With regards to its dorsal surface, similar to ruminants, the tongue of camel is characterized by the presence of fungiform and vallate papillae, and the lack of foliate papillae as well (Thanvi et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed at investigating the histological structures of the vallate papillae of the tongue of the dromedary camel. Samples were taken from the tongues of 5 healthy adult dromedary camels, then processed by standard routine histological technique. The vallate papillae were broad, encircled by a distinctive sulcus, and exhibited concave dorsal surfaces. The papillae were covered with stratified squamous epithelium which was made up of several layers of cells arranged from the basement membrane to the outer surface as follows: basal layer; spinosum layer; squamous layer; corneum layer. The lamina propria sub mucosa showed two well-defined layers. The first one was located beneath the epithelium and characterized by loose connective tissue. The second layer was much thicker and composed mainly of dense irregular collagenous fibres. Deep to the circumvallate papilla was a group of prominent tubulo-acinar glands (von Ebner’s glands). The main ducts of the glands opened directly into the surrounding sulcus at different levels. In general, the histological structures of the vallate papillae of the dromedary camel were similar to those of other domestic mammals. The well-developed von Ebner’s glands suggested their abundant serous secretion that reflected on the high capability of gustation.