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Photograph of Patom Crater (made by M.V. Antipin, view from Dzhebaldo Mount). The diameter of the basement is 125 × 155 m, and the diameter of the annular swell is 80 m. The inset shows the geographical position of Patom Crater (asterisk).  

Photograph of Patom Crater (made by M.V. Antipin, view from Dzhebaldo Mount). The diameter of the basement is 125 × 155 m, and the diameter of the annular swell is 80 m. The inset shows the geographical position of Patom Crater (asterisk).  

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It has been found that the origin of the Patom Crater is related to endogenous processes with the main role played by deep flow of fluid components, which determine formation of the ejecta cone at about 500 years ago or more. This is evidenced by the zonal structure of the crater and geochemical peculiarities of rocks, caused by the long formation...

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... 2), проведено геохимическое и минералогическое опробование, предварительное электроразведочное профилирование, выполнена магнитометрическая, металлометрическая и гравиметрическая съемки, отобраны спилы деревьев на дендрохронологический анализ, получены качественные фотоснимки с вертолетов и самолетов и пр. [Antipin et al., 2006[Antipin et al., , 2011a[Antipin et al., , 2011bAntipin, Voronin, 2010;Voronin, 2006;Golubov et al., 2011;Dmitriev A.A., Dmitriev A.G., 2011;Bemezhko Рис. 1, а. Патомский конус. Фото с вертолета С.М. ...
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In the Earth’s regions with cold climate, cryovolcanism is widespread. This phenomena is manifested as eruptions of material due to freezing of closed-type or open-type water-bearing systems which is accompanied by generation of effusive topographic forms, such as «pingo». The Patom cone is a typical structure created by cryovolcanism in fractured bedrocksof the Proterozoic age. The cone was shaped a result of the long-term, possibly multistage freezing of the hydrogeological structure during continuous and complicated phase of cryo- and speleo-genesis. The ice-saturated breccia containing limestone, sandstone and shale, which composed the cone, was subject to slow spreading due to its plastic properties; the top of the mound developed into a subsidence cone bordered by ring-shaped ramparts and a knoll in the middle, while thelongitudinal profile took on an asymmetric form. The absence of soil and vegetation cover on the surface of the cone, and a relatively weak degree of weathering of the rudaceous deposits bear no evidence that the geological object is young. The question as to the age of the cone is still open.
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The Patom Crater was formed around 500 years ago. According to geological survey data, it represents a concentrically zoned debris cone with a diameter of 130–160 m at the base and up to 80 m in the upper ring swell from 10–12 to 35–38 m high. The crater is made up mainly of limestones of the Mariinsk Formation (Pt3) and much rarer blocks of sandstones and schists. The debris cone was formed by one or several explosions. The value of δ18O in the limestones, which composes the debris cone (from 12.7 to 13.8‰), on average, is 6.5‰ lower than that of the unexploded Mariinsk limestone. The strontium and carbon isotope compositions vary in narrow ranges typical of the Upper Riphean carbonate of the Baikal mountain system: δ13C (from 8.4 to 8.8‰) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.707864–0.708777). Shift of the oxygen isotope composition indicates that the limestones interacted with hot waters at temperatures above 100°C and, correspondingly, the Patom Crater was formed as a result of phreatic (steam) explosion either during magma emplacement in the hydrous rocks or in response to faulting and decompression of heated hydrous rocks.