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Periodicity of different phenophases of Barringtonia acutangula throughout the two years (A) Leaf initiation (B) Leaf-fall (C) Flowering (D) Fruiting. Error bar represents standard error 

Periodicity of different phenophases of Barringtonia acutangula throughout the two years (A) Leaf initiation (B) Leaf-fall (C) Flowering (D) Fruiting. Error bar represents standard error 

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Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation)...

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Context 1
... of Barringtonia is seasonal and it blooms once in a year. The species flowered profusely during the monsoon period (May-June) (Fig. 2C) soon after completion of peak leaf flushing. Peak flowering in monsoon season reflects importance of high water availability for reproductive success. The result of the present study resembles with the flowering phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India ( Das and Das, 2013). Synchronization of flowering during particular season of annual cycle appears to be under the control of prevailing climatic condition of that season ( Kushwaha and Singh, 2005). Potential adaptive significance of peak flowering following peak leaf flushing, under stressful submergence period, might be due to invest accumulated photosynthate for reproductive phase acquired (Vatica lanceaefolia, Psidium guajava) during peak flushing phase. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature and rainfall while in one month lag period only rainfall was significantly correlated with flowering in 2012-13 (Table 1) and aridity index was also significantly, with flowering (Table 2). It seems rainfall of current and proceeding month is crucial determinant of flowering in floodplain trees. An analysis of the proximate control of flowering in tropical deciduous trees indicated that the timing of vegetative phenology strongly determines the flowering periods, and thus flowering at least depends indirectly on environmental periodicity ( Rivera et al., 2002). Fruiting phase extended over monsoon period (June- September) with peak during July-August (Fig. 2 D). Fruiting presented the correlation distinctively with temperature and rainfall while in one month lag only rainfall was significantly related with fruiting (Table 1) and aridity index also showed positive correlation with fruiting (Table 2). A strong relationship between fruiting and one month lag rainfall suggests that seasonal availability of water and flood pulse have strong impact on fruiting ( Schongart et al., 2002). Fruiting in high-water season is the only homogenous trait among floodplain forest trees (Parolin et al., 2002). Indeed, it was observed that B. acutangula fruited during the rainy season with a peak in inundation period (July-August) and prolonged until high-water level receded. seasonality of fruiting is important to optimize the chances of seed dispersal which is particularly crucial in flooded trees, where trees need to cope with the annual inundation pulse (Haugaasen and Peres, 2005). Fruiting during the rainy season in tropical forests may have evolved to ensure dispersal of seeds when soil moisture conditions are favorable for seed germination, seedling growth and survival (Singh and Kushwaha, 2006). Identical phenomenon was also reported in Central Amazonian and adjacent Amazonian floodplain forest (Ferrira et al., 2007). This is an adaptive strategy of floodplain trees for having adequate development time from flowering to fruit dispersal so that seeds are released during rainy periods (Stevenson et al., 2008) when germination is most likely to be induced and seedlings start growing with low probability of ...
Context 2
... of Barringtonia is seasonal and it blooms once in a year. The species flowered profusely during the monsoon period (May-June) (Fig. 2C) soon after completion of peak leaf flushing. Peak flowering in monsoon season reflects importance of high water availability for reproductive success. The result of the present study resembles with the flowering phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India ( Das and Das, 2013). Synchronization of flowering during particular season of annual cycle appears to be under the control of prevailing climatic condition of that season ( Kushwaha and Singh, 2005). Potential adaptive significance of peak flowering following peak leaf flushing, under stressful submergence period, might be due to invest accumulated photosynthate for reproductive phase acquired (Vatica lanceaefolia, Psidium guajava) during peak flushing phase. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature and rainfall while in one month lag period only rainfall was significantly correlated with flowering in 2012-13 (Table 1) and aridity index was also significantly, with flowering (Table 2). It seems rainfall of current and proceeding month is crucial determinant of flowering in floodplain trees. An analysis of the proximate control of flowering in tropical deciduous trees indicated that the timing of vegetative phenology strongly determines the flowering periods, and thus flowering at least depends indirectly on environmental periodicity ( Rivera et al., 2002). Fruiting phase extended over monsoon period (June- September) with peak during July-August (Fig. 2 D). Fruiting presented the correlation distinctively with temperature and rainfall while in one month lag only rainfall was significantly related with fruiting (Table 1) and aridity index also showed positive correlation with fruiting (Table 2). A strong relationship between fruiting and one month lag rainfall suggests that seasonal availability of water and flood pulse have strong impact on fruiting ( Schongart et al., 2002). Fruiting in high-water season is the only homogenous trait among floodplain forest trees (Parolin et al., 2002). Indeed, it was observed that B. acutangula fruited during the rainy season with a peak in inundation period (July-August) and prolonged until high-water level receded. seasonality of fruiting is important to optimize the chances of seed dispersal which is particularly crucial in flooded trees, where trees need to cope with the annual inundation pulse (Haugaasen and Peres, 2005). Fruiting during the rainy season in tropical forests may have evolved to ensure dispersal of seeds when soil moisture conditions are favorable for seed germination, seedling growth and survival (Singh and Kushwaha, 2006). Identical phenomenon was also reported in Central Amazonian and adjacent Amazonian floodplain forest (Ferrira et al., 2007). This is an adaptive strategy of floodplain trees for having adequate development time from flowering to fruit dispersal so that seeds are released during rainy periods (Stevenson et al., 2008) when germination is most likely to be induced and seedlings start growing with low probability of ...
Context 3
... practice in B. acutangula initiated during pre monsoon period (March-April) and continued throughout the favorable season extending up to post monsoon period (October-November) (Fig. 2 A). Peak leaf initiation was observed during the period of March-April (Fig. 3). The findings of the present study resembles with the vegetative leaf phenology of different tree species (Devi and Garkoti, 2013;Das and Das, 2013) of identical geographical location. Peak leaf initiation during pre-monsoon period could possibly be explained by the fact to take the advantages of monsoon period by the fully developed foliages on trees. Temperature registered its influence on leaf initiation significantly during the year 2012-2013 whereas rainfall displayed its impact in 2013-2014 (Table 1). Combined effect of temperature and rainfall was analyzed using aridity index which indicated strong correlation with leaf initiation (Table 2). It seemed leaf initiation was strongly influenced by the combined effect of temperature and precipitation rather than their individual effect. Role of temperature and precipitation as a driving factor for leaf initiation has also been reported for tropical trees ( Rivera et al., 2002, Singh andKushwaha, 2005). Leaf initiation in early rainy season is attributed end of the long dry season (Tesfaye, 2011) and also due to joint action of increasing day length and temperature (Kushwaha, ...
Context 4
... leaf-fall was observed from mid monsoon period (June) to winter (January) with highest tendency in the month of December-January (Fig. 2 B). During the monsoon period, Barringtonia trees remain partially submerged under water. Flooding creates water deficit in crown as anaerobic root conditions lead to greatly reduced root activity (Worbes, 1985). This could have triggered leaf shedding of Barringtonia during the flooding period. This stands in contrast to studies, which found that leaf shedding is strongly correlated with seasonal changes in tree water status (Eamus and Prior, 2001). Leaf-fall presented negative slope in correlation with significance with temperature, rainfall (Table 1) and aridity index (Table 2). In the present study peak leaf-fall occurred when the temperature decrease and day length is short and trees remain leaf-less in February. Periodicity of deciduousness varied from 7-21 days. In 2012-13, half of the observed trees remained leaf-less for 7-14 days while rest half for 14-21 days. While in 2013-14, 60% of the observed trees were leaf- less for 14-21 days (Fig. 4). It was also observed comparatively trees growing on slightly sloped area exhibited longer deciduous period. Variation in periodicity of deciduousness within the same species and within the same locality reflects its different level of tolerance to stress under different soil moisture regimes. Temporal variation in leaflessness in floodplain trees may be important adaptation to dry conditions to optimize vegetative growth in next season, crucial for tree survival. Moreover, leaf-less Values in parenthesis refer to one month lag period, **<.01,*<.05, NS: not significant condition in trees helps in the rehydration of the stem, a prerequisite for leaf flushing and subsequent flowering (Borchert et al. ...

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... Majority of Barringtonia species are native in the tropical and subtropical regions growing in Africa, southern Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines), Australia, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. More than 60 species have been identified under this genus with nutritional and medicinal values [20]; however, B. racemose [21][22][23][24], B. asiatica [24][25][26], and B. acutangular [27][28][29][30][31] are the most well-studied species. In the Philippines, B. asiatica is known as a folkloric medicine [24][25][26] that can cure several ailments. ...
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