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Percentages of students who preferred visual (V; 5.4%), auditory (A; 4.8%), reading/writing (R; 7.8%), kinesthetic (K; 18.1%), and multiple modes (63.8 %) of information presentation. Only 36.1 % of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation (either V, A, R, or K). 

Percentages of students who preferred visual (V; 5.4%), auditory (A; 4.8%), reading/writing (R; 7.8%), kinesthetic (K; 18.1%), and multiple modes (63.8 %) of information presentation. Only 36.1 % of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation (either V, A, R, or K). 

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Students have preferences for the ways in which they receive information. The visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire identifies student's preferences for particular modes of information presentation. We administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students, and 166 of 250 students (66%) returned the com...

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... TRANSITION FROM UNDERGRADUATE to first-year medical education can be difficult for students because of the dramatic increase in the volume of content. Furthermore, today’s medical students represent a broad spectrum in terms of age, experience, culture, ethnicity, and level of preparedness as well as learning preferences and styles. This diversity is welcomed; however, it also presents a challenge for instructors to meet the educational needs of all students. Specifically, student motivation and performance improves when instruction is adapted to student learning preferences and styles (22). Thus, because students have significantly different learning styles, it is the responsibility of the instructor to address this diversity of learning styles among students and develop appropriate learning approaches (33). A learning style or preference is the complex manner in which, and conditions under which, learners most efficiently and most effectively perceive, process, store, and recall what they are attempting to learn (16). One characterization of learning styles is to define the learners’ preferred mode of learning in terms of the sensory modality by which they prefer to take in new information. VAK is an acronym that stands for three major sensory modes of learning: visual, aural, and kinesthetic, depending on the neural system with which a learner prefers to receive information. Thus VAK is a percep- tual, instructional preference model that categorizes learning by sensory preferences. Recently, Fleming (11) expanded VAK to VARK to include reading/writing as an additional type of mixed sensory learning modality. Although learners can use all of these sensory modes of learning, one mode is often dominant and preferred. For example, visual learners learn through seeing drawings, pictures, and other image-rich teaching tools. Auditory learners learn by listening to lectures, exploring material through discussions, and talking through ideas. Reading/writing learners learn through interaction with textual materials, whereas kinesthetic learners learn through touching and experiences that emphasize doing, physical in- volvement, and manipulation of objects. We were interested in learning the preferred learning styles of our first-year medical students so that we could develop appropriate learning approaches. To achieve this goal, we designed a descriptive study, a study that attempted to reveal patterns associated with a specific group without an emphasis on prespecified hypotheses. Sometimes these types of studies are called hypothesis-generating studies (to contrast them with hypothesis-testing studies). The rational for this descriptive study was to help us design a lesson plan that addressed all students and to identify areas for further research. We used the VARK Inventory Tool for assessing individual preferences for learning with sensory domains. The VARK questionnaire, developed by Fleming (12), was administered to our first-year medical students. Design. The VARK questionnaire developed by Fleming identifies the preferences of students for particular modes of information presentation. The following are internet links to the VARK homepage ( asp) and questionnaire ( page.asp?p ϭ questionnaire). We administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students to determine their preferred modes of information presentation. The VARK questionnaire (12) was included with the class packet for the physiology course; 166 of the 250 students (66%) returned the completed questionnaire. We administered the questionnaire as a hard copy; however, the VARK questionnaire is freeware that can be completed online. If you are using a virtual learning environment, e.g., the Blackboard Learning System, eCollege, Creation of Study Environment, or WebCT, the administration and analysis of the questionnaire can be completely managed on the virtual learning environment. Procedures. The VARK questionnaire was administered during the respiratory component of our medical physiology class at Wayne State University School of Medicine. The class consisted of 250 first-year medical students. The VARK questionnaire with instructions can be obtained free of charge (12). Analysis. The number of students who preferred each mode of learning was divided by the total number of responses to determine the percentage of students in each category. Figure 1 presents the percentages of students who preferred visual (5.4%), auditory (4.8%), reading/writing (7.8%), kinesthetic (18.1%), and multiple modes (63.8%) of information presentation. Only 36.1 % of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation (either visual, auditory, reading/writing, or kinesthetic). Of the 106 students (63.8% of all students) who preferred multiple modes of information presentation, some students preferred two modes (bimodal, 24.5%), some students preferred three modes (trimodal, 32.1%), and some students preferred four modes (quadmodal, 43.4%). Figure 2 presents the percentages of students who preferred two, three, or four modes of information presentation. Most students preferred three or four modes (76%) of information presentation. Of the students who preferred three modes of information presentation, some students preferred visual, reading/writing, and kinesthetic (11.3%), some students preferred visual, auditory, and kinesthetic (8.4%), and some students preferred auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic (12.3 %) (Fig. 3). Of the students who preferred two modes of information presentation, some students preferred visual and reading/writing (4.7%), some students preferred visual and kinesthetic (5.6%), some students preferred visual and auditory (0.9 %), some students preferred auditory and reading/writing (6.6%), and some students preferred reading/writing and kinesthetic (6.6%) (Fig. 3). Obviously, of the students who preferred four modes of information presentation, all students preferred visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic (43.4%). In this study, we administered the VARK questionnaire to our first-year medical students to determine their preferred modes of information presentation. One hundred sixty-six of the 250 students (66%) returned the completed questionnaire. Only 36.1% of the students preferred a single mode of information presentation (either visual, auditory, reading/writing, or kinesthetic). Of the students who preferred a single mode of information presentation, only 5% of the students preferred receiving information by speech, which arrives to the learner’s ear and is therefore coded as auditory by the questionnaire. Similarly, only 8% revealed a preference for accessing information from printed words; these students were coded as reading/writing learners because they use reading and writing as their preference for taking in information. Only 5% of the students preferred the visual. These students prefer information to arrive in the form of graphs, charts, and flow diagrams. They are sensitive to different or changing spatial arrangements and can work easily with symbols. Eighteen percent of the students preferred their learning by using all their senses, including touch, hearing, smell, taste, and sight. This group was de- scribed as kinesthetic. These students prefer concrete, multisensory experiences in their learning. Although learning by doing matches their needs, they can easily learn conceptual and abstract material provided it arrives with suitable analogies, real-life examples, or metaphors (11). Most students (64%), however, preferred multiple modes of information presentation. These students had a balanced set of preferences, which means that they prefer information to arrive in a variety of modes. These students may adjust to the different teaching styles faced in a day or they may opt in and out of alternative strategies, such as being visual in cardiovascular physiology and reading/writing in respiratory physiology, for example. Knowing the students preferred modes can provide a focus for developing strategies that are tailored for individuals (11). In so doing, this helps to overcome the predisposition of many educators to treat all students in a similar way (11). The questionnaire can motivate teachers to move from their preferred mode(s) to using others. In so doing, they can reach more students because of the better match between teacher and learner styles (1, 3, 6, 13, 14, 18 –20, 22, 25, 30, 34). Most students (64%) preferred multiple modes of information presentation. These students had a balanced set of preferences, which means they prefer information to arrive in a variety of modes. Thus most students may benefit from active learning strategies over the traditional lecture format. Active learning strategies reach all types of learners in the visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic schemes. In contrast, the traditional lecture format assumes that all students are auditory learners. In addition, the traditional lecture format assumes that all students acquire the same information pre- sented orally at the same pace without dialogue with the presenter. Most students are able to learn effectively as long as the teacher provides a blend of visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic activities. However, some students prefer one of the modalities over the other three so strongly ...

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... Despite these advantages, students complain that assessing the resources from virtual technology is expensive and time consuming [17]. In addition, their perception is that the voluminous course content in the respective areas of Gross Anatomy, Histology, Embryology and Neuro anatomy is less interactive when learning virtually [18]. Therefore, in order to confirm the perception and impact of VLE in a Nigerian student population, this study has identified Edo State University, Uzairue as presently the only Nigerian educational institution using both the CANVASS Learning Management System and Anatomage virtual dissection table as virtual learning resources in teaching anatomy [19]. ...
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Advancement in technology has created virtual resources such as; anatomy applications and virtual dissection tables, which has positively transformed Anatomy education. The objective of this research is to ascertain the students’ perception of learning anatomy via virtual learning environment (VLE), determine respondent’s preferred virtual resource for learning anatomy and assess the outcome of employing VLE in Anatomy education. This study population comprises of undergraduates enrolled into the departments of Anatomy, Nursing and Medical laboratory Science, Edo State University, Uzairue, Nigeria. Questionnaire was designed, tested for reliability and distributed after securing respondents informed consent. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 21 for windows and reported as percentage in tables and charts. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. From the results 214 students (85.3%) completed the questionnaire. Majority were female (77.6%). 63.1% of respondents were between 19 – 22 years. 84 respondents (39.3%) uses android phone for virtual study, although, another 33 respondents (15.4%) uses a combination of android and laptop. Anatomy applications were used by 50.5% of students, and most of them (26.2%) preferred the TeachMe Anatomy application. Students’ perceived the use of VLE as advantageous to their learning anatomy (χ2 (28, N=214) = 291.678, p <0.01). Furthermore, student’s involvement in learning anatomy through virtual technology had a positive impact on their learning attitude, assimilation and retention (χ2 (28, N=214) = 100.495, p <0.01). Conclusively students of Edo State University acknowledge learning of anatomy through VLE, as it makes the learning of anatomy accessible, interesting, and easy to comprehend as well as assimilate, although with challenge of high data consumption.
... Several aspects of the Neurospeed game may participate in learning improvement. First, it involves reading and verbal inputs: sensory read-write and auditory modalities are common among students, who generally prefer non-unimodal learning [21][22][23]. Second, it engages high levels of attention, which is important for working memory consolidation [24]. ...
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Background Neurological semiology is often considered by medical students as particularly difficult to learn. Finding alternative teaching methods may improve students’ motivation and understanding of this field. Methods We developed the “Neurospeed”, a game to learn neurological syndromes. We assessed its efficiency on short-term learning of neurological syndromes in third-year medical students, through Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) before and after the game session. Students’ satisfaction was evaluated by a satisfaction survey. Results Out of the 199 third-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine Sorbonne Paris Nord, 180 attended the Neurospeed in December 2020, and 148 answered 20 Multiple Choice Questions before and after the game, with significant improvement of their score ( p < 0.001). Most of the participants agreed that the game was playful, stimulating, and helpful to learn neurological semiology. Conclusions Overall, our results show that the Neurospeed game is an interesting tool as a complement to traditional lectures. Further studies are necessary to compare the efficacy of different types of serious games on short-term and long-term learning of neurological semiology.
... These perceptions were supported by the studies which showed that medical students generally adopt a multi style approach where they use all sensory modes to learn (29), Furthermore, students take a more active role in their education and the knowledge is learned in a clinical or patient-related context, which gives an understanding at an applied level that also explain why higher percent of students agreed that the course was applicable and useful for clinical practice. ...
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... Understanding the learning styles of students can provide a tailor-made teaching method in their preferred style and prevent the implementation of a similar teaching method for all students (Lujan & Dicarlo, 2006). In addition, understanding the learning styles of students helps faculty members to provide different teaching methods and tools to meet the needs of all learners in order to improve their learning (Rassool & Rawaf, 2007). ...
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... Different learning styles have been reported: visual (learning mainly through seeing), auditory (learn mainly through hearing), read and write (learning mainly through read and write), and kinesthetic (learning mainly through touching, moving, and doing) learning styles (VARK) (Fleming and Baume, 2006;Hussain, 2017). Previous studies showed that a majority of the medical and veterinary students were multimodal (Lujan and DiCarlo, 2006;Neel and Grindem, 2010;Nuzhat et al., 2011;Kharb et al., 2013;Ojeh et al., 2017). On the other hand, the single preferred learning styles of medical students is visual style (Lujan and DiCarlo, 2006;Buşan, 2014), auditory style (Nuzhat et al., 2011;Peyman et al., 2014), read and write style (Ojeh et al., 2017), and kinesthetic style (Kharb et al., 2013). ...
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... Visuals also increase the useability of information for those who can read. In a study of medical students' learning styles, almost two-thirds preferred a hybrid approach combining graphics with text (Lujan and DiCarlo, 2006). When studying health communication, visuals like line drawings increased comprehension of messaging (Choi, 2011). ...
... As the pandemic progresses, governments will need to continue sharing crucial health information with the public. Varied literacy levels (UNESCO, 2021) and a preference for mixed methods presentation when learning new information (Lujan and DiCarlo, 2006) necessitates the consideration of visual approaches in disaster communication. By using Bertin's principles of graphic analysis in combination with communication models, this international review provides interdisciplinary insight to identify growth and guideline opportunities in COVID-19 messaging. ...
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... Studies have shown that undergraduate medical students need to develop multimodal learning and deep learning approaches if they are to learn effectively (Bokhari & Zafar, 2019). Lujan and DiCarlo (2006) report that students with multiple learning modes are more likely to self-direct to access various resources and find it easier to understand the material. Similarly, Honey and Mumford (1982) argue, on the basis of Kolb's experiential learning cycle (Honey & Mumford, 1982;A. ...
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... 3 Two of these are "learning styles" and "learning approaches." 4 One of the most widely used learning style models, the VARK model, is based on the preferred sensory modality used for learning, and differentiates learning styles into visual (V), auditory (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K) modalities. 4,5 Learning approaches, on the other hand, are based on the work of Marton and Säljö, 6 which defines learning preferences in terms of "deep," "surface," and "strategic" learning approaches. 7 Students using the deep approach to learning interact with the study material with a deep desire to understand and make meaning of what is being learned as well as to connect dots across concepts to synthesize knowledge. ...
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Students have unique preferences when it comes to knowledge acquisition, information processing, retention in memory, and recall. This study is aimed at examining the preferred learning styles of medical and dental undergraduate students of Pakistan. It is also aimed at investigating the influence of gender, preclinical or clinical academic year, and academic record on the preferred learning style. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Pakistan. The learning styles of undergraduate students were identified using visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Students were also asked about their satisfaction towards teaching style of their teachers in institute. Descriptive statistics were done to characterize the learning styles of the students. The Fisher test and chi-square test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and public/private sector students and among preclinical/clinical years. A value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 1473 students participated in the study. Among the students, 39.37% preferred unimodal learning style whereas 60.62% preferred multimodal style. Kinesthetic (K) and visual (V) were the most preferred unimodal styles. The preferred learning styles of female students are aural (A), visual (V), and kinesthetic (K), whereas male students preferred visual (V) and kinesthetic more (K). Students with lower academic record chose unimodal styles in comparison to high achievers that chose multimodal styles. Students of clinical year preferred multimodal and quadmodal styles in comparison to preclinical year students. An alarming 78% of students were dissatisfied with their teacher’s instructional style. Majority of students prefer multimodal learning styles over unimodal style. Gender, public/private sector, and academic record have influence on the preference of learning styles. Majority of the students are dissatisfied with their teacher’s instructional style and rely on social media platforms for understanding. Academics need to adapt their teaching methods according to student preferences in order to get better graduates. 1. Introduction Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits [1]. The manner in which a student prefers to acquire, process, memorize, and recall information is described as the individuals’ learning style [2]. Each individual has his own unique style of learning. A single student may adapt single or multiple modes of acquiring knowledge [3]. Academics view learning style in terms of factors that affect the learning of students due to individual preferences for physical, social, and the environmental elements in the course of learning [4]. For the past few decades, medical education has been rapidly shifting from teacher-centered passive to student-centered active approach. Thus, awareness about preferred learning style can be useful for both pupils and educators [5]. Instructors can modify their teaching according to learner’s preference by adapting multiple teaching modalities. Student motivation and performance improve when instruction is molded to student learning styles [6]. Similarly, knowing one’s learning style can minimize learning time, enhance student engagement in the process, and increase his learning outcome and efficiency [7]. Different models have been developed over time to indicate students’ overall approaches to learning and their perceptions of the teaching-learning environments. Popular models include Riechman and Grasha learning style [8], Dunn and Dunn learning style [9], Kolb’s learning style [10, 11], Gregorc learning style [11], Reid’s learning style [12], and McCarthy learning style [13]. Various studies have been conducted around the world in different departments to identify learning preference [14]. One of the most commonly used models is the VARK model designed by Fleming and Baume, which categorizes learning preferences into four modes of sensory pathways: visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K) [15]. These different learning styles were acknowledged after thousands of hours of classroom observation [16]. Every student has his own preference to a particular approach [17]. In the past two years, medical education in Pakistan has rapidly shifted to online and blended (part online, part on-campus) education. In the recent past, even with technological advancement, students mainly relied on textbooks for gaining new knowledge in the traditional education system [18]. With the advent of online education system, teachers have to modify the teaching learning to adapt to student’s increasing educational demands [19]. Thus, to make an effective educational curriculum, it is important to identify students’ learning style preferences. In the field of healthcare sciences, teaching is a combination of cognitive and practical elements, which enhances student participation utilizing various sensory inputs to equip students with the knowledge and practice of patient handling. Single teaching modality is never enough. Thus, it is imperative that educators identify preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical and dental students. This study is aimed at examining the preferred learning styles of medical and dental undergraduate students of Pakistan. It is also aimed at investigating the influence of gender, academic year, and preclinical or clinical and academic record on the preferred learning style. 2. Methods 2.1. Study Design A descriptive cross-sectional study was done from April to June 2021, to determine learning preferences of students of medical and dental colleges of Pakistan. The study was undertaken according to the principles of ethics of Declaration of Helsinki, and ethical approval was obtained from institutional review board (ANDC/RAC/34/06) of Azra Naheed Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan. 2.2. Instrument To determine whether a particular teaching method might enhance student’s learning process, a survey was conducted in Pakistan using anonymous online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (1)Initial introduction and objectives of the study were explained followed by the statement of consent. Participant information sheet was provided which stated that student participation is purely voluntary, and it will not affect their assessment or performance in anyway. Student’s demographics include age, gender, specialty of study MBBS/BDS, degree program (public/private), year of study, and obtained percentage in the last professional exam (%). Years 1, 2, and 3 of MBBS and years 1 and 2 of BDS were considered preclinical years, and the last two professional years were considered clinical years. Students’ names and names of institutions were not asked to maintain anonymity of research and maintain participant confidentiality(2)The 14 questions of VARK questionnaire version 8.01. “VARK” is used to describe four modalities of student learning that were described in a 1992 study by Fleming and Mills [20], i.e., visual, auditory, reading/writing, or kinesthetic. Each question is aimed at placing respondents in a “learning” situation. The respondents were permitted to choose two or more options if appropriate. The distribution of the VARK preferences was calculated according to the guidelines mentioned on the VARK website (https://vark-learn.com/). Accordingly, learning preferences were categorized as unimodal (V, A, R, or K), bimodal (VA, VR, AR, VK, AK, and RK), trimodal (VAR, ARK, VRK, and VAK), or quadmodal (VARK).(3)A yes/no question asking student satisfaction regarding current teaching modality in institute All items were entered into Google Forms (Google LLC) and distributed online to students via WhatsApp, social media accounts of institutes, and email in three waves of invitation: wave 1 (1st May), wave 2 (1st June), and wave 3 (1st July 2021). Data collection was stopped on 20th July due to time saturation. 2.3. Data Collection Students at undergraduate medical and dental colleges, studying in private/public institutes of Pakistan, were invited to participate in the study through virtual snowballing technique. Educational outcome was calculated by GPA, accessed from students’ academic record history by getting their student’s allotted numbers. Students in Pakistan are awarded percentages instead of traditional GPA, so their percentages were converted into grades as follows: A (80-100%), B (70-79%), C (60-69%), and D (50-59%). Secondly, VARK questionnaire was asked. The student’s educational outcome was also analyzed and correlated with the student’s learning preferences. The sample was collected until time and data saturation was reached. 2.4. Data Analysis The data was screened for inaccuracies. Forms with incomprehensible answers to open-ended questions (age, percentage obtained in last professional exam) were excluded. All responses on Google Forms were made mandatory to avoid missed data. Descriptive statistics were done on the overall sample [21]. All analyses were done using IBM SPSS statistical software, version 24 (IBM Corporation, New York, New York), and Microsoft Excel 2013 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington). The Fisher test and chi-square test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and public/private sector students and among preclinical/clinical years. Student characteristics were used as predictors for probability reporting of each learning style in comparison to unimodal style. A value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. 3. Results A total of 1473 out of 1651 students completed the questionnaire with 98.12% response rate with 42.9% male and 57% female respondents. The demographic data of respondents is represented in Table 1. In terms of academic rank, most of the students were of C grade (37.6%), followed by grade B (30%), A (27.5%), and lastly D (4.8%). Category Frequency MBBS BDS Male Female Total participants () 981 (66.6%) 492 (33.4%) 633 (42.9%) 840 (57%) Preclinical year () 626 (63.8%) 291 (59.1%) 431 (68.1%) 486 (57.8%) Clinical year () 355 (36.2%) 201 (40.8%) 202 (31.9%) 354 (42.1%) Public institute () 402 (41%) 235 (47.7%) 263 (41.5%) 374 (44.5%) Private institute () 579 (59%) 257 (52.2%) 370 (58.5%) 466 (55.5%)