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... on currently available information, Figure 2 shows that the largest single contributors to waste are consumers. More than 50% of the $27B in food waste originates from food thrown away in Canadian homes. ...

Citations

... Table 1 provides an overview of food waste estimates for China during the consumption stage. Although food waste is quantified differently between studies, it is apparent that restaurants and school canteens account for a large part of food waste in China, which is different from other developed countries where the majority of food waste is generated at home (Aschemann-Witzel et al., 2019;Gooch et al., 2010;Herzberg et al., 2020;Kasza et al., 2020). The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has found in a worldwide survey that 61% of food waste comes from households (United Nations Environment Programme, 2021). ...
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The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress adopted the Anti-food Waste Law of the People’s Republic of China in April 2021 to guarantee grain security, conserve resources, and protect the environment. We pursue three research questions: Why has China implemented a law with sanctions to reduce food waste, and why now? Why does the law target the catering industry? To answer these questions, we collected primary data through semi-structured interviews with government officials, as well as secondary data through recorded interviews available online with officials of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC) and food waste activists, as well as NPCSC conference reports. We find a legal approach with sanctions was necessary since cultural aspects, specifically conventional Chinese dining habits and pop culture, are difficult to regulate through instruments without sanctions. In addition, we find the Chinese law focuses on the catering industry for a few reasons: (1) More waste is generated by the catering industry than households, (2) waste from the catering industry is easier to monitor than household waste, and (3) this was a response to citizen requests collected during the Anti-food Waste Law public consultation process.
... Consumers are responsible for a large degree of food waste. Although the share of households in total food waste generation differs strongly among countries-from 50% in Canada (Gooch et al., 2010) to about 15% in Netherlands (Aktas et al., 2018)-consumers in highly developed countries generally cause about 40%-50% of global food waste . Moreover, British studies have shown that about 60% of that food waste was avoidable (Quested et al., 2013), which leaves opportunities for reduction. ...
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The increasing volume and value of food waste is a huge threat to achieving sustainable development, food market stability, human population growth, and people’s well-being. Considering that consumers are responsible for a large degree of food waste, the current study looks at the problem of household food waste from the perspective of both food product attributes and consumers’ lifestyles. Specifically: How do people differ in their food disposal inclination based on their food-related lifestyle and products’ quality attributes? The Total Food Quality Model was applied to describe product attributes (taste, health, process, and convenience) whereas food-related lifestyle was measured with: innovativeness/novelty, information about products/health, convenience, price, taste, local/organic food, and social events. The Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis method, based on 753 participants, was used to assess the importance of individual attributes and levels. Clustering was carried out to identify people with similar preferences: through elbow method and Silhouette value maximization, three customer segments were identified. To investigate the distinct characteristics of these clusters related to food waste, one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted. The obtained results confirm that consumers who overlap in their product attribute preferences also share a food-related lifestyle. The main contribution is the identification of consumer groups and the differences that characterize them in terms of the determinants of behaviour related to the importance of the factors of food products influencing the tendency to waste them.
... The sectors considered as part of the FSC vary in the literature. The Value Chain Management Centre [12] provides a general classification as: on the farm; packaging and processing; transportation and distribution; restaurants, hotels and retail; and final consumers. For the latter two sectors, the im-pacts are additive, and the environmental costs are higher [4] [13]. ...
... Food waste refers to food that is actually of good quality, but which is discarded at the retail or consumption stages of the food supply chain (Lipinski et al. 2013;Halloran et al. 2014). There are several reasons for food being wasted along the food chain, i.e. overproduction, unnecessary inventory, defects in production or equipment, inappropriate processing or transportation, improper storage, losses in food preparation and when food is served, i.e. leftovers on the plates of consumers (Engström and Carlsson-Kanyama 2004;Gooch et al. 2010;Lipinski et al. 2013). ...
... The discourse around food waste varies. In developed countries, public discourse often focuses on individual attitudes and consumer responsibility while in developing countries, the discourse centres on fundamental reasons for accidental food losses (Gille 2012). ...
Article
Food waste is a considerable sustainability challenge, and many universities around the world are engaged in food waste prevention. University canteens offer opportunities for prevention of food waste by steering the amounts of food served in meals at central locations. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of international studies which look into this matter at a greater depth. This paper discusses matters related to university policies and strategies, best practices as well as deficiencies that are seen in preventing food waste. An international study was conducted, including a sample of 52 higher education institutions, in order to provide pieces of evidence of current trends. The study reveals that even though food waste is as an essential issue in many Higher Education Institutions, prevention efforts are not so widely spread as they should be. The majority of universities represented in the sample implemented particular initiatives for food waste reduction, focusing on collection for disposal and composting as well as for external donation. Other examples for implemented efforts include training staff to serve adequate portions, use of trayless dining, and provision of regular information for staff and students. However, 60% of the sample does not have to follow a particular strategy or measure the amount of food waste produced. About 15% of the universities in the sample reported no engagement. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Cause and effect fishbone for food wasteSource:Gooch, Felfel, & Marenick (2010) ...
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Tackling the myriad sustainability challenges related to food – from the environmental impacts of food production to the health consequences of inadequate diets – requires systemic interventions that improve sustainability at local, national, and international level. Recently, several approaches have been developed to guide systemic interventions, but due to the complexity of food systems, taking a ‘food system approach’ is often seen by practitioners and decision-makers as a daunting task requiring considerable resources. In this paper, we develop an iterative, step-based sustainable food system approach that helps navigate complexity and is flexible in its required resources, thus enabling a fast overview or a deep dive as determined by a project’s or organisation’s objectives. Our approach combines four components: food system, sustainability, political economy analyses, and the development of transformation pathways to advance food system sustainability. The use of each component is organised into steps, involving practical methods and tools. The goal of the approach is to help practitioners and decision-makers describe and diagnose food systems to develop more coherent, effective, and context-appropriate interventions for the necessary transformations.
... In Canada, it is estimated that approximately 40% of all food produced is lost or wasted [1]. Waste from households account for nearly half of the avoidable food waste, which is valued to be $10.4 billion worth of food being discarded each year [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Higher diet quality has been associated with greater amounts of food waste among adults in the United States. This study aims to build on previous work by examining the association between diet quality and food waste, as assessed using detailed waste audits, among a sample of Canadian families. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from 85 Canadian families with young children. Parent and children diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), calculated from 3-day food records. Household food waste was measured using detailed waste audits conducted over multiple weeks and these data were used to calculate daily per capita food waste. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parent and child HEI-2015 scores and daily per capita total avoidable and unavoidable food waste, as well as daily per capita avoidable and unavoidable food waste in the following categories: 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) milk, cheese and eggs, 3) meat and fish, 4) breads and cereals, 5) fats and sugars. Results: Parent HEI-2015 scores ranged from 37 to 92 (out of 100) and 81% of parents' diets scored in the "Needs Improvement (51-80)" category. Parent and child diet quality scores were significantly correlated (r = 0.61; P < 0.0001) and 82% of children's diets scored in the "Needs Improvement" category. On average, households produced 107 g of avoidable food waste and 52 g of unavoidable food waste per person per day. Fruits and vegetables were the highest contributor for both avoidable and unavoidable food waste. Both parent and child HEI-2015 scores were not significantly associated with total daily per capita avoidable or unavoidable food waste. However, parent HEI-2015 scores were positively associated with daily per capita avoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.11, 1.99; P = 0.03) and daily per capita unavoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.03, 1.17; P = 0.04), after adjusting for household income. Conclusion: This is the first study to explore the association between diet quality and food waste using detailed waste audits. Future research should explore effective strategies towards improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing food waste, especially of fruits and vegetables.
... In Canada, it is estimated that approximately 40% of all food produced is lost or wasted [1]. Waste from households account for nearly half of the avoidable food waste, which is valued to be $10.4 billion worth of food being discarded each year [2]. ...
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Full-text available
Background : Higher diet quality has been associated with greater amounts of food waste among adults in the United States. This study aims to build on previous work by examining the association between diet quality and food waste, as assessed using detailed waste audits, among a sample of Canadian families. Methods : This cross-sectional study used data from 85 Canadian families with young children. Parent and children diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), calculated from 3-day food records. Household food waste was measured using detailed waste audits conducted over multiple weeks and these data were used to calculate daily per capita food waste. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parent and child HEI-2015 scores and daily per capita total avoidable and unavoidable food waste, as well as daily per capita avoidable and unavoidable food waste in the following categories: 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) milk, cheese and eggs, 3) meat and fish, 4) breads and cereals, 5) fats and sugars. Results : Parent HEI-2015 scores ranged from 37 to 92 (out of 100) and 81% of parents’ diets scored in the “Needs Improvement (50-80)” category. Parent and child diet quality scores were significantly correlated (r=0.61; P< 0.0001) and 82% of children’s diets scored in the “Needs Improvement” category. On average, households produced 107 grams of avoidable food waste and 52 grams of unavoidable food waste per person per day. Fruits and vegetables were the highest contributor for both avoidable and unavoidable food waste. Both parent and child HEI-2015 scores were not significantly associated with total daily per capita avoidable or unavoidable food waste. However, parent HEI-2015 scores were positively associated with daily per capita avoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β= 1.05; 95%CI: 0.11, 1.99; P = 0.03) and daily per capita unavoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β= 0.60; 95%CI: 0.03, 1.17; P = 0.04), after adjusting for household income. Conclusion : This is the first study to explore the association between diet quality and food waste using detailed waste audits. Future research should explore effective strategies towards improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing food waste, especially of fruits and vegetables.
... In Canada, it is estimated that approximately 40% of all food produced is lost or wasted [1]. Waste from households account for nearly half of the avoidable food waste, which is valued to be $10.4 billion worth of food being discarded each year [2]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Higher diet quality has been associated with greater amounts of food waste among adults in the United States. This study aims to build on previous work by examining the association between diet quality and food waste, as assessed using detailed waste audits, among a sample of Canadian families. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from 85 Canadian families with young children. Parent and children diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), calculated from 3-day food records. Household food waste was measured using detailed waste audits conducted over multiple weeks and these data were used to calculate daily per capita food waste. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parent and child HEI-2015 scores and daily per capita total avoidable and unavoidable food waste, as well as daily per capita avoidable and unavoidable food waste in the following categories: 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) milk, cheese and eggs, 3) meat and fish, 4) breads and cereals, 5) fats and sugars. Results: Parent HEI-2015 scores ranged from 37 to 92 (out of 100) and 81% of parents’ diets scored in the “Needs Improvement (51-80)” category. Parent and child diet quality scores were significantly correlated (r=0.61; P<0.0001) and 82% of children’s diets scored in the “Needs Improvement” category. On average, households produced 107 grams of avoidable food waste and 52 grams of unavoidable food waste per person per day. Fruits and vegetables were the highest contributor for both avoidable and unavoidable food waste. Both parent and child HEI-2015 scores were not significantly associated with total daily per capita avoidable or unavoidable food waste. However, parent HEI-2015 scores were positively associated with daily per capita avoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β= 1.05; 95%CI: 0.11, 1.99; P= 0.03) and daily per capita unavoidable fruit and vegetable waste (Unstandardized β= 0.60; 95%CI: 0.03, 1.17; P= 0.04), after adjusting for household income. Conclusion: This is the first study to explore the association between diet quality and food waste using detailed waste audits. Future research should explore effective strategies towards improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing food waste, especially of fruits and vegetables.
... Another major source of food waste discourse in Canada is a series of reports generated by Value Chain Management International (13,29,30), the most recent of which was commissioned by the non-profit food rescue organization Second Harvest. These often-referenced reports investigate the source and scale of food waste in Canada, and the messaging has changed over time as new data have come to light. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) has estimated that Canadian households waste 85 kg of food per person annually. Food waste has become an increasingly common focus for policy, regulation, interventions, and awareness-raising efforts in Canada. However, there is still a relative dearth of data to inform such decision-making processes or to provide narratives to contextualize behavior change efforts. In this paper, we describe the results of an uncommonly detailed observational study of household food waste. A total of 94 families with young children living in Guelph, Ontario chose to participate in this study. Over the course of multiple weeks, we collected data on their food purchases, food consumption, and waste generation. All three streams of waste (garbage, recycling, and organic waste) were audited and the food type, degree of avoidability, and weight of each individual component of the organic waste stream was recorded. Using this highly granular data set, we found that the average household in our study generated approximately 2.98 kg of avoidable food waste per week. This estimate was then contextualized in terms of economic losses (dollar value), nutritional losses (calories, vitamins, and minerals) and environmental impacts (global warming potential, land, and water usage). In short, weekly avoidable food waste per household was calculated to be equivalent to $18.01, 3,366 calories, and 23.3 kg of CO2. These multiple valuation frameworks, which are based in detailed observations of family food behaviors rather than estimations derived from system-wide data, will enable more informed and urgent conversations about policy, programming, and interventions in order to reduce the volume of wasted food at the consumer level.
... Another major source of food waste discourse in Canada is a series of reports generated by Value Chain Management International (13,29,30), the most recent of which was commissioned by the non-profit food rescue organization Second Harvest. These often-referenced reports investigate the source and scale of food waste in Canada, and the messaging has changed over time as new data have come to light. ...
Article
Impaired intestinal health characterized by a dysbiotic microbial community and a dysfunctional epithelial barrier contributes to host inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Fish oil (FO)-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to improve aspects of the obese phenotype; however, their effect on obese intestinal health is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary FO on the intestinal microenvironment, including the microbial community and epithelial barrier, in a mouse model of high-fat diet induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed (12 weeks) either a high-fat diet (HF, 60% fat as kcal) or an isocaloric HF supplemented with Menhaden FO (5.3% kcal, HF + FO). 16S rRNA sequencing was used to determine changes in fecal microbiota. Intestinal (ileum and colon) and epididymal adipose tissue RNA was used to assess biomarkers of barrier integrity and inflammatory status, respectively. Serum was used to assess adipokine concentrations and insulin resistance. HF + FO diet altered the fecal microbiota by decreasing the abundance of Firmicutes and increasing the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phyla, as well as increasing the abundance of antiobesogenic Akkermansia muciniphila, compared to HF. Intestinal epithelial barrier functions were improved by HF + FO evidenced by increased mRNA expression of tight junction components, antimicrobial defenses and mucus barrier components. HF + FO-fed mice exhibited improvements in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, oral glucose tolerance and serum adipokine concentrations and epididymal mRNA expression (increased adiponectin and decreased leptin) versus HF. HF + FO improved obese intestinal health and attenuated metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity.