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Percentage of private grazing land utilization system (respondents = 180)

Percentage of private grazing land utilization system (respondents = 180)

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The cross sectional assessment study on dairy production system and its constraints and opportunities was conducted in Hamer woreda of south omo zone with objective of assessing dairy production system, milk and milk products handling, processing and marketing systems. A total of 180 despondence households from six peasant association with 30 respo...

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... e total population of the study districts is 62,362 and 59,572, inhabiting 3754 km 2 and 5742 km 2 of total area of Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively. e elevation of the area ranges between 371 and 2084 m.a.s.l in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [14,17]. e districts have a bimodal rainfall pattern with an average annual rainfall of 1400 mm and 764 mm in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [17,18]. ...
... e elevation of the area ranges between 371 and 2084 m.a.s.l in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [14,17]. e districts have a bimodal rainfall pattern with an average annual rainfall of 1400 mm and 764 mm in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [17,18]. e annual average minimum and maximum temperatures are in the range of 16°C-27°C and 40°C-41°C for Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [19]. ...
... Majority of the respondents (60%) of pastoralists were illiterate and unable to read and write, and only 7.5% completed formal education. e result obtained in this study was in line with the previous studies done by [17,22] in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay, South Omo, respectively, but unlike those in Mexico, Kenya, and Kwara State (Nigeria), as reported by different authors [23][24][25], where most of the people had elementary education. e high level of illiteracy was attributed to the lack of participation in learning, as most of the time was spent in rearing livestock. ...
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The social, economic, and ecological role of woodlands forests in dry and lowland areas are more imperative than anywhere else. Most of the dry lands of Ethiopia host woodlands that produce various commercial gum-resin products. The objective of this study was to investigate the social and economic importance of commercial gum-resin products focusing on their roles in the local livelihoods. Four kebeles, namely, Luka and Enchete from Bena-Tsemay district, and Erbore and Asele from Hamer district of South Omo Zone, were purposively selected for the collection of socioeconomic data. Semistructured questionnaire and checklists were used for households and key informant interviews and focus group discussions, respectively. In addition, market assessments and field observation were conducted to collect the primary data and supplemented with secondary data. A total of 80 households were randomly selected for one-to-one interviews from the total number of 425 households in the selected kebeles. A total of 10 key informant interviews with elders, forestry experts, local merchants, and enterprise members involved in gum-resins marketing and 4 focus group discussions with 12 members including men, women, and youth were conducted. Simple descriptive statistical tools were used for the data analysis. The results of the study showed that the mean annual income earned from the sale of gum-resins was 5670 and 4571 ETB per household at Bena-Tsemay and Hamer study sites, respectively. About 84% of the respondents indicated that gum-resin collection was the simplest and fastest means to earn income for school children and women. Gum and resin collection was the third most important livelihood option in the study area following animal husbandry and crop and honey production. The majority (84%) of respondents recognized the income made from gum-resin products as a safety net during recurring famine eras. Moreover, respondents recognized the benefit of gum arabic as food during famine time, as chewing gum, and as nutritious fodder. It was also used as folk medicine for both human and livestock diseases. Communities used this resource as a constituent to treat eye and skin infections, bleeding, wounds, ulcers, stomachache, gastrointestinal infections, etc. In addition, 88.33% of shrubs/trees were used as source of cash income for local communities and 11.67% as fodder for animal husbandry. Despite this significance, various constraints hindered the utilization of the resource in the study area, and these included lack of appropriate tapping techniques, market access, market information, cooperatives, infrastructure facilities, and appropriate institutions as well as poor local communities’ awareness of land management. The present investigation has provided valuable information for overcoming the major constraints by devising strategies to maximize gum-resin production and commercialization in the study area. 1. Introduction Woodlands and forest’s social, economic, and biological role in both dry and lowland areas are more imperative than in any rangelands. Agroforestry parklands and trees/shrubs outside forests play decisive roles in the livelihood of societies in Africa’s woodlands [1]. For Ethiopia, there are many social, economic, ecological, and political details to enact sustainable management of its woodland forests. For example, processed and/or value-added commercialization of gum-resins produced from woodland forests would give access to extra income for the arid and/or woodland prone communities, in addition to the regional and national economy at large [2]. Discussion on the significance of woodlands and dry forests is highly dependent on lessons from the moist tropics, with scanty information on woodlands that cover large areas and host hundreds of millions of Africans [1, 3, 4]. Current studies reveal that development towards combination of woodland forests has been hindered partly by a lack of practically based information on their socioeconomic significance [1, 5]. About 75% of the Ethiopian total land mass was represented by dryland forests [6], which host woodlands that produce various commercial gum-resin products [2]. An annual production potential of 270,000 tons of gum-resins from more than 3.5 million hectares of woodlands and bushlands was estimated in Ethiopia [5]. Gum-resins are the most widely used and traded nontimber forest products (NTFPs) other than items consumed directly as food, fodder, and medicine [7]. They are important for various purposes in consumer goods such as detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, sweet food products, soft drinks, hard drinks, and insecticides [8]. In addition, as stated by [9], gum-resins are used in indigenous medicines for the management of different ailments such as wounds, arthritis, fractures, obesity, parasitic infection, and gastrointestinal diseases. Income at household level is significant. For example, the estimated income from gum-resin business is threefold higher than the contributions of crops [10]. Consequently, the economic importance of these resources as a government source of valuable foreign currency has been widely realized in Ethiopia [11]. Employment opportunities have also been generated throughout the year; for instance, Boswellia products subsector recruits several employees for activities such as tapping and collection, transportation, processing, marketing, and guarding of storage facilities [12]. Additionally, production of NTFPs helps to promote a better consolidation of dry woodlands and, thus, improves economic enhancement along with ecological maintenance [2]. Despite the increasing realization of the social, economic, cultural, environmental, and other roles of gum-resin products worldwide, their critical significance has not been yet recognized and acknowledged generally in the country and specifically in South Omo Zone, South Ethiopia. This is due to, as stated by [13], the absence of information on the social, economic, and cultural importance. Communities in the study area pursue a pastoralist style of life strategy, whose sources of income are mainly relying on livestock rearing and crop and natural honey production [14]. Drought is one of the major reasons for natural resource degradation. For example, as stated by [15], compositions of gum-resin bearing species are facing challenges of degradation due to recurrent droughts, thereby leading to a decline in productivity. In addition, fuel wood collection and charcoal making are considered as alternative income sources especially for those who live around rural towns. This action led to minimizing the gum-resin productivity and loss of genetic diversity of the species [16]. Thus, the development of sustainable management options for this dry land resource is required for the benefit of local communities in particular and national and international communities in general. The socioeconomic significance through value-added commercialization of gum-resins is considered as the basis for sustainable production and marketing of the products. Therefore, this study aims to assess the social and economic role of gum-resin products and identify main constraints on the production, marketing, and/or commercialization of gum-resin products in the woodlands of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Study Area Description This study was carried out in semiarid woodlands of Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone, located in Southwestern parts of Ethiopia. The zone is unique in that it comprises 16 distinct ethnic groups within 8 districts of the zone in the country and is known as the heart of cultural diversity. The study area is geographically located between 36°09′25″E and 37°04′12″E longitude and 4°30′18″N and 5°44′06″N latitude (Figure 1). The total population of the study districts is 62,362 and 59,572, inhabiting 3754 km² and 5742 km² of total area of Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively. The elevation of the area ranges between 371 and 2084 m.a.s.l in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [14, 17]. The districts have a bimodal rainfall pattern with an average annual rainfall of 1400 mm and 764 mm in Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [17, 18]. The annual average minimum and maximum temperatures are in the range of 16°C–27°C and 40°C-41°C for Bena-Tsemay and Hamer districts, respectively [19]. Eutric Fluvisols are the dominant soil types in grasslands while Eutric and Chromic Cambisols are dominant in mountains areas [20].
... Inadequate feed supply is a major cause of dry season productivity declines in in goats within study regions [5]. The feed availability within the study areas is also strongly affected by variations in rainfall amount, distribution, and climate change [5,6,18]. The availability of major herbaceous forages for goats has declined from the last five years. ...
... The study bySamson Hailemariam., et al.[22] and Hodgson RJ[23] demonstrated that Acacia pods and leaves are a common feed supplement in many pastoral areas of Africa during dry seasons and this was reflected in the responses provided by pastoralists during the present study. Moreover, Buzayehu Ayele and Denbela Hidosa[18] reported that Hamer pastoralists supplement new born kids, calves and sick animal with acacia pods and leaves from a range of locally available trees during the dry seasons which supports ideas reported by the pastoralist from this study. Similarly, the Borana pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia have used pods and leave of native leguminous browse trees such as Acacia tortilis and Acacia nilotica as dry feed resource supplements[24]. ...
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Goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, dry matter availability and goat feed balance. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected. In each Woreda, between eight and twelve herders were selected to participate in focus group discussions (FGD). Herders were interviewed about major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the plant parts utilised by goats. In addition to the FGDs, in each of the study kebeles, subsets of the experienced herders were asked to collect samples of forage species mentioned in the FGDs. These samples were catalogued in code corresponding to local names for each species and botanical names subsequently assigned, following identification by trained botanists. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 herbaceous and browse forage species identified as goat feeds from Hamer and Bena- Tsemay Woredas respectively. The herders also reported that goat feed was generally plentiful from April to August and became scarce during January and February. The estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for goats across districts is likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons which exceeds the estimated dry matter of 370,000 and 40,000 tons produced for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter. It was therefore, recommended that the primarily focus on improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, improving poor quality feeds, forage banking during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilisation of native browse species as a local protein supplements.
... The study made by Buzayehu and Denbela (2015) in to the pastoral communities of Hamer Woreda demonstrated that pastoral communities have been practicing communal or private natural grazing and browsing, as well as cut-and-carry system during goat feeding systems. ...
... Inadequate feed supply is a major cause of dry season productivity declines in in goats within study regions (Denbela et al., 2017). The feed availability within the study areas is also strongly affected by variations in rainfall amount, distribution, and climate change (Buzayehu and Denbela, 2015;Berhanu et al., 2017;Denbela et al., 2017). The availability of major herbaceous forages for goats has declined from the last five years. ...
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A goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted inthe Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas in South Omo Zone with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, their dry matter availability and the overall goat feed balance within the regions. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected for the purposes of conducting the studies. In each of these woredas, between eight and twelve herders were recruited for focus group discussions (FGDs) aimed at compiling local feed inventories. These verbal reports collected from the pastoralists and agro pastotalists were additionally confirmed by field observations and monitoring, and compared with similar previous studies and other secondary information from the study districts. Pastoralists and agro pastoralist were interviewed about the major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the morphological plant parts utilized by goats. They were also asked to make comment on goat feeding practices, including the role of special feeding and the use of planted fodder species and crop residues. In addition to the FGDs, in each kebele engaged, a subset of the most experienced participating pastoralists were asked to collect samples of each of the rangeland goat forage species nominated during the interviews. These samples were photographed and catalogued in code corresponding to the local names for each species. Botanical identification was later made by Adami Tulu of the Agriculture Research Centre Laboratory. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 different herbaceous and browse forage species were identified as major goat feeds from Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda respectively. Pertaining to goat feed resource availability and seasonal dynamics, herders reported that the majority of nominated feed resources for goat were in surplus supply during wet seasons (particularly from April to August) and that these reserves then declined declined during the dry seasons, with many of the species becoming unavailable to goats from January to February. The overwhelming proportion of dry matter available to goats in Hamer Woreda comes from naturally grown rangeland plants while small contributions was comes from crop residues. The opposite is true for Bena-Temay Woreda, where agro-pastoralists depend heavily on crop residues for animal survival during dry seasons. There are an estimated 205,300 and 75,573 goats (Tropical Livestock Unit) kept in the districts of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively.The working on an average body weight and an assumed dry matter intake of 2.5% and the estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for all goats across these districts are likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons respectively. This figure far exceeds the estimated dry matter produced in the study areas (370,000 and 40,000 for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively) and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter for each respective Woreda. These figures are inherently unreliable and can only serve as approximations due to the desktop nature of the calculations, the number of plant species comprising total yield and their spacious-temporal variance in frequency, density, growth and yield. Frequent droughts as a result of climate change, the conversion of rangeland browsing area in to cropping land, lack of skill and knowledge in goat feeding and husbandry in combination with increasing goat populations represent as major challenges to goat production in the study areas. The general conclusions of this study are that presently, in both of the Woredas investigated, aggregate goat stocking numbers cannot be supported by the estimated dry matter available to goats and do not match to support profitable from the goat production in the study areas. This is likely to represent an on-going problem for goats’ survival, productivity and household incomes, while also threatening to further degrade the naturally occurring browse resource species. These is suggest that the primary focus of development efforts to support pastoralists and agro-pastoral goat production need to be improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, treating poor quality feeds for goats, forage banking from range land during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilization of native browse species as a local protein supplements. Key Words: Goats, Feed Resources, Feed Resource Availability, Feed Resources dynamics and Feed Balance
... However, in some area the model agro pastoralists have been traditionally fatten their indigenous cattle with locally available feeds such as pumpkin after grazing for six months. The research facts [14][15][16] have demonstrated that Hamer and Dassench pastoralists do not supply concentrate supplements to livestock which is in line with findings from the current study. ...
... Supplementation with locally available feeds: Agro pastoral communities in study area have supplemented cattle such as farm oxen, milking cows and calves with locally available materials such different leaf of indigenous species, Banana stems and leaf, pumpkins and locally produced brewery called atella. study made from the South Omo demonstrated that pastoralist in different parts of South Omo supplementing their livestock such as lactating cow, sick animals, kids and lambs with grasses, leaves of and pods of browse species as coping strategies toward the feed shortage during dry seasons as coping mechanism to ward feed shortage [5,6,14]. ...
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The study was carried out in Maale Woreda, in South Western Ethiopia aimed to assess feed resource, feed resource availability and feed production constraints. Six Kebeles per Woreda were selected and one focus group discussion which comprised 12 pastoralists per kebele were identified and interviewed. For the key informants’ interview, two livestock production experts from Woreda Livestock and Fisher Resource development Office and six livestock developmental agents from representative kebeles were interviewed. The focus group discussion and key informants interview was used to collect primary data on feed resource, feed resource availability, feed conservation practices and feed resources utilization and major livestock feed constraints. The study results shown that grass from the open grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop residues were major feed resources for the livestock in to study area. The open grazing land had poorly managed and the biomass productivity generated from open grazing land has been retreated. The major livestock feeding system was free grazing and Agro pastoral communities had no trends of conserved feed and provided concentrate supplements to the livestock. There were lack of low quality feed improvement and trends of growing the cultivated fodder species production practices. The 83,783.60 tons of dry matter was produced from different feed resources in the Maale Woreda with deficit of 623,333.40 tons of dry matter per year. The climate change, expansion of cropping land, increments in human populations, lack of inputs and training were identified as livestock feed production constraints in to study area. The migration, supplementations and purchasing available feed were important coping strategies toward feed shortage in to study area. Generally, the results from this study demonstrated that the total dry matter produced from different feed resources in to the study area was not enough to satisfy the dry matter requirement of livestock to support the profitable livestock production in to the study area, which suggest that the primary focus needs to be improving the existing feed resources through rehabilitation of degraded grazing areas, introduction adaptable fodder production, improving feed utilization practices and introduce and promote the crop residue feed improvement technologies.