Percentage of population living on the coast in Australia and Worldwide.  

Percentage of population living on the coast in Australia and Worldwide.  

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Water quality-induced water shortage is emerging as one of the main threats for the growth of the world’s population and economic development, especially for coastal cities in developing nations. This paper discusses how to supply enough sufficiently clean water to such cities using the technologies of coastal reservoirs and wetland pre-treatments,...

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... the silting process is reducing the storage capacity of the world's reservoirs by more than 1% -1.5% per year, and in the world 300 -400 new dams would need to be constructed every year to maintain the current total storage (White, 2001) [4]; all of the existing reservoirs shown in Figure 1 will be out of service by the end of the 21st century. Figure 2 shows the percentage of people living in coastal areas. It can be seen that in Australia, 70% of people lived in the coastal areas in the 1950s, but by 2050, this percentage is expected to increase to 92%. ...
Context 2
... this water, only 1/5 needs to be treated to the drinking standard, i.e., about 2.4 billion m 3 /year in 2012. Figure 2 shows the general rising trend of population and water usage from 1977-2012. According to the government's plan to diversify its sources and to lower its risk for water supply, in the future the Huangpu River still needs to provide 20% -30% of tap water, i.e., 0.48 - 0.72 billion m 3 /year; the remaining drinking water coming from the Qingcaosha coastal reservoir. ...

Citations

... It is estimated there are over 160,000 contaminated sites across Australia (CRC Care, 2015). Coastal Australia is under particular pressure, with 87% of the population residing within coastal zones and a projected increase to 92% by 2050 (Yang and Kelly, 2015;Centre for Population, 2020). Certainly, Australian saltmarsh remains subject to various organic and inorganic contaminants of both point and diffuse industrial, agricultural, and urban origin. ...
Article
Persistent organic and inorganic pollutants are among the most concerning pollutants in Australian estuaries due to their persistent, ubiquitous, and potentially toxic nature. Traditional methods of soil remediation often fall short of practical implementation due to high monetary investment, environmental disturbance, and potential for re-contamination. Phytoremediation is gaining traction as an alternative, or synergistic mechanism of contaminated soil remediation. Phytoremediation utilises plants and associated rhizospheric microorganisms to stabilise, degrade, transform, or remove xenobiotics from contaminated mediums. Due to their apparent cross-tolerance to salt, metals, and organic contaminants, halophytes have shown promise as phytoremediation species. This review examines the potential of 93 species of Australian saltmarsh halophytes for xenobiotic phytoremediation. Considerations for the practical application of phytoremediation in Australia are discussed, including mechanisms of enhancement, and methods of harvesting and disposal. Knowledge gaps for the implementation of phytoremediation in Australian saline environments are identified, and areas for future research are suggested.
... Technological advances in radiocarbon dating and a reduction in the required sample size necessary for stable isotope analysis have led to tree species that were once overlooked, now being recognized as potential sources of important climate information. This includes trees growing at low elevation in coastal areas where little pre-instrumental climate data currently exists, but is in high demand because 40% of the global population, and 85% of the Australian population live within 50 km of the coast (Agardy et al., 2005;Yang and Kelly, 2015). ...
Article
The development of high-resolution terrestrial palaeoclimate records in Australia is hindered by the scarcity of tree species suitable for conventional dendrochronology. However, novel analytical techniques have made it possible to obtain climate information from tree species that do not reliably form annual growth rings. In this paper we assess the potential of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the xylem wood of grey mangroves (Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.) as hydroclimate proxies for eastern Australia. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating and simple age models were used to estimate the age of the growth layers in radial sequence in stems from four grey mangrove trees in two adjacent estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. Stable isotope data measured from the xylem wood of the four stems were composited to yield mean δ¹⁸O and δ¹³C series for the 1962–2016 period. Significant negative Spearman correlations were found between δ¹⁸O and rainfall, sea level, instrumental Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), while δ¹³C was positively correlated with temperature, vapour pressure and evapotranspiration. The results demonstrate that stable oxygen isotopes in grey mangroves have the potential to yield valuable information about pre-instrumental hydroclimate. Grey mangroves can survive with intact centres for an estimate of >250 years based on observed growth rates, are widespread along northern Australian and tropical coastlines and could provide important information regarding pre-instrumental climate in regions currently lacking high-resolution (i.e., near annual) centennial scale climate proxy records.
... Fiji is relatively sparsely populated, with a population size of roughly 900,000, of which around 896,000 live on the coastline (Jambeck et al., 2015). In contrast, in Australia the population is 25 million people, of which 80% reside on the coast (Yang and Kelly, 2015). The east coast, where the fish from this study were caught is particularly dense. ...
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Awareness surrounding plastic pollution has increased significantly in the past decade, leading to concerns on potential adverse effects on biota, including the consumption of microplastic by fish. Globally, plastic has been found in many species of fish, but little research has been undertaken in the southern hemisphere. We assessed the abundance and type of plastic in fish captured and sold for human consumption in Australia and Fiji. Fish (goatfish, sea mullet, paddletail, and common coral trout) had their gastrointestinal tracts dissected and microplastic quantified under a microscope. Plastic polymer types were confirmed using μ-FTIR. In Australia, plastic was found in 61.6% of fish gastrointestinal tracts, while in Fiji, 35.3% of fish had plastic. Fish from Australia had almost double the amount of plastic on average than fish caught in Fiji, with 1.58 (± 0.23) pieces per fish in Australia compared to 0.86 (± 0.14) in fish caught in Fiji. The types of plastic differed between countries, with fibers comprising 83.6% of microplastic pieces in fish from Australia whereas 50% of microplastic found in fish from Fiji was film. Polyolefin was the most abundant polymer type in both fibers from Australia and film from Fiji. We hypothesize variations in abundance and plastic type are a reflection of the population density and coastal geomorphology, but may also be a result of legislation and waste management strategies in the two countries. This work adds evidence to the pervasive presence of plastic in fish gastrointestinal tracts, reinforcing the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management, but also a better understanding of the impacts of microplastic on marine biota.
... When compared with the N 2 O emission rates globally (Table S3), the mean emission from our reservoir was lower than only a handful of tropical or subtropical reservoirs, but was over an order of magnitude greater than the global average of 7.2 μgm −2 h −1 for lakes and reservoirs spanning across the tropical to polar regions (Hu et al., 2016). Our results, along with similar findings by others (Chen et al., 2014), suggested that subtropical coastal reservoirs were strong N 2 O sources and could play an increasingly important climatic role as countries seek to construct more coastal reservoirs (Yang and Kelly, 2015). ...
Article
Coastal reservoirs are widely regarded as a viable solution to the water scarcity problem faced by coastal cities with growing populations. As a result of the accumulation of anthropogenic wastes and the alteration of hydroecological processes, these reservoirs may also become the emission hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O). Hitherto, accurate global assessment of N2O emission suffers from the scarcity and low spatio-temporal resolution of field data, especially from small coastal reservoirs with high spatial heterogeneity and multiple water sources. In this study, we measured the surface water N2O concentrations and emissions at a high spatial resolution across three seasons in a subtropical coastal reservoir in southeastern China, which was hydrochemically highly heterogeneous because of the combined influence of river runoff, aquacultural discharge, industrial discharge and municipal sewage. Both N2O concentration and emission exhibited strong spatio-temporal variations, which were correlated with nitrogen loading from the river and wastewater discharge. The mean N2O concentration and emission were found to be significantly higher in the summer than in spring and autumn. The results of redundancy analysis showed that NH4+-N explained the greatest variance in N2O emission, which implied that nitrification was the main microbial pathway for N2O production in spite of the potentially increasing importance of denitrification of NO3--N in the summer. The mean N2O emission across the whole reservoir was 107 µg m-2 h-1, which was more than an order of magnitude higher than that from global lakes and reservoirs. Based on our results of Monte Carlo simulations, a minimum of 15 sampling points per km2 would be needed to produce representative and reliable N2O estimates in such a spatially heterogeneous aquatic system. Overall, coastal reservoirs could play an increasingly important role in future climate change via their N2O emission to the atmosphere as water demand and anthropogenic pressure continue to rise.
... Existing sea based reservoirs around the world[3] Under Planning Stage: 1. Pluit Reservoir Revitalization Project, Jakarta, Indonesia; 2. Kalpasar Project, Gulf of Khambhat, Indian Water Project, Gujarat; 3. Sydney and other coastal cities, Australia, 4. New York, USA ...
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India is a sub-continent where presently 320 million people remain in the water-starved parts of the country and according to the UN, this number is expected to increase to 840 million in the year 2050. There is a severe demand-supply mismatch. Though there has been no significant change in India’s rainfall pattern, the number of areas under drought in India is increasing every year. Increase in population is one of the reasons for water scarcity but the inefficient management of the received precipitation stands as the major cause. Though extreme rainfall events are significantly increasing, there is a spatial non-uniformity in the rainfall events that occur. This makes it difficult to pre-plan large scale water storage at different locations. Out of the 4,000 billion m3 of freshwater available from precipitation per annum, major portionrun off into the sea. The solution to India’s water problem is to conserve the abundant monsoon water bounty, store it in coastal reservoirs, and use this water in areas which have occasional inadequate rainfall or are known to be drought-prone or in those times of the year when water supplies become scarce. It is estimated that about 4,400 thousand million cubic feet of rainwater just simply drains into the sea. This paper focuses on the concept of Coastal Reservoir. This basically means building a storage structure near the mouth of river. In this way, the amount of water that is wasted as run-off can be stored. The construction of a coastal reservoir does not involve many risk factors and disadvantages like relocation which would occur in an inland dam construction. The paper also presents the concept of Sarovarmala - a chain of coastal reservoirs which is an innovative concept that has the potential to ensure water availability to India throughout the year.
... The average annual storage loss is about 1 percent [2]. Severity of the situation can be net estimated from the fact that if current sedimentation rate continues, it is predicted that around 300 to 400 new dams would be required to be constructed every year to sustain total storage [3]. There are various ways to sustain the storage capacity of a reservoir like catchment management, dredging, sediment flushing, routing/sluicing and bypassing of sediments that can be used individually or in grouping [4]. ...
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Sediment deposition in a reservoir decreases storage capacity and effects many other parameters of the reservoir adversely. It reduces benefits and useful life of a hydro power project that have huge socioeconomic impacts. Flushing is one of the techniques to remove sediments from reservoirs. This study investigates sediment accumulation, transportation and flushing using both the physical and numerical modeling. Gulpur Hydro Power Project (HPP) on Poonch River in Pakistan was chosen for this purpose. The geometry, cross-sections and other physical attributes of the Poonch River were prepared and hydraulic structures were placed on the basis of topographic survey using AutoCAD. Physical model of scale 1:40 was developed at Nandipur Research Station in Pakistan. After base test the model was used to get data for various scenarios of sediment flows. HEC-RAS was used for numerical simulations. Delta profile and flushing were simulated. Delta modeling was made for hourly time step for 20 years of sediment deposition with average discharge conditions, whereas, suitable flushing durations were predicted for various flushing discharges to de-silt yearly deposited sediments. Simulation showed that life of the un-sluiced Gulpur HPP is about 14-15 years. To enhance the life of project, annually 4-5 days are required for flushing with 250 m 3 /s discharge.
Article
Coastal reservoirs could be used to store freshwater in coastal cities, but the conversion of coastal reservoirs to freshwater reservoirs is relatively time-consuming, and coastal reservoirs are facing a risk of salinization. Taking Zhuyu Lake as the research object, the Spatio-temporal variations of water salinity under different seasons were investigated using the field survey and modeling. The influencing factors of the water salinity of the reservoir were analyzed to discover the variation mechanism. The results showed that the disturbance of overlying water is the most significant factor affecting the salt release of sediment, and salt release was increased by 63.3% with the disturbance. The depth of the overlying water and the salt content of bottom sediment also significantly affected the release of salt, with maximum enhancement by 23.1% and 45.6%, respectively. The microbial content in the bottom mud played an essential role in maintaining the salt, and inhibiting the microbial activity could enhance the release of salt by 35.7%. Therefore, disturbing the sediment by using disturbance ships or aeration devices, and the establishment of a long-term periodic plant harvesting belt could be used in the coastal fresh reservoirs desalination and slowing down the salinization of fresh reservoirs.
Article
In general, people like to live near the coast because of a better aesthetical pleasing living environment, access to a variety of recreational activities and more job opportunities. Consequently, more than 50% of the world’s population live within 200[Formula: see text]km of the coast, and ¾ of the world’s megacities are situated by the shore. Significant pressure on land, water supply, waste management and other infrastructures appear in these coastal cities. India, which hosts one-sixth of the world’s population is looking for strategies to manage India’s coastal cities, water, land and human resources. This paper reviews China’s experience in water resources development for coastal cities. China’s coastal economic corridor (CEC) contributes 60% of the national GDP, which needs plentiful water supply to sustain its coastal cities. The present investigation shows that India has better natural conditions to develop its CEC. Among the coastal infrastructures, coastal reservoirs (i.e., CRs) should be the priority, which nourishes the coastal prosperity. This paper also discusses the feasibility of water–oil exchange project between India and Persian Gulf countries.
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In India, presently 320 million people remain in the water-starved parts of the country, and according to the United Nations, 840 million people are expected to be water-starved in India by 2050. Although there has been no significant change in India's rainfall pattern, the number of areas under drought in India is increasing every year. Increase in population is one of the reasons for water scarcity, but inefficient management of the precipitation received stands as the major cause. Although extreme rainfall events are significantly increasing, there is a spatial nonuniformity in the rainfall events that occur. This makes it difficult to preplan large-scale water storage at different locations. Solution to India's water problem lies in conserving the abundant monsoon water bounty by storing it in coastal reservoirs for future use. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities in India for storing river floodwaters in coastal reservoir. The paper also presents the concept of Sarovar Mala, a chain of coastal reservoirs, an innovative concept that has the potential to ensure water availability to India throughout the year.