TABLE 4 - uploaded by Russell S. Rosen
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Percentage of Students in ASL Classes for Foreign Language Credit Identified as Special Education Students, by State, for the School Year 2004-2005 

Percentage of Students in ASL Classes for Foreign Language Credit Identified as Special Education Students, by State, for the School Year 2004-2005 

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Article
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The last 2 decades witnessed a growth in American Sign Language (ASL) as a foreign language in U.S. secondary schools. This overview of the current state of ASL as a foreign language in the schools consists of a history and a survey. The information on history was drawn from a study conducted by Rosen (2006). This history is followed by a national...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... to respondents' comments in National 13 the survey, ASL courses attracted a relatively high percentage of special education students with deafness and learning and physical disabilities. Table 4 shows the percentage of special education students taking ASL classes for foreign language credit. The figures were only for the school year [2004][2005]. ...

Citations

... • The teachers should have a training in teaching / interpreting SL and should promote social networks and the use of SL in the right situations (Rosen, 2008). Hathazi and Rosan (2019) state the importance of cultural and social aspects that need to be considered, but also the need for individualization regarding teacher training. ...
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The current paper displays the first part of a study regarding a Romanian Sign Language Curriculum developed for university students. Our approach is rooted in the communication theories and adopted a sociolinguistic framework. In the initial part of the article, we have discussed the basic components of Sign Language pedagogy in terms of language structure and teaching competence. The theoretical framework presents an analytical review of the main theories which were used in designing a Sign Language curriculum. Based on this literature review we engaged in our study by creating the necessary educational resources and by planning a Romanian curriculum. The second part of this article describes the focus-groups and the main framework that was used to deliver the training and to assess the participants. The results presented here are just a part of the study that is still ongoing until the end of 2021.
... The following is an examination of how language ideologies ascertained the location of ASL in the American education system and how changing ideologies over time precipitated the movement of ASL from its initial location in deaf education as a language of the deaf, its trajectory across political and cultural contexts, and its arrival in general education as a foreign language for general education students who are mainly hearing. This study builds on several studies conducted by Rosen (2008Rosen ( , 2015. Earlier studies (Rosen 2008) provided data on the number and distribution of classes and programs in ASL as a foreign language in American public secondary schools. ...
... This study builds on several studies conducted by Rosen (2008Rosen ( , 2015. Earlier studies (Rosen 2008) provided data on the number and distribution of classes and programs in ASL as a foreign language in American public secondary schools. Rosen (2008Rosen ( , 2015 provided information on the schools, education departments, and the federal and state laws on ASL as a foreign language at the secondary schools. ...
... Earlier studies (Rosen 2008) provided data on the number and distribution of classes and programs in ASL as a foreign language in American public secondary schools. Rosen (2008Rosen ( , 2015 provided information on the schools, education departments, and the federal and state laws on ASL as a foreign language at the secondary schools. This study added information on the ideological factors that were gleaned from the documents by federal and state education officials that justified and initiated the inclusion of ASL in the public foreign language education curriculum. ...
Article
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American Sign Language has been used at schools and programs for signing deaf and hard of hearing students in US history. Recently, American Sign Language (ASL) was offered as a foreign language to students who speak and hear for foreign language credit at American secondary schools. The movement of the language from its place in deaf education to one of the foreign languages taught in public general education is due to changing ideologies about ASL as a language and as a foreign language. Studies in spoken foreign language ideologies in education presumed ties between languages and national and sub-national ethnic and migrant language groups. No national and sub-national ethnic and migrant language groups have sign language as their mother tongue or are dominated by a signing populace. It raises theoretical issues in foreign language ideology, education, and sign language. Theoretical implications of this study for foreign language ideologies in education are discussed.
... Second-language acquisition.-In recent years, there has been increased research interest regarding second-language acquisition of sign languages (Chen Pichler et al. 2019;Geer & Keane 2017;Rosen 2004Rosen , 2008; for an overview, see Chen Pichler & Koulidobrova 2016). The focus of such research is often on areas of the new modality that are considered to be most difficult for learners of a second language in a second modality, such as handshape discrimination, which is a salient component of sign language phonology. ...
Article
Natural sign languages of deaf communities are acquired on the same time scale as that of spoken languages if children have access to fluent signers providing input from birth. Infants are sensitive to linguistic information provided visually, and early milestones show many parallels. The modality may affect various areas of language acquisition; such effects include the form of signs (sign phonology), the potential advantage presented by visual iconicity, and the use of spatial locations to represent referents, locations, and movement events. Unfortunately, the vast majority of deaf children do not receive accessible linguistic input in infancy, and these children experience language deprivation. Negative effects on language are observed when first-language acquisition is delayed. For those who eventually begin to learn a sign language, earlier input is associated with better language and academic outcomes. Further research is especially needed with a broader diversity of participants. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Linguistics, Volume 7 is January 14, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... If given the chance, such learners may in fact get farther in an L2 signed language than an L2 spoken language. With more and more schools off ering ASL as an L2/ L n , opportunities to take ASL are increasing (Rosen, 2008(Rosen, , 2015. ...
Chapter
Instructors of foreign languages in secondary and higher education often encounter diversity in learning abilities among their learners. Setting aside motivation and other academic factors, what makes one learner better at L1 or L2/Ln learning over another? Might some learners have a stronger aptitude for a signed language over a spoken language? And, how do we know how an atypical L1 or L2/Ln learner will fare in the classroom? These are interesting issues for the L1 and L2/Ln instructors as they consider adapting their instruction or activities for the range of skills and capacities within their class. In this chapter, we focus on adolescent and adult learners of signed language, exploring situations of learner diversity or atypicality and how those differences impact signed language learning in both the L1 and L2/Ln contexts...
... The difficulties deaf and disabled college students and faculty confront in receiving appropriate accommodations are contrasted by the success and popularity of ASL classes. Studies by Russell Rosen (2008), and David Quinto-Pozos (2011), among others have demonstrated that ASL course offerings have surged in both secondary and post-secondary environments. ASL course offerings increased by 437% in a six-year span between 2003 and 2009, and ASL is now the third mosttaught language in the United States (Brueggemann 2009). ...
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Discussions on disability justice within the university have centered disabled students but leaves us with questions about disability justice for the disabled scholar and disabled communities affiliated with universities through the lens of signed language instruction and deaf people. Universities use American Sign Language (ASL) programs to exploit the labors of deaf people without providing a return to disabled communities or disabled academics. ASL courses offers valuable avenues for cripping the university. Through the framework of cripping, we argue universities that offer ASL classes and profit from them have an obligation to ensure that disabled students and disabled academics are able to navigate and succeed in their systems. Disabled students, communities, and academics should capitalize upon the popularity of ASL to expand accessibility and the place of disability in higher education.
... Another key influence is the lack of official recognition of sign languages in many countries (De Meulder, 2015) and the subsequent low status of sign languages in many jurisdictions. This brings with it low levels of awareness of the existence of sign languages (historically the case amongst policy makers, for example), uncertainty regarding applicability of the CEFR to sign languages by key stakeholders, and the lack of standardized curricula and assessments for sign language instruction programs (Rosen, 2010). ...
Technical Report
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The survey served to underpin our action research approach in two areas: curriculum development and pedagogy. In order to facilitate this, the survey design had the following research questions in focus: 1. To what extent is the CEFR implemented in higher education institutions that offer programs in sign language interpreting and Deaf Studies in Europe? 2. What is the current level of awareness of CEFR amongst sign language teachers working in higher education institutions in Europe? 3. What kind of supports are offered within these institutions to Deaf Studies and interpreter education programs aiming to implement CEFR-aligned curricula and assessment? 4. How are sign language assessments currently carried out in these institutions?
... The teaching of sign language, as a foreign language or second language (L2), has seen tremendous growth in the last few decades (Quinto-Pozos, 2011;Rosen, 2008;Rosen, 2010). Sign language classes have been taught at various educational institutions; elementary/secondary schools, colleges/universities, private businesses, and agencies. ...
... Individuals take sign language classes for personal, professional, and academic interest. Due to a significant number of agencies that pro-for All Handicapped Children Act , which mandated that signing Deaf and hard of hearing students be integrated into classes with hearing and nondisabled peers (Rosen, 2008;Wright, 2010). However, this opportunity created communication barriers for these children (Rosen, 2008;Rosen, 2006) mandating that schools provide instruction in their primary language. ...
... Due to a significant number of agencies that pro-for All Handicapped Children Act , which mandated that signing Deaf and hard of hearing students be integrated into classes with hearing and nondisabled peers (Rosen, 2008;Wright, 2010). However, this opportunity created communication barriers for these children (Rosen, 2008;Rosen, 2006) mandating that schools provide instruction in their primary language. Therefore, ASL interpreters were placed in mainstreamed settings (Rosen, 2008). ...
... In terms of the number and percentage of high schools in the U.S. that offer ASL for foreign language credit, a national survey conducted by the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) showed that in 1996 ASL was offered in 1% of the 1,650 surveyed US secondary schools with foreign language programs, or 17 high schools, in 1987schools, in , and 2%, or 33 high schools, in 1997schools, in (CAL, 1997. Rosen (2008) found that out of about 1,900 public high schools in the U.S. that offered foreign language classes in 2004, 701 offered ASL for foreign language credit. ...
... With the increased growth of classes in ASL in high schools, colleges, and universities, questions have been raised about what the ideal characteristics of an ASL teacher are, in particular, the knowledge, qualifications, and preparation of teachers of ASL as an L2/Ln language. Rosen (2008) conducted studies of L2 ASL public high school teachers and their preparation and qualifications. He found that teachers generally lack knowledge of L2/Ln research studies. ...
Article
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American Sign Language (ASL) literature is a recent phenomenon in the American and Canadian academic landscape and constitutes an important component for the field of ASL and Deaf Studies. There are a number of pressing issues that have not been addressed until now. These include: how to respond to the status of ASL as a non-written language, various definitions for ASL literature, a large number of literary works translated from English to ASL, and the confusion associated with some works being produced by the deaf community as opposed to those by individual performers. This paper represents an attempt to address these issues. The four main objectives of this paper are: (1) to validate the relationship between oral literature and ASL literature; (2) to provide a comprehensive definition for ASL literature; (3) to promote the value of originality as compared to translation; and (4) to create a taxonomy of ASL literary genres. Substantial information and some research data is presented which comes from the author’s doctoral dissertation, completed in 2013. A comprehensive definition of ASL literature is expected to help maintain the legitimacy and quality of the literary language of the deaf community. The author has been involved in the creation of a collection of ASL literary works, which provides a much-needed basis for research and scholarship. The general knowledge of ASL literature through the familiarity with works listed in the collection will help create a canon of ASL literature.
... In fact, ASL ranks as the third most frequently studied modern language in postsecondary institutions in the United States (Goldberg, Looney, and Lusin 2009). It is high in demand in high schools as well (Rosen 2008). The book can function as a primer for introductory college courses on ASL, Deaf studies, deaf education, and audiology, and it can be used as supplementary material for advanced or specialized reading courses in similar areas of study. ...
... It is important to acknowledge that the acceptance of ASL as a language has unquestionably increased since the 1980s, and use of the language has become more widespread (Cooper, 1997;Cooper, Reisman, & Watson, 2008, 2011Quinto-Pozos, 2011;Rosen, 2008;Wilcox & Wilcox, 1997). As ASL becomes more entrenched in society as an acceptable alternative mode of communication, it is critical that communication professionals, including the next generation of SLPs, accept the emerging concept of signed language pathology. ...
Article
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Purpose: This study surveyed graduate students of speech-language pathology to determine their awareness of signed language disorders, opening the door to a possible discussion of the need for signed language pathology, including the potential for future signing-based diagnoses and therapies. Method: Thirty-two graduate speech-language pathology students completed a questionnaire identifying (a) their attitudes toward the use of signed language, (b) their awareness of signed language disorders, (c) opportunities for treatment in signed language, and (d) a need for this type of training in graduate education. Results: The majority of the students recognized American Sign Language as a human language; however, respondents lacked prior knowledge of the existence of organic disorders that could impact T the production of signed language. When informed about the existence of such disorders through the questionnaire, these students acknowledged a need for training regarding treatment to alleviate the disorders. Conclusion: Students in this speech-language pathology program, located in the same department as a Deaf Studies program teaching American Sign Language , were receptive to the use of signed language in treatment and saw value in pursuing additional education in signed language pathology in order to diagnose and treat signed language disorders.