Table 7 - uploaded by Lia Nower
Content may be subject to copyright.
Percentage of Past-Year Gamblers Overall, by Gender and Panel Type 

Percentage of Past-Year Gamblers Overall, by Gender and Panel Type 

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... gender, men in the total sample were significantly more likely than women to endorse past- year gambling (72.8% and 66.9%, respectively). In addition, both men and women in the online sample reported higher rates of gambling participation than those in the phone sample ( Table 7). Percentages among venue types also differed by gender, with more than twice as many men as women gambling online- only (7.3% v 3.1%) or in mixed venues (25.5% v 12.6%). ...
Context 2
... the 70 female DFS players, more than half indicated they gambled at mixed venues, though a high proportion of women endorsed land-based only gambling (37.1%) as compared to men (27.4%), who were slightly more likely to gamble only online (9.8% versus 8.6%, ns). By gambling activity, 90.5% of DFS players indicated they bought lottery tickets and 83.6% purchased instant scratch-off tickets (Table 37). More than half of the sample of DFS players gambled on gaming machines (56.4%), bingo (51.6%), live casino table games (57.4%), other games of skill (52.4%), sports (62.6%), and horses (51.3%). ...

Citations

... Many state governments have been encouraging the proliferation of gambling as a means to increase tax revenues and stimulate economic development (Calcagno et al., 2010;Dadayan, 2016;St-Pierre et al., 2014). relatively easy to access (Nower et al., 2017;Williams et al., 2012). In addition, research shows that casino gambling and electronic gambling machines (EGMs) at casino and non-casino locations contribute to the development of problem gambling when compared with other forms of gambling (Clarke et al., 2006(Clarke et al., , 2012Welte et al., 2004Welte et al., , 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Problem gambling is becoming a growing concern in the United States because of the proliferation of, and state support for, gambling opportunities. The economic cost along with the physical and mental health problems associated with problem gambling make it necessary to study how problem gambling can be reduced. Our study examines whether financial literacy could be a means to reducing gambling frequency in the United States. We use data from the Preference Parameter Study of Osaka University, Japan, and apply instrumental variable probit regression models. The results show that, generally, financial literacy does not have a relationship with gambling frequency, but the relationship is significant in the states where electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are available. The results imply that gamblers are irrational and fail to assess the risks of gambling as well as the probabilities that maximize expected payoffs. It appears that gamblers’ psychological gain from gambling outweighs the negative expected utility when there is easy access to gambling. Thus, rationality with regard to gambling decisions does not work unless the easy access to EGMs is controlled. Our results further show that males, older people, people with higher household income, and people who have easy access to gambling are likely to be frequent gamblers.
... Prevalence estimates of problem gambling from five online panel studies ranged between 4.6% and 11.4% (Williams et al., 2011(Williams et al., , p. 2013, estimates much higher than the international standardized average prevalence rate of 2.3% (Calado & Griffiths, 2016;Williams, Volberg et al., 2012). A more recent New Jersey prevalence study reported problem and disordered gambling rates of 10.5% and 21.6% respectively in an online panel sample, compared to 0.3% and 5.7% from a random digit dialed (RDD) telephone survey (Nower et al., 2017). ...
Article
The use of non-probability Internet panels and crowdsource websites is increasing in gambling research. These paid online sampling methods offer a convenient and inexpensive recruitment strategy. The quality of data may be questionable due to careless responding and identity misrepresentation which can bias study results. It is necessary to investigate data quality given the important implications of gambling research in guiding policy decisions, public health initiatives, and treatments. In this review article, we 1) critically analyze the advantages and limitations of paid online recruitment methods, including associated threats to data quality in the gambling literature; 2) present findings from a rapid review of gambling studies using online panel and crowdsource data; and 3) outline recommendations for maximizing data quality and trustworthiness of findings. Substantially overinflated problem gambling rates were found in the 63 gambling studies we reviewed; less than one-quarter had incorporated data quality checks and reported participation rates. Future studies should incorporate pre-registration of methodology and analysis plans, robust participant screening procedures, mid-survey attention and response consistency items, and an analysis of response quality post data collection. Applying these recommendations to nonrepresentative online panel and crowdsource-based studies may enhance the replicability of findings in additional studies using representative samples
... The survey was restricted to those over the age of 18 and was conducted in English, and utilized a weighted, dual sampling frame of a random digit dial, computer assisted telephone interviews (n = 1500) and an online panel survey (n = 2134). Further detail on the sampling strategy can be found in the survey report Nower, Volberg, and Caler (2017). All statistical analyses accounted for complex survey design and dual sampling frame using the "survey" package for the R project for statistical computing (Lumley, 2020). ...
Preprint
Active military members and veterans both show elevated risk of Gambling Disorder. However, research comparing these groups to civilians in epidemiological samples is sparse. There is also some research suggesting that there is a stronger association between military service and poor mental outcomes for women. The current study applies bivariate analyses and generalized linear modelling predicting Problem Gambling Severity Index scores to a representative, complex survey sample of 2176 New Jersey adult residents. The results show that problem gambling scores for past and current military service members were more than double that of the civilian participants after controlling for relevant demographic and behavioral characteristics. Additionally, the relationship between problem gambling scores and military service was significantly stronger for women than men. Bivariate analyses indicated that active military service members scored higher on the Problem Gambling Severity Index, indicated greater weekly participation in online gambling, lottery, electronic gambling machine, and sports betting, and nearly 20 times the rate of suicidal ideation compared with civilians. Additional regression analysis show that among military service members problem gambling scores were associated with suicidal ideation, tobacco use, and substance use problems. The results are discussed in the context of a period of expansion of online gambling opportunities. Constrained options for leisure coupled with the high propensity for risk taking among military service members and the relative ease of concealing online gambling on base may expose military service members to disproportionately higher risk of Gambling Disorder.
... However, in states like New Jersey, which has a long history of gambling and a wide range of gambling opportunities, rates are significantly higher. For example, a recent New Jersey prevalence study found that about 6% of residents who gamble would likely meet criteria for gambling disorder with an additional 15% reporting symptoms of problem gambling (Nower, Volberg, & Caler, 2017). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In Begun, A & Murray, A (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Work and Addictive Behaviors (forthcoming).
... In addition, continuous scores on the degree of fantasy game participation were significantly associated with severity scores on the PGSI. Nower, Volberg, and Caler (2017) reported that among a sample of 1,500 adults in New Jersey, 22.4% engaged in DFS, the majority being between the ages of 25 and 34 (61%), married or living with a partner (62.7%), and having a college or postgraduate degree (46%). Although most DFS players also engage in other forms of gambling activities, 95% of them were high-frequency gamblers and were identified as high-risk problem gamblers. ...
Article
Given significant technological advances, the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 2018 permitting U.S. states to offer and regulate sports wagering, and multiple international governments already regulating and licensing sports wagering operators, sports wagering will likely continue to grow exponentially. This expanding landscape of sports wagering may pose public health problems. This literature review provides a description of our current knowledge of sports gambling behaviour among adults, adolescents, and athletes, including prevalence rates and factors associated with problem gambling sports bettors. We highlight new issues that are surfacing, particularly the interaction between online betting, sports viewing, live betting, mobile technology, and sports fantasy gambling. We also address future research directions, including the need for longitudinal studies to clarify factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of sports-related problem gambling, to examine the impact of major league sports leagues and professional teams that partner with gambling operators and casinos on gambling behaviour, and the need to assess public policy and treatment approaches.RésuméCompte tenu des progrès technologiques importants, de la décision rendue par la Cour suprême des États-Unis en 2018 autorisant les États américains à proposer et à réglementer les paris sportifs et des multiples réglementations gouvernementales internationales les autorisant, les paris sportifs continueront probablement de croître de manière exponentielle. Or, ce domaine de paris sportifs en pleine expansion peut poser des problèmes de santé publique. Cet examen de la littérature contient une description de nos connaissances actuelles sur le comportement au jeu sportif chez les adultes, les adolescents et les athlètes, notamment les taux de prévalence et les facteurs associés aux parieurs sportifs du jeu problématique. Nous mettons en lumière des problèmes émergents, notamment l’interaction entre les paris en ligne, l’écoute de joutes sportives, les paris en direct, la technologie mobile et les jeux de hasard fantastiques. Y sont également abordés l’orientation des recherches futures, notamment la nécessité d’études longitudinales visant à clarifier les facteurs qui contribuent aux débuts et à la poursuite du jeu compulsif lié au sport, un examen de l’impact sur le comportement de jeu des collaborations entre des ligues sportives majeures et des équipes professionnelles et des opérateurs de jeux et des casinos, ainsi que les secteurs d’intérêt concernant les politiques publiques et le traitement.
... 24 25 Although there is still debate concerning whether fantasy sports wagering should be considered 'gambling' versus 'skill', DFS players have been characterised by high gambling frequency and gambling-related problems. 26 Nower and colleagues 27 reported that 22.4% of adults engaged in DFS, with most being between the ages of 25 and 34 (61%), married or living with a partner (62.7%), and having a college or postgraduate degree (46%). Overall, 95% of DFS players were reported to be high-frequency gamblers in general and were identified as highrisk problem gamblers. ...
Article
Opportunities to participate in gambling have dramatically changed during the past 20 years. Casinos have proliferated as have electronic gambling machines, lotteries, sports betting, and most recently online gambling. Gambling among the general population has moved from being perceived negatively to a socially acceptable pastime. As over 80% of individuals have reported gambling for money during their lifetime, governments recognise that regulating gambling—a multibillion dollar industry—is a significant source of revenue. While the vast majority of individuals engaged in some form of gambling have no or few gambling-related problems, an identifiable proportion of both adolescents and adults experience significant gambling-related problems. Elite athletes have not been immune to the lure of gambling nor its concomitant problems. Prevalence studies suggest higher rates of gambling problems among athletes than the general population. In this narrative review, we examine several risk factors associated with gambling problems among elite athletes and new forms of gambling that may be problematic for this population. Given the potential serious mental health and performance consequences associated with a gambling disorder for athletes, we aim to increase coaches’, athletic directors’ and health professionals’ knowledge concerning the importance of screening and treatment referrals.
... As reported in other studies, the prevalence of problem gambling in New Jersey is lowest among land‐based only gamblers, followed by online‐only gamblers; it is highest among those who gambling at mixed venues, both online and at land‐based venues (Nower et al., 2016). In the state‐wide prevalence study, about 4.5% of those who gambled only at land‐based venues were in the high risk problem gambling group, which would likely meet criteria for disorder. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
... As reported in other studies, the prevalence of problem gambling in New Jersey is lowest among land‐based only gamblers, followed by online‐only gamblers; it is highest among those who gambling at mixed venues, both online and at land‐based venues (Nower et al., 2016). In the state‐wide prevalence study, about 4.5% of those who gambled only at land‐based venues were in the high risk problem gambling group, which would likely meet criteria for disorder. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Gambling is widely considered a socially acceptable form of recreation. However, for a small minority of individuals, it can become both addictive and problematic with severe adverse consequences. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide an overview of prevalence studies published between 2016 and the first quarter of 2022 and an updated estimate of problem gambling in the general adult population. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites. Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 23 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified, distinguishing between moderate risk/at risk gambling and problem/pathological gambling. This study found a prevalence of moderate risk/at risk gambling to be 2.43% and of problem/pathological gambling to be 1.29% in the adult population. As difficult as it may be to compare studies due to different methodological procedures, cutoffs, and time frames, the present meta-analysis highlights the variations of prevalence across different countries, giving due consideration to the differences between levels of risk and severity. This work intends to provide a starting point for policymakers and academics to fill the gaps on gambling research—more specifically in some countries where the lack of research in this field is evident—and to study the effectiveness of policies implemented to mitigate gambling harm.
Preprint
Despite the rapid expansion of legalized gambling, few social workers are trained to identify problem gambling symptoms. This study explored gambling knowledge, behavior, and problem symptoms in a sample of 1,777 clinical social workers through an online survey. Findings indicate about 77% of social workers gambled and more than 4% of those who gambled reported at least one problem gambling symptom. Participants answered less than half of the knowledge questions correctly, and a majority were unaware of the current diagnostic classification for gambling disorder or the legal age for gambling. Results of a multivariate regression analysis found that social workers in practice 8 to 15 years, employed in substance treatment facilities or universities, and/or with training in gambling treatment had higher levels of knowledge about gambling and gambling treatment. Findings underscore the need for social work schools and organizations to prioritize education and training for problem gambling identification and treatment.