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Payload class diagram.  

Payload class diagram.  

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Article
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The article describes a model for satellite systems preliminary design based on European Space Agency concurrent design approach. Space systems preliminary design aspects based on a concurrent engineering methodology are first briefly illustrated. A general description of a typical space system and its subsystems is provided and sizing criteria are...

Citations

... The classical book "Space Mission Analysis and Design" by Wertz and Larson [40] propose a well-adopted example of such satellite design process. References [3,22,23,62,67] are further similar examples of processes to design satellites. All these methodologies provide a formalized process implementing a satellite configuration workflow to satisfy mission objectives and requirements. ...
Conference Paper
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Designing spacecraft such as satellites is known as an extremely difficult problem. It requires complex decision-making at different concerns from mission requirements to system architectures. Such complexity might lead to design system architectures that are not feasible in practice or do not fulfill the requirements. Moreover, the lack of automation to assess high-level designs reduce the benefits of the early design phases by missing more suitable designs and increasing the design time. In this paper we discuss potential research directions and propose a potential framework that aims to i) drive the engineers in the different design steps ii) capture the feasible system architectures regarding the requirements and constraints, iii) refine and assess selected architectures through simulations. Our framework is model-driven and built on two complementary modules. The first module is a configurator based on attributed features models that support engineers in the design process of system architectures. Second, a simulation engine refines and assess automatically the selected system architectures with respect to the requirements.
... Following the model-based approach the disciplines share a common system model. During the conceptual design the parametric models for the all the system's parts are used, and form so called system budgets that allow to determine overall concept's feasibility [12,13]. ...
... In order to collaborate on a conceptual design, an integrated model is built that includes all the necessary discipline perspectives. Each discipline contributes to the integrated model with a domain specific sizing model based on design parameters [12]. Some of the disciplines are responsible for the conceptual design of a physical subsystem (e.g., propulsion, communications), while other disciplines are concerned with nonphysical, or transversal issues (ed. ...
Article
This work presents a model of the process of conceptual design studies which use the concurrent engineering approach. Concurrent conceptual design is an integrated system development approach, to rapidly explore feasible design solutions by parallelizing the work of experts. This approach is characterized by a multidisciplinary team of experts collaborating in a co‐located manner. Albeit the conceptual design phase requires creative problem solving, teamwork requires coordination, and would profit from a shared understanding of the design process. Based on a survey among experts from 15 different organizations, and practice documented in literature, we propose a model of the underlying design process. This work extends our previous work on a coordination method for concurrent design and provides validation of the process model via case studies and expert interviews. The proposed process model is formalized in SysML diagrams. It can be used to help program coordinators and train engineers of different disciplines on the methodology of concurrent conceptual design, as well to serve as a baseline for implementing the methodology in new organizations.
... Consequently, this process of heat exchange in the FC is complex (conjugate) which simultaneously involves mechanisms of heat conduction, convection, and radiation. There is a need to set and solve problems associated with a creation of computational and mathematical models for the fluid circuit of control systems arises in the process of developing modern layout schemes for instrument compartments of spacecraft [6]. Current existing mathematical models developed for circulating thermal control systems do not take into account specifics of complex conjugate heat transfer and do not allow the use of optimization procedures. ...
Article
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This paper considers the development of a mathematical model for spacecraft thermal control fluid circuit systems. The need to take into account the complex mode of heat exchange in a fluid circuit model reflects relevance of the paper. Basic equations of heat exchange model in the circuit are given. A procedure for the numerical solution is described. Obtained calculation results are presented and analyzed. The developed model allows numerical studies to assess an impact on characteristics of the circuit of various design and operating parameters.
... The components of a satellite receive budgets [38] from the mission requirements. System engineers define different budgets(mass budget, power budget and link budget) and distribute them to the sub-systems and equipment. ...
Thesis
Requirements engineering plays an important role both in software and systems engineering. It is the process of defining, documenting, and maintaining requirements. Requirements traceability is a branch of requirements engineering, which establishes relationships between requirements and design artifacts, implementation artifacts, and test cases. Traceability provides several benefits both in software and systems engineering, one of them is to provide change impact analysis. When a particular requirement changes, it is implied that the artifacts related with the requirement should also change. In this thesis, we provide a new methodology for requirements management and traceability. Although the methodology is applicable for different systems engineering domains, space mission requirements and spacecraft models are the main focus of this thesis. The methodology consists of three parts. In the first part, we cover traceability between requirements and model artifacts. Unlike existing traceability approaches, our methodology provides automatic validation. In the second part of the methodology, we introduce modeling on the basis of requirements. The last part of the methodology covers requirements-based artifact reuse. Besides our theoretical contribution, we provide a prototype tool implementation which includes the features of the methodology. In our evaluation, we demonstrate our contribution by integrating our tool with Virtual Satellite, a spacecraft modeling software developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR).
... [5] The European Space Agency (ESA) once stated a reduction of design time from 6-9 months down to 3-6 weeks. [6] 2. ...
Conference Paper
Concurrent Engineering (CE) and Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) have increased the efficiency of spacecraft, and satellite design in particular. Early design of satellites in Concurrent Engineering Centers (CEC) has almost become business as usual. However, such progress has still to be achieved for the design of launchers. Applying the same approaches as used for satellites has not led to the same amount of improvement, yet. To address this, DLR initiated the project Concurrent Launch Vehicle Analysis (CLAVA) to investigate the shortcomings and to improve the efficiency of conceptual launcher design and analysis. From an MBSE point of view, investigations show that concurrent modelling requires new Conceptual Data Models. In contrast to designing satellites, they are focused on a much more physical abstraction rather than a functional one. Regarding simulations, it has become clear that the conceptual design phase of launchers requires far more computationally intense simulations in a sequential order. With this knowledge, it is possible to outline a new process for CE studies allowing for concurrent design phases and sequential simulation phases. For this, an adjusted architecture of tools is required as well. The data model used for satellite studies within DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) does not fit to the requirements of launcher design and has been adapted. Additionally, DLR's aeronautics divisions have already made substantial progress in increasing the efficiency of their simulations. They employ automated simulation workflows using a parametric model for information exchange between integrated tools. This approach has been adopted and integrated. This paper outlines how this approach is combined with CE and MBSE concepts used for satellites and addresses the specific requirements of launcher design. It provides details about the database used during CE sessions, and how its information is transferred into the parametric data model used to run the required simulations. The conceptual data model of this database has been adapted to the physical representation of launchers; these changes will also be discussed. Furthermore, the general idea of the workflow and the design of the parametric model will be presented. The paper concludes by providing an outlook of how DLR intends to continue on this work, and further refine the developed tools and processes into daily CE and CEF application.
... Commonly, parametric models are used to map design parameters onto performance characteristics. For the case of sizing a satellite, a data model was describe in [18]. A more generic data model was elaborated by European space agencies and companies. ...
... Due to the challenging mission requirements and the strict constraints, in particular imposed by the harsh environmental conditions encountered during the flight, a collaborative approach of concurrent engineering (CE) has been used for the preliminary feasibility study. By means of a greater and efficient exchange of information [2,3] and thanks to a very flexible and effective CE tool for the real-time design, sizing and visualization of the space system [4], the CE approach has proved to be very helpful in meeting these tight mission demands and at the same time considerably reducing the design time and the inter-subsystems conflicts. In the following paragraphs, after a brief introduction of the CE tool used for the preliminary design, the mission is illustrated by pointing out its objectives, the mission analysis and the spacecraft configuration, which will be studied in deep in the system budgets section. ...
... Generally, the initial phases of a project, and especially of a space mission project, are crucial since they influence greatly the ensuing steps. Indeed, feasibility assessment at early stages brings to time and cost reductions [2,3]. ...
... There are several definitions of CE, but the one that best explains the concept is the following: "Concurrent Design is a methodology that allows the parallel design of several subsystems, managing their mutual interactions, which are then assembled to form an engineering system" [3]. According with this definition, some advantages of the CE can be easily underlined, comparing it with traditional methods: the design process become faster and more integrated thanks to the possibility of an almost near real-time exchange of information among the disciplines involved in the project. ...
Article
Full-text available
The early stages of a space mission design are crucial for the development of the whole project because they strongly influence the ensuing design phases. Moreover, feasibility assessment at early stages brings to time and cost reductions and strongly determines the overall performances of proposed solutions. Concurrent Engineering (CE) is a systemic and systematic design strategy that employs real-time interdisciplinary activities for products development. The advantage of the CE approach is particularly noticeable in the study of systems of high complexity, as space exploration systems do. The aim of this work is to show how a Concurrent Design approach can be very profitable in the development of a pre-phase A study of an interplanetary space mission, by means of a greater and effective exchange of information, enlarging the solutions tradespace, highlighting system criticalities and solving inter-subsystems conflicts. The case study, TRIton Tomography Orbiter (TRITO), is conceived as a mission to investigate the Neptune planetary system and its main moon Triton, which is of scientific interest due to its geological activity and the possible presence of subsurface oceans. The possibility of a pre-science phase in orbit around Neptune has been considered, giving the opportunity of precise measurements of its gravitational and magnetic field, together with its upper atmosphere composition. Therefore, a complex suite of instruments composed of magnetometers, laser altimeters, cameras and spectrometers, constitutes the payload, supported by a spacecraft able to face challenging environmental conditions during its whole spaceflight, ending with an aerocapture manoeuvre within the Neptune atmosphere. The collaborative approach, through the use of a modern CE design tool, is demonstrated to be very helpful not only in finding solutions meeting the strict constraints imposed by the harsh environmental conditions, but also for the individuation of optimum solutions related to mission analysis and mass budget aspects according to the system criticalities. The CE approach has been demonstrated to be an unavoidable design methodology for the development of systems showing a high level of subsystems interconnections and simultaneous interactions of different engineering domains, permitting to manage the growing design complexity.
... [10]. In its traditional use, concurrent design is used to reduce development cost and schedule in integrated product development [11]. Concurrent design leverages multidisciplinary teams of experts collaboratively working on a system design study in a shared workspace, equipped with tools and processes to facilitate collaboration, along with a common data exchange tool for modeling. ...
Conference Paper
Corporate research and technology (R&T) management needs reliable information for strategic planning. A commonly used tool are technology roadmaps, since they describe vision and corporate strategy for technology evolution. The process of creating a technology roadmap involves experts from engineering, product development and all support functions evaluating and comparing opportunities for incremental as well as disruptive innovation. This work describes an approach, where experts build and run models in a concurrent design environment allowing the evaluation of potential product architectures according to a defined set of figures of merit and at different time horizons. This mapping of the landscape can then inform the planning of technology investment and development. The process is illustrated using the example of a solar-electric aircraft technology roadmap.
... As one example from space sector, the European Space Agency (ESA) has implemented CE for the early design of spacecraft. Here, a reduction in design time from around 6-9 months, down to 3-6 weeks was achieved (Domizio and Gaudenzi, 2008). Same as ESA with their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), the DLR has implemented CE for the early spacecraft design in their CEF. ...
Article
Today, phase A studies of future space systems are often conducted in special design facilities such as the Concurrent Engineering Facility at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Within these facilities, the studies are performed following a defined process making use of a data model for information exchange. Quite often it remains unclear what exactly such a data model is and how it is implemented and applied. Nowadays, such a data model is usually a software using a formal specification describing its capabilities within a so-called meta-model. This meta-model, often referred as conceptual data model, is finally used and instantiated as system model during these concurrent engineering studies. Such software also provides a user interface for instantiating and sharing the system model within the design team and it provides capabilities to analyze the system model on the fly. This is possible due to the semantics of the underlying conceptual data model creating a common language used to exchange and process design information. This article explains the implementation of the data model at DLR and shows information how it is applied in the concurrent engineering process of the Concurrent Engineering Facility. It highlights important aspects concerning the modeling capabilities during a study and discusses how they can be implemented into a corresponding conceptual data model. Accordingly, the article presents important aspects such as rights management and data consistency and the implications of them to the software’s underlying technology. A special use case of the data model is depicted and shows the flexibility of the implementation proven by a study of a multi-module space station.
... Concurrent conceptual design applies the ideas of MBSE and takes advantage of multidisciplinary teams of experts closely collaborating in a single Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, Russia physical facility with appropriate modeling tools to improve the quality and decrease the cost of preliminary design studies. In practice, the time spent for a preliminary design study has decreased from 6-9 months to 3-6 weeks, which paved the success of concurrent conceptual design for complex space systems (Bandecchi et al., 2000;Di Domizio and Gaudenzi, 2008). This type of concurrent conceptual design process within dedicated facilities is applied more and more in the space industry and beyond for early concept validation and feasibility studies. ...
... Subsystem models can encapsulate analytic or behavioral models, but appear to the system simply as a mapping of input to output parameters. A proper description of the data model for the case of a satellite system design is given in Di Domizio and Gaudenzi (2008). European space agencies and companies have elaborated a technical memorandum, which contains a unique data model for design studies. ...
Article
This work presents a method and a tool for conducting conceptual design studies for projects such as a space exploration mission and a satellite constellation in a concurrent manner in both time and space, while taking into account the structure of the system to design and the dependencies between the system’s constituting elements. Design work is parallelized to reduce the time required to converge to a solution for a preliminary design, which includes the system architecture, its detailed requirements, and its costs. The multidisciplinary team of designers works in colocation to leverage effective direct human interaction for discussing design trade-offs quickly. While this is practice in space agencies for mission feasibility studies, a common methodology was not described so far. Our work proposes a method for the coordination of discipline experts and the sequence of activities performed during conceptual design studies, which use integrated parametric system models. Our method reduces the number of design iterations by applying a design structure matrix clustering algorithm to the system model and deriving a schedule for the design session. We also describe the tool Concurrent Engineering Data Exchange Skoltech we developed for collaborative work on the parametric system models and serve as an instrument for research on complex system design methodologies. The tool features a fast synchronization mechanism for the concurrent work of multiple design experts, and it supports our coordination method for concurrent design studies. The tool was published as open-source software, so other researchers can use it and build upon it. We used our tool and applied the method to two case studies of preliminary satellite designs and tested them with groups of students of a satellite engineering class and researchers from our institute. Throughout the experiments, we recorded information about user interactions and collected user feedback for the evaluation of the coordination method and the collaboration tool. Both method and tool demonstrated their validity in our experimental setting.