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Pathobiochemical mechanisms of animal protein-induced nephrolithiasis.

Pathobiochemical mechanisms of animal protein-induced nephrolithiasis.

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Background. While high-protein consumption—above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)—is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutrit...

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... Most sulfur-rich sources of amino acids are found in animal proteins, which have positive dietary acid load; indeed, according to many studies, this type of protein can lead to metabolic acidosis and inflammation and this may accounted for MPs in this study [20]. An imbalance between acidic and alkaline precursors has been shown to disrupt a chronic net dietary acid load, which may have adverse consequences on bone health and pain [21]. Furthermore, Calder et al. found that excessive consumption of SAAs was associated with increased bone resorption [22], whilst dietary methionine may decrease blood pH and increases skeletal pain [23]. ...
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Objective Musculoskeletal pain conditions (MPs) are a widespread public problem that can affect 13.5% to 47% of the total population. Dietary changes can have strong effects on person’s health; for instance, Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) can act as a precursor of neurotransmitters, antioxidative metabolic intermediates, such as glutathione, impact inflammation, and play a role in severity and frequency of MPs. We evaluated the relationship between dietary SAAs intake with severity and frequency of pain in patients with MPs. Results This cross-sectional study consisted of 175 men and woman. Anthropometric measurements and pain assessments were conducted via questionnaires. Dietary data were collected using 7 days 24-h recall. ANOVA and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship and correlation, respectively, between exposure and outcome variables. There was a significant correlation between age, weight, waist circumference (WC), waist circumference to height (WHtR), body mass index (BMI), and severity and frequency of MPs among women. There was a correlation between age and severity of pain in men. The present study highlights a positive association between the dietary SAAs and severity of pain, even after adjusting for confounding variables.
... Protein overconsumption (i.e., protein that is nutritionally unnecessary) in western countries has been widely reported [11][12][13] and is far above the Population Reference Intake (PRI) [14]. There is a clear rationale to decrease the daily intake of protein since a substantial body of evidence associates the overconsumption of protein with adverse effects on human health, such as disorders of bone and calcium homeostasis, renal and liver dysfunction, increased cancer risk, hyperalbuminemia and precipitated progression of coronary artery disease [15][16][17][18][19][20]. Refs. ...
... [21,22], therefore, suggest a 'reversed' diet transition by 'using less' (e.g., leaving the meat out of the dish) or 'doing things differently' by a diet reformulation strategy, with reduced protein content in food products appears to be the most effective approach. However, plans to convince free and affluent societies to eat healthy but not innately desired food have been largely unsuccessful in the past [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Since the beginning of nutritional science, it has been hypothesised that the nutrients ingested through our diet are not entirely absorbed in the body, and only part of them are available. ...
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Several global health risks are related to our dietary lifestyle. As a consequence of the overconsumption of ultra-processed and highly digestible protein (150–200% of the recommended value), excess dietary proteins reach the colon, are hydrolysed to peptides and amino acids by bacterial proteases and fermented to various potentially toxic end products. A diet reformulation strategy with reduced protein content in food products appears to be the most effective approach. A potential approach to this challenge is to reduce food digestibility by introducing resistant protein into the diet that could positively influence human health and gut microbiome functionality. Resistant protein is a dietary constituent not hydrolysed by digestive enzymes or absorbed in the human small intestine. The chemical conformation and the amino acid composition strictly influence its structural stability and resistance to in vivo proteolysis and denaturation. Responding to the important gap in our knowledge regarding the digestibility performance of alternative proteins, we hypothesise that resistant proteins can beneficially alter food functionality via their role in improving metabolic properties and health benefits in human nutrition, similar to fibres and resistant starches. A multidisciplinary investigation of resistant protein will generate tremendous scientific impact for other interlinked societal, economic, technological and health and wellbeing aspects of human life.
... Indeed, protein is an essential macronutrient needed by the human body for growth and maintenance. However, high-protein diets are promoted intensively by the nutritional supplements industry for the loss of body fat and/or the development of muscles [8]. On the contrary, several researchers claim that high-dietary-protein intake could cause disorders [9]. ...
... Extra protein is not used efficiently by the body and may force a metabolic load onto various organs, such as kidneys and liver [8]. There is evidence that protein may raise the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetes and several types of cancer. ...
... An atherosclerotic effect from the LCHP diet was also confirmed in some previous studies [11,12]. Moreover, the high-meat diets may also be associated with higher risk for coronary heart disease as a result of intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat [8]. These conflicting results have initiated a debate over the benefits and risks of such diets and this is why our study concept was to enrich with 1% cholesterol, not only for the LCHP diet, but also the AIN-93G and Western diets, to determine the potential health consequences for the organism. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a low-carbohydrate–high-protein diet, enriched with cholesterol (LCHPch), on body weight, lipid metabolism, as well as kidney and liver function in rats. Wistar rats (N = 18, male) were randomly allocated into experimental groups and fed a modified AIN-93G diet with the addition of 1% cholesterol (AINch, WDch and LCHPch diets) for 8 weeks. Despite the lack of significant differences in the final body weight and liver weight of animals, the kidneys of rats in the LCHPch group were considerably heavier compared to the control group. Serum total cholesterol and the sum of low- and very-low-density fractions of cholesterol as well as ALT activity were significantly increased in the LCHPch rats in comparison to the AINch group. Simultaneously, the highest content of liver fat was obtained for animals from LCHPch group. It was also shown that both WDch and LCHPch diets significantly changed fatty acid profile in the adipose tissue of rats compared to control, with a significant increase in SFA and MUFA and a decrease in PUFA. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was observed in rats fed not only WDch but also LCHPch diets. The detailed mechanism still needs to be investigated to prevent the organism from the harmful effects of macronutrient dietary imbalance.
... Therefore, an apprehension may be associated with consuming these protein-rich foods (Delimaris, 2013). Evidence suggests that consuming food containing amyloids or amyloid-like aggregates enhances the probability of onset of protein misfolding diseases, particularly in the susceptible individual. ...
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Purified soya bean proteins (glycinin and conglycinin) are known to form amyloid‐like aggregates in vitro at a higher temperature. Soya beans (chunks) are textured proteinaceous vegetables made from defatted soya flour by heating it above 100°C and extruding under high pressure. Therefore, it was assumed that subjecting the soya bean proteins to high temperatures raises the possibility of forming amyloids or amyloid‐like protein aggregates. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the presence of amyloid‐like protein aggregates in soya beans. The isolated protein aggregates from hydrated soya beans displayed typical characteristics of amyloids, such as the red shift in the absorption maximum (λmax) of Congo red (CR), high Thioflavin T (ThT), and 8‐Anilinonapthalene‐1‐sulfonate (ANS) binding, and fibrilar morphology. Furthermore, these aggregates were found to be stable against proteolytic hydrolysis, confirming the specific property of amyloids. The presence of amyloid‐like structures in soya beans raises concerns about their implications for human nutrition and health. Practical applications Protein aggregation has usually been considered detrimental. The traditional food‐processing conditions, such as thermal processing, are associated with protein denaturation and aggregation. The formation of ordered protein aggregates with extensive β‐sheet are progressively evident in various protein‐rich foods known as amyloid, which expands food safety concerns. Instead, it is also associated with poor nutritional characteristics. The present study concerns the presence of amyloid‐like protein aggregates in widely consumed native soya beans, which are manufactured by extensive heat treatment of defatted soy flour. Although there is no indication of their toxicity, these aggregates are found to be proteolytically resistant. The seminal findings in this manuscript suggest that it is time to adapt innovative food processing and supplementation of bioactive molecules that can prevent the formation of such protein aggregates and help maximize the utilization of protein‐based nutritional values.
... Protein is a nutrient genuinely essential for life, but whilst there are good reasons to encourage an adequate intake of it, high intake of protein, most notably of animal origin, has been linked to many of the modern day chronic diseases (Delimaris, 2013;Dong, Gao et al., 2020;Naghshi, Sadeghi et al., 2020), whilst varied and balanced plant-based eating patterns have been shown to help in the prevention of many of them (Kim, Caulfield et al., 2019;Tuso, Ismail et al., 2013). From a health standpoint, meat alternatives are not all free of some of the issues encountered by the products they intend to replace, as they generally are ultra-processed foods, which higher consumption has been linked to low diet quality (Martini et al., 2021). ...
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Background The drive to reduce the negative impact of the global food system on the environment and human health, and to feed a growing global population, has led to the rapid development of meat alternatives, including plant-based and mycoprotein-based products such as burgers, cured meat and nuggets. These are generally food items manufactured with highly refined ingredients, so health professionals interested in promoting plant-based diets, or a reduction in meat consumption, need a deeper understanding about the potential health effects of these products in order to present them to the public in an objective and helpful manner. Scope and approaches In this narrative review, a search of the current available scientific literature was performed with the aim of exploring all these foods by delving into the way they are manufactured, their nutritional characteristics, their impact on health, as well as trying to understand their place in modern, diets. Key findings and conclusion Processed meat alternatives, despite being highly refined products, can be a good source of healthy food groups and nutrients often underrepresented in omnivores diets such as grains, legumes, plant protein and fibre, although attention must be paid to their salt and saturated fat content. For people wanting to move away from a meat-heavy diet, the consumption of these items can represent a stepping stone towards the adoption of more healthful dietary patterns centred on whole plant-foods. In addition, they might help to increase compliance with the new lifestyle as they tend to replicate some of the organoleptic properties of meat.
... In general, the human body needs between 1.0 g to 1.5g of protein for each kilogram of weigh in children and adults respectively [5]. If there is insufficient protein in diet chronically that could cause kwashiorkor disease, which is a severe form of malnutrition [6]. ...
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Background: Fermentation is a sort of biotechnology that uses microorganisms to produce animal food through chemical process. In ancient times, wastes were treated with chemicals, but now companies convert wastes to valuable food, food ingredients or feed products such as single cell oils or single cell protein. The most used substrate is molasses and corn steep liquor which is a part of the fermentation process. Aim: The aims of the manuscript is to provide an overview of the yeast strains and food by-products used in production of single cell proteins by fermentation process. Furthermore, the manuscript summarizes the role of single cell protein in animal feed. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted on Google Scholar database Medline and PubMed. A further search was conducted on the Food and agricultural organisation FAO research article database. Results: Single cell protein produced by these substrates and different microorganisms (algae, yeast, bacteria) play an important role in animal feeding. Furthermore, SCP is a high-quality protein, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals sources for animals. Conclusion: Production of single cell of protein through the fermentation has several significant benefits including sustainability, health and production efficacy.
... Methods for the enrichment of protein preparations have already been developed [28][29][30][31]. Nevertheless, high protein intake is not advisable in some diets [32]. Consumers may also show little confidence in high-protein preparations, associating them with the diets of physically active people rather than as a standard part of everyday diet [33][34][35]. ...
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This study aimed to determine the use of selected vegetables (pumpkin, cauliflower, broccoli , carrot) as carriers of potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate (KIO3) by determining changes in iodine content under various conditions of impregnation as the degree of hydration, impregnated sample temperature, and impregnation time. The influence of these conditions on iodine contents in vegetables after their fortification and storage (21 °C/230 days) was analyzed. The results showed that all selected vegetables could be efficient iodine carriers. However, the conditions of the impregnation process are crucial for fortification efficiency, particularly the degree of hydration and the temperature of the impregnated samples before drying. The results showed that the lowest iodine content was in samples fortified at 4 °C and 1:4 hydration. On the other hand, the highest reproducibility of iodine was for the following fortification conditions: temperature of −76 °C and hydration of 1:1. The studies confirmed the higher stability of iodine in KIO3 form compared to KI. To increase recovery of the introduced iodine in the product after drying, using the conditioning step at 4 °C is not recommended. We recommend freezing vegetables immediately after the impregnation process
... These data in model organisms go against trending dietary advice for humans, which has generally recommended that humans should be eating more protein to improve satiety and promote weight loss (Cuenca-Sanchez et al., 2015;Yu et al., 2020). High protein diets are indeed indicated for certain clinical conditions or life stages, such as pregnancy and old age, but epidemiological evidence suggests that overconsumption of protein outside of these conditions could be deleterious (Delimaris, 2013). A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of overfeeding in metabolically healthy individuals with low, normal, or high protein content found that low protein feeding resulted in significantly less weight gain, though this was a result of lack of lean mass gain rather than reduced fat gain (Bray et al., 2012). ...
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The proportion of humans suffering from age‐related diseases is increasing around the world, and creative solutions are needed to promote healthy longevity. Recent work has clearly shown that a calorie is not just a calorie—and that low protein diets are associated with reduced mortality in humans and promote metabolic health and extended lifespan in rodents. Many of the benefits of protein restriction on metabolism and aging are the result of decreased consumption of the three branched‐chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Here, we discuss the emerging evidence that BCAAs are critical modulators of healthy metabolism and longevity in rodents and humans, as well as the physiological and molecular mechanisms that may drive the benefits of BCAA restriction. Our results illustrate that protein quality—the specific composition of dietary protein—may be a previously unappreciated driver of metabolic dysfunction and that reducing dietary BCAAs may be a promising new approach to delay and prevent diseases of aging. Creative solutions are needed to combat increasing rates of metabolic disease and promote healthy aging. This review summarizes the latest research on protein and branched‐chain amino acid restriction as interventions to alter metabolism to extend lifespan and reduce frailty in model organisms and humans. The authors discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning these dietary interventions and postulate future directions of the field, which may include personalized nutrition therapy.
... So far, an UL standard has not been defined for protein but attempts are underway to determine the upper limit of consumption. However, it is known that high protein consumption may be associated with hypercalciuria, resulting in osteoporosis, acidosis, and an increased risk of kidney stones [4,44]. Excess dietary protein content in childhood contributes to an increased risk of obesity [45]. ...
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The evaluation of nutrition is an essential element of preventing chronic diseases and can be used to determine nutritional recommendations. A child spends about 7–8 h a day in a kindergarten; therefore, meals served there should be balanced appropriately to ensure the full psychophysical development of the young organism. At preschool age, children develop eating habits that can have life-long effects. Based on 10-day menus, the study aimed to estimate the energy and nutritional value of children’s diets at four randomly selected kindergartens in the Wroclaw district, Poland. In total, 80 menus were analyzed (40 for summer and 40 for autumn). The data from kindergartens were analyzed based on the Diet 6D computer program. Regardless of the kindergarten, the analyzed food rations showed irregularities related to excessive supplies (in reference to the dietary recommendations) of sucrose, fiber, salt, magnesium, and vitamin A. The preschool food rations did not cover demands with respect to PUFA n-3, PUFA-n-6, calcium, and vitamin D. The observed irregularities confirm the need to monitor the content of energy and nutrients in preschool menus to be able to correct any dietary errors.
... Both plant and animal proteins contain the same amino acids and therefore are similar in components, however, animal proteins contain all the essential amino acids, whereas plant protein only contains some of the essential amino acids [33]. In general, the body needs between 1.0 g-1.5 g of protein for each kilogram of weight in children and adults respectively [36], and if there is an insufficient amount of protein in the diet this could cause kwashiorkor, a severe form of malnutrition [37]. Some studies included in this review highlighted that functional food or food products resulted in better clinical benefits than counselling and intake of supplements due to the fact that vitamins and minerals found in food sources are easier to absorb than those in supplement form [38]. ...
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Background: Malnutrition is a serious condition that develops when the human body is deprived of or does not obtain the right amount of vital nutrients like vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and some other essential substances that the body needs to function. It can have a significant impact on people’s health including stunted growth, low body weight and muscle wasting. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the factors that could cause malnutrition in humans, something that is considered as a major global issue nowadays and is associated with negative aspects on patient’s activities. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted on the Google Scholar database, Medline and PubMed up to the 11of December 2021. All studies reporting an association between foods and malnutrition were included. Results: The search yielded 637 references, included 52 clinical trials, 11 meta-analysis, 45 randomised clinical trials (RCT) and 201 reviews. Among the manuscripts, 25 studies provided evidence for the association between malnutrition and micronutrients. The results showed that in addition to insufficient intake of the essential nutrient, several chronic diseases including gastrointestinal tract diseases, cancer and sometimes post-surgery complications are also associated with malnutrition. Conclusion: Only a limited number of studies reported a direct link between functional foods and malnutrition, which all agree that there is clear evidence in favour of functional foods being effective in preventing and reducing the impact of malnutrition. Other studies looked at for this review would suggest that they may even be effective in improving the quality of life.