Parts of a typical fishing hook. 

Parts of a typical fishing hook. 

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Very few studies have been conducted to analyse physical and mechanical properties of fishing hooks. The present work is an account of a study carried out on five major brands of number seven round bent fishing hooks available in India, which are used to harvest tuna and medium sized fish resources. We have selected three imported and two indigenou...

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... like hook shape, hook size and mechanical strength of the hook bend have a direct influence on the fishing Hook and line fishing is a highly selective low energy fishing performance of the hook. The fishing hooks available to the method and is well suited for the exploitation of sparingly fishermen are not uniform in their physical and mechanical distributed fishes. It is one of the most ancient fishing techniques, properties and a high degree of variation is seen between which is still in use all over the world [1]. Fishing hooks form the different brands. These variations could be attributed to differ- indispensable part of any hook and line fishing system. Modern ence in the steel wire used for manufacture of hooks and day fishing hooks are manufactured from high carbon steel wire differences in hook manufacturing process [2,3]. Kitano et al. [2,3]. The characteristic bend of fishing hook is formed by [7] studied the corrosion resistance of tuna long line fishing physically bending the wire to the desired shape and style. The hooks. Ko and Kim [8] tested six types of fishing hooks for most important step in hook manufacture is the tempering of the breaking and unbending due to plastic deformation of the hook in which the hook is hardened to improve strength. This material using dynamometer. They have also studied the process hardens the metal and substantially increases its resistance dynamic forces acting on the fishing hook during hooking to unbending, resulting in strong hooks with reduced brittleness. and hauling. Varghese et al. [9] studied the physical properties The resistance of fishing hooks towards unbending force is a very as well as corrosion resistance of fishing hooks from five essential property as far as fishing hooks are concerned. But we indigenous hook manufacturing firms and that of one imported have found that references of such studies are very limited. Most brand. It is difficult to compare between different brands of studies carried out were focused towards fishing efficiency of fishing hooks and there are no standard methods available to different fishing hooks [4 – 6]. test the mechanical strength of fishing hook. Often fishermen have to depend on their experience while selecting a fishing hook. So a comparative study of these hooks would help the fishermen in selecting fishing hooks with better mechanical properties and performance. Here an attempt is made to compare the physical and mechanical properties of five different types of fishing hooks. Properties like hook shape, hook size and mechanical strength of the hook bend have a direct influence on the fishing performance of the hook. The fishing hooks available to the fishermen are not uniform in their physical and mechanical properties and a high degree of variation is seen between different brands. These variations could be attributed to differ- ence in the steel wire used for manufacture of hooks and differences in hook manufacturing process [2,3]. Kitano et al. [7] studied the corrosion resistance of tuna long line fishing hooks. Ko and Kim [8] tested six types of fishing hooks for breaking and unbending due to plastic deformation of the material using dynamometer. They have also studied the dynamic forces acting on the fishing hook during hooking and hauling. Varghese et al. [9] studied the physical properties as well as corrosion resistance of fishing hooks from five indigenous hook manufacturing firms and that of one imported brand. It is difficult to compare between different brands of fishing hooks and there are no standard methods available to test the mechanical strength of fishing hook. Often fishermen have to depend on their experience while selecting a fishing hook. So a comparative study of these hooks would help the fishermen in selecting fishing hooks with better mechanical properties and performance. Here an attempt is made to compare the physical and mechanical properties of five different types of fishing hooks. Number seven size round bent fishing hook was selected for the comparative study, as it is commonly used by the fishermen for catching fishes like tuna and medium sized fishes. These are three imported brands, coded as FB-1, FB-2 and FB-3 and two indigenous brands, coded as IB-1 and IB-2. The physical dimensions of the hooks were measured as per IS: 9860 (Part I) — 1981 [10]. The general terminology used in fishing hook and different parts of a typical fishing hook is given in Fig. 1. The various parts of a typical fishing hook are eye, shank, bend, gape, bite, point and barb. Wire diameter measurement of fishing hook was taken on the round unforged portion of the shank using a micrometer (Mitutoyo, d = 0.01 mm). Microstructural observations of the samples were made after polishing and etching with 5% nital solution (using ‘ Leica MZ16 A ’ light microscope). Unbending resistance of fishing hook was taken as a measure of mechanical strength in their functional form. Unbending test is a modified form of conventional tensile test wherein the force required by the hook bend to develop a deformation equal to its bite length was measured using Shimadzu AG-I 10 kN Universal Testing Machine (UTM), with a cross head speed of 25 mm/min as per Varghese et al. [9] (Fig. 2). This test gives a measure of the force a hook bend can withstand. The deformation of hook bend equal to bite length was taken as the standard as any deformation beyond this point will render it useless for fishing. The results of the unbending test were verified with the feed back taken from fishermen about the mechanical performance of fishing hooks under use. After analysing the physical and mechanical properties of the five types of fishing hooks, we have made the following ...
Context 2
... fishes like tuna and medium sized fishes. These are three imported brands, coded as FB-1, FB-2 and FB-3 and two indigenous brands, coded as IB-1 and IB-2. The physical dimensions of the hooks were measured as per IS: 9860 (Part I) -1981 [10]. The general terminology used in fishing hook and different parts of a typical fishing hook is given in Fig. 1. The various parts of a typical fishing hook are eye, shank, bend, gape, bite, point and ...

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... Coatings vary from bronze varieties, which offer little corrosion resistance, to those that contain more protective elements like nickel, zinc, tin and lacquer. Edappazham et al. (2008) evaluated the corrosion resistance of two common surface finishes, tinned and blued, applied to fishing hooks. Exposure of the hooks to 300 h of salt spray resulted in an appreciable weight loss, with the tinned hooks incurring a loss of 5.37% from the initial weight and blued hooks losing 20.54% of initial weight. ...
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... Because Broadhurst et al. (2007) demonstrated no significant differences between the rates of oxidation (measured as weight loss and breakage) for hooks that were ingested by yellowfin bream and those submersed in seawater, the latter could be used to acquire relevant data on hook decay. Although such an approach does not replicate all of the forces applied to an ingested hook, measuring the tensile and compression strengths of the hook would at least facilitate a comparison among different designs (e.g. Edappazham et al. 2008) and provide direction for more refined studies with fish. Given the above, the principal aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that various technical characteristics (and their interactions), including weight, shape, design and wire construction would affect the temporal oxidation and integrity of a range of hooks (absolute sizes – defined by Ralston 1982; – between 227 and 611 mm 2 ) commonly used to target small (,40 cm total length (TL)) coastal teleosts. ...
... There are few published studies quantifying the forces involved in hooking fish (Sakazume and Kanamori 1971; Mitsugi and Inoue 1985; Edappazham et al. 2008). However, intuitively, once the barb penetrates the flesh or bone and the fish pulls away from the angler, most of the load should be tensile strain. ...
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