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Parameter maps of net aerodynamic force and net force coefficient as functions of stroke amplitude and mid-stroke angle of attack. For fixed values of wing rotation (flip duration ∆τ=0.16; flip start τ0=−0.08, flip timing τf=0), stroke amplitude was varied from 60 to 180 ° and angle of attack was varied from 0 to 90 °. In each diagram, the small open circles indicate the positions of actual measurements. Values between these measured points have been interpolated using a cubic spline. Values are encoded in pseudocolor according to the scales shown beneath each plot. This same format is used in Fig. 5, Fig. 7 and Fig. 10. (A) Net aerodynamic force, the vector sum of lift and drag, increases monotonically with increasing angle of attack and stroke amplitude. (B) Net aerodynamic force coefficient increases with angle of attack, but decreases with stroke amplitude.

Parameter maps of net aerodynamic force and net force coefficient as functions of stroke amplitude and mid-stroke angle of attack. For fixed values of wing rotation (flip duration ∆τ=0.16; flip start τ0=−0.08, flip timing τf=0), stroke amplitude was varied from 60 to 180 ° and angle of attack was varied from 0 to 90 °. In each diagram, the small open circles indicate the positions of actual measurements. Values between these measured points have been interpolated using a cubic spline. Values are encoded in pseudocolor according to the scales shown beneath each plot. This same format is used in Fig. 5, Fig. 7 and Fig. 10. (A) Net aerodynamic force, the vector sum of lift and drag, increases monotonically with increasing angle of attack and stroke amplitude. (B) Net aerodynamic force coefficient increases with angle of attack, but decreases with stroke amplitude.

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... Drosophila melanogaster), due to the availability of experimental results and validated aerodynamic models [6,25]. The fruit fly wing motion is modeled with two angles, namely pitch γ and stroke angles β, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The third angle, necessary for describing full range of possible wing motions, is neglected since it is found in experiments that it only effects the evolution of the flapping forces over a flapping period, while having little to no effect on overall values of aerodynamic forces over full flapping cycle [24]. However, it is therefore important to note that the results for aerodynamic forces should mainly be analyzed based on overall forces and not on the evolution over flapping period. ...
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