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Panel A. Cortical regions activated during the main experimental ToM task (the interaction judgement), relative to the speed judgement control task. The statistical map was thresholded with an uncorrected voxel height threshold of p < .001 and a family wise error corrected minimum cluster extent threshold (k= 152) at p < .05.

Panel A. Cortical regions activated during the main experimental ToM task (the interaction judgement), relative to the speed judgement control task. The statistical map was thresholded with an uncorrected voxel height threshold of p < .001 and a family wise error corrected minimum cluster extent threshold (k= 152) at p < .05.

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A key challenge for neurobiological models of social cognition is to elucidate whether brain regions are specialised for that domain. In recent years, discussion surrounding the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) epitomises such debates; some argue it is part of a domain-specific network for social processing, while others claim it is a domai...

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Context 1
... https://doi.org/10. 1101/2021 followed the procedure of previous reports investigating the ATLs ( Simmons and Martin 2009;202 Hoffman et al. 2015) and calculated an average map of temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR) 203 (see Figure M1). The tSNR map suggests a good signal quality even in the in most ventral 204 ...
Context 2
... whole brain univariate analysis contrasting social interaction friendliness judgments 456 with the matched speed judgement task revealed robust bilateral ATL activation that was 457 centred over the ventrolateral aspects in both hemispheres (see Figure 1, panel A and Table 458 2). In the left hemisphere, this extended from the ventrolateral temporopolar cortex (BA38), 459 along the inferior middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), to approximately 460 halfway along the temporal lobe (y ≈ -17). ...
Context 3
... of the ATL, and as expected, this contrast also revealed activation amongst key 470 nodes of the putative ToM network, including the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), the medial 471 prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the precuneus ( Activation during the social interaction friendliness judgments was also contrasted with 480 passive fixation/rest. There was notably little activation in the ATLs, except for a small cluster 481 in the left superior temporal pole (see Supplementary Figure 1 and Supplementary Table 482 R1). This is consistent with the idea that there may be automatic semantic activation (e.g., 483 ...

Citations

... [51,52]). For example, an alternative to domain-specific accounts of ATL function like the social knowledge hypothesis is the 'graded semantic hub' account proposed by Binney et al. [38,[78][79][80]. According to this framework, the whole ATL comprises a unified semantic representational space, all of which is engaged by the encoding and retrieval of concepts, and by concepts of any kind. ...
... This might include, for example, at the dorsolateral aspects, a specialization for processing socio-emotional semantic features [38], which could arise from greater proximity and connectivity to the limbic system [78,81,82] (also see below). Consistent with this account are a series of neuroimaging studies by Binney et al. which show that, when care is taken to ensure that fMRI signal can be acquired from across the whole ATL, it becomes clear that the ventrolateral ATL activates strongly and equivalently during semantic judgements made on social and non-social stimuli [38,39] (also see [80]). This same ventrolateral ATL region is implicated in general semantic processing in several neuropsychological, neurostimulation, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies that have used a variety of verbal and nonverbal tasks/ stimuli [83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90]. ...
... B 378: 20210363 methodological determinant for obtaining a complete picture of the neural basis of social concepts will be the use of neuroimaging techniques that maximize the signal obtained from across the entirety of key brain regions. This includes the anterior temporal lobe, of which some subregions are invisible to standard fMRI [38,80,112]. Fourth, it is worth noting that concepts are not static and that their representation depends on ongoing task contexts as well as prior experience [113,114]. ...
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Abstract concepts, like justice and friendship, are central features of our daily lives. Traditionally, abstract concepts are distinguished from other concepts in that they cannot be directly experienced through the senses. As such, they pose a challenge for strongly embodied models of semantic representation that assume a central role for sensorimotor information. There is growing recognition, however, that it is possible for meaning to be ‘grounded’ via cognitive systems, including those involved in processing language and emotion. In this article, we focus on the specific proposal that social significance is a key feature in the representation of some concepts. We begin by reviewing recent evidence in favour of this proposal from the fields of psycholinguistics and neuroimaging. We then discuss the limited extent to which there is consensus about the definition of ‘socialness’ and propose essential next steps for research in this domain. Taking one such step, we describe preliminary data from an unprecedented large-scale rating study that can help determine how socialness is distinct from other facets of word meaning. We provide a backdrop of contemporary theories regarding semantic representation and social cognition and highlight important predictions for both brain and behaviour. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Concepts in interaction: social engagement and inner experiences’.
... Most notably this includes vulnerability to susceptibility artefacts that cause BOLD signal drop-out and geometric distortions around certain brain areas, including the ventral ATLs ( Jezzard and Clare, 1999 ;Ojemann et al., 1997 ). Studies that have used PET, which is not vulnerable to such artefacts, or techniques devised to overcome limitations of conventional fMRI ( Devlin et al., 2000 ;Embleton et al., 2010 ), reveal activation in both the temporal poles and the ventral ATL in response to social stimuli ( Balgova et al., 2021 ;Binney et al., 2016b ;Castelli et al., 2002 ). ...
Article
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The contribution and neural basis of cognitive control is under-specified in many prominent models of socio-cognitive processing. Important outstanding questions include whether there are multiple, distinguishable systems underpinning control and whether control is ubiquitously or selectively engaged across different social behaviours and task demands. Recently, it has been proposed that the regulation of social behaviours could rely on brain regions specialised in the controlled retrieval of semantic information, namely the anterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Accordingly, we investigated for the first time whether the neural activation commonly found in social functional neuroimaging studies extends to these ‘semantic control’ regions. We conducted five coordinate-based meta-analyses to combine results of 499 fMRI/PET experiments and identified the brain regions consistently involved in semantic control, as well as four social abilities: theory of mind, trait inference, empathy and moral reasoning. This allowed an unprecedented parallel review of the neural networks associated with each of these cognitive domains. The results confirmed that the anterior left IFG region involved in semantic control is reliably engaged in all four social domains. This supports the hypothesis that social cognition is partly regulated by the neurocognitive system underpinning semantic control.