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Palaeogeographic maps showing the principal localities (see Appendix 1) that yield amber. (A) Lower Cretaceous. (B) Upper Cretaceous. (C) Palaeocene. (D) Eocene. (E) Oligocene. (F) Miocene. 

Palaeogeographic maps showing the principal localities (see Appendix 1) that yield amber. (A) Lower Cretaceous. (B) Upper Cretaceous. (C) Palaeocene. (D) Eocene. (E) Oligocene. (F) Miocene. 

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The major taphonomic processes that control insect preservation in carbonate rocks (limestones, travertines and nodules) are biological: insect size and wingspan, degree of decomposition, presence of microbial mats, predation and scavenging; environmental: water surface tension, water temperature, density and salinity, current activity; and diagene...

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... forests. The ear- liest ambers with inclusions are from Jezzine and Hammana, in the Lower Cretaceous of Lebanon. More than 60% of the insects in amber from Hammana are £ies, including taxa that indicate that the resin formed in a warm climate within a wet leafy forest (Azar, 2000). While some of the earliest Cretaceous amber-bearing deposits (Fig. 1A) formed between the equator and 4 ‡N (Israel and Lebanon), they are concentrated in northern mid-latitudes, between 29 ‡N (Azerbai- jan) and 50 ‡N (Japan), the moist megathermal zone based on vegetation distributions of Morley (2000). By the end of the Early Cretaceous, while occupying a similar equatorial range, amber ex- tended north ...
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... Upper Cretaceous amber is known from the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 1B). The only equato- rial occurrence is from the earliest Upper Creta- ceous of Burma, which predates the widespread development of megathermal angiosperm-rich for- ests in equatorial latitudes towards the end of the Cretaceous (Morley, 2000). Localities are mainly in the northern, moist, megathermal zone along the northern margin of the ...
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... of the Cenozoic can be di- vided into two episodes (Pickering, 2000): the Pa- laeocene to Eocene interval was characterised by a continuation of the greenhouse conditions of the Upper Cretaceous whereas cooling occurred dur- ing the Oligocene to Recent period with occasion- al short and warmer episodes. There is a paucity of Palaeocene amber (Fig. 1C): only 0.5 major occurrences per million years, compared to 1.65 in the Upper Cretaceous and nearly 2 in the Eo- cene. There also are no Palaeocene occurrences in the Southern Hemisphere nor in the tropical rain forests of the equatorial Palmae Province. The few amber occurrences are in the northern rain forests of the Boreotropical ...
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... number and geographical spread of amber localities is much more extensive during the Eo- cene (Fig. 1D). Amber is represented in the trop- ical rain forests of the Southern Megathermal Province (Argentina) and the African Province (Nigeria) but the majority of localities (including Baltic amber) occur in the Boreotropical Prov- ince. Amber is present in the dry subtropics of China and the Kamchatka Peninsula to the south PALAEO 3225 ...
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... global extent of rain forests was substantially reduced. Tropical rain forest remained in the Ca- ribbean region, as evidenced by Dominican Re- public and Mexican amber derived from Hyme- naea, and apart from localities in Tunisia and Sicily where the climate was presumably dry, most Oligocene amber is found in a mid-latitude belt across Eurasia (Fig. 1E). Oligocene amber is unknown from the Southern Hemisphere, but the mid-latitude belts and tropical rain forests have yielded amber during the Miocene in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Fig. 1F). Most Mesozoic ambers and Eocene Baltic amber are a product of araucariacean conifers (but see Anderson and LePage, 1995). As the ...
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... from localities in Tunisia and Sicily where the climate was presumably dry, most Oligocene amber is found in a mid-latitude belt across Eurasia (Fig. 1E). Oligocene amber is unknown from the Southern Hemisphere, but the mid-latitude belts and tropical rain forests have yielded amber during the Miocene in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Fig. 1F). Most Mesozoic ambers and Eocene Baltic amber are a product of araucariacean conifers (but see Anderson and LePage, 1995). As the climatic con- straints on the distribution of these taxa are poorly known, they cannot be used directly to infer the climatic controls on ...

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The major taphonomic processes that control insect preservation in carbonate rocks (limestones, travertines and nodules) are biological: insect size and wingspan, degree of decomposition, presence of microbial mats, predation and scavenging; environmental: water surface tension, water temperature, density and salinity, current activity; and diagene...

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... Early studies on the taphonomic processes of insects were mainly focused on compression fossils. With the discovery of a large number of insects preserved in perfect 3D detail in fossil resins, amber taphonomy has also received attention (Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004;Briggs 2018). Unlike compression fossils, ambers are usually dominated by particular taxonomic groups and size categories and can reveal interactions between different insects, and between insects and other organisms (Zherikhin et al. 1999;Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004). ...
... With the discovery of a large number of insects preserved in perfect 3D detail in fossil resins, amber taphonomy has also received attention (Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004;Briggs 2018). Unlike compression fossils, ambers are usually dominated by particular taxonomic groups and size categories and can reveal interactions between different insects, and between insects and other organisms (Zherikhin et al. 1999;Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004). Coleoptera with thick sclerotized elytra has 3 Taphonomic bias in Archostemata (Insecta: Coleoptera) from Cretaceous amber better decay-resistant properties than other insects, making them excellent subjects for taphonomic analysis (Briggs 1999). ...
... Amber inclusions are usually dominated by particular taxonomic groups and size categories (Zherikhin et al. 1999). Body size, behaviour and habitat preferences, plant defenses, resin viscosity, and environmental factors contribute to the trapping biases of resin (Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004;Zherikhin et al. 1999;Solórzano Kraemer et al. 2015;Solórzano Kraemer et al. 2018). Larger insects can struggle free from resin easier, probably just leaving appendages behind, so amber inclusions tend to be dominated by smaller insects (Henwood 1993;Zherikhin et al. 1999). ...
... This may be partly the case as an incredible diversity of new potential hosts for braconids were appearing during the Late Cretaceous and into the Paleogene owing to the rise of several flower-associated insects at the time (Labandeira and Li 2021). However, there is likely also a considerable taphonomic bias against the capture and preservation of early fossil Braconidae (Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004). Their typically diminutive size means that preservation in sediments requires exceptionally fine grains in order to have sufficient fidelity for their proper identification as braconids and despite the rich number of wasps included in amber, Cretaceous braconids are rare. ...
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... Individuals overlap each other with their wings outspread, and the average density is approximately one imago per square centimeter on a 120 cm 2 plane. All of the mayflies display clearly dorsoventral or lateral positions, which are maximum equilibrium positions when bodies contact the sediment at the water bottom (Martínez-Delclòs et al., 2004). They probably became waterlogged, sank to the bottom, and then were fixed by microbial mats. ...
... They probably became waterlogged, sank to the bottom, and then were fixed by microbial mats. We measured the orientations of 381 mayflies and found that these mayflies do not show any obvious directionality (Fig. 2B), although the rose diagram suggests a southwesterly trend perhaps reflecting the effect of a slight movement of the bottom water after accumulation of the carcasses (Martínez- Delclòs et al., 2004). Furthermore, all the mayflies are complete with body, appendages, and wings attached, which, when taken with the above, indicates that the mayflies were not transported any significant distance in the water after death and were buried in a low-energy preservational environment. ...
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... Additionally, some extant species of Bostrichidae are more likely to occur in fire-prone areas with higher temperatures (Johansson et al., 2011), as this putatively aids their ability to infest trees under stress. Interestingly, resin production and exudation are a common response by trees experiencing water stress, such as that induced by fires, and the abundant production of resin that gave rise to amber deposits may have been associated with devastating fires (Azar, 2000;Martínez-Delcl os et al., 2004) or even outbreaks of wood-boring insects (McKellar et al., 2011). It is likely that following fires, capable insect lineages are able to move rapidly into such devastated habitats and infest the strained flora, and these include various groups of beetles. ...
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... Briggs, 2018;Ross, 2021;Sadowski et al., 2021) and represent a critical window to the evolution of terrestrial environments across the Mesozoic-Cenozoic transition (e.g. Labandeira, 2014;Martıńez-Delclòs et al., 2004;Penney, 2010;Sadowski et al., 2021). ...
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... Fossil insects are usually preserved as adpressions or inclusions without lighter pigment colour [42]; structural colour is also infrequently discovered in fossil insects owing to the incomplete preservation of ultrastructure [43][44][45][46]. Though three-dimensional insects are preserved in amber, colour has been rarely recorded [47][48][49][50]. ...
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... These Jurassic specimens may have been predatory rather than parasitic organisms. Such limestones are also important sources of insects (Martıńez-Delclòs et al. 2004). Although it can be difficult to distinguish parasite and scavenger remains in some lithographic limestone material (Wilson et al. 2011), the Jurassic Nusplingen Limestone has yielded isopods attached to squids possibly representing their hosts (Polz et al. 2006;Haug et al. 2021). ...
... The amber record extends back to the Carboniferous (Bray and Anderson 2009), but the oldest globally distributed amber with inclusions has been reported from the Triassic (Seyfullah et al. 2018). Massive amber deposits rich in inclusions are largely concentrated in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic (Martıńez-Delclòs et al. 2004)-only these so far have yielded a diverse spectrum of parasitic remains (Poinar 2011b(Poinar , 2014. Due to where it forms, fossiliferous amber predominantly includes terrestrial, rather than fully marine, organisms (Solórzano Kraemer et al. 2018). ...
... This lack can be illustrated for nematodes where Maastrichtian-Paleogene or pre-Cretaceous amber data are missing ( Fig. 1.3), which makes it hard to evaluate the impact of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction or Paleogene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). In some cases, meaningful studies can, however, be done on the stage level by combining amber deposits with data from other Lagerstätten (e.g., insects: Martıńez-Delclòs et al. 2004). Labandeira and Li (2021) used such an approach to efficiently quantify the Mid-Mesozoic Parasitoid Revolution in insects at the family level. ...
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The fossil record of parasites is limited thus far. A survey of the fossil record shows that some modes of preservation show a higher potential for the preservation of parasitic remains or parasite–host associations than generally recognized. A better understanding of the taphonomy of parasites is critical to better predict their preservation potential and, together with new techniques like computed tomography, can open the door for systematic screening of parasite sources in deep time. Phosphatization seems particularly fruitful to characterize anatomical details for microscopic parasites or pathogens. Amber deposits are rich in terrestrial parasitic ecdysozoans and their pathogens, but their extent does not bracket a single mass extinction. For particular parasite–host associations, preservation of direct evidence is unlikely, but traces they leave in skeletons and other host remains can be used to trace them back to the Mesozoic or even the Paleozoic. Vertebrate coprolites have yielded remains of endoparasites as far back as the Carboniferous, but a more systematic screening of coprolites is necessary to make them a successful source of parasitic remains as for the Quaternary. Parasites with preservable hard parts and/or characteristic pathologies have the best potential to track changes in marine disease prevalence in high resolution across extinction or environmental perturbations, but more studies need to report their sample sizes and prevalences.
... Amber records are relatively frequent in Cenozoic deposits and have occurred in terrestrial sediments throughout the geologic record since the Carboniferous (van Bergen et al., 1995), becoming abundant from Early Cretaceous with the rise of the coniferous Araucariaceae, particularly in tropical and subtropical forests (Martinez-Delcl os et al., 2004). Despite its rareness, it is crucial to understand evolutionary processes in trapped animal and plant taxa since its exceptional preservation setting may lead to soft tissue presence (see, Anderson, 2001;Poinar ands Mastalerz, 2000). ...
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... Perforated basiconic (p-bas) sensilla are short transparent hairs with rounded tips (Fig. 3b). We considered that the degree of darkness in sensillum appearance reflects the thickness of cuticular walls because insect fossils in amber well preserve the exoskeletal structure (Martínez-Delclòs et al. 2004;Labandeira 2014). Putative grooved basiconic (g-bas) sensilla (thick, double-walled in P. americana) were therefore designated for dark serrate structures, which are short and stand on the antenna surface (Figs. ...
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