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Pain threshold and tolerance to pain in the martial arts athletes and non-athletes , with the use of an algometer. 

Pain threshold and tolerance to pain in the martial arts athletes and non-athletes , with the use of an algometer. 

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Background & Study Aims: Control of pain by athletes and the quest for control over pain is an integral part of sports, but is also one of the most important skills in combat sports and large part of martial arts (direct contact with the opponent). Due to systematic exposure to brief periods of intense pain during training or competition, athletes...

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... higher pain threshold was observed in the experimental group of martial arts athletes, where values above 10 kg/cm 2 were obtained by as many as 17.14% of these athletes, while only by 1.11% of the group of non-athletic controls. The pain tolerance values obtained by the martial arts group of martial arts athletes also differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the non-athletic controls, with pain tolerances > 10 kg/cm 2 found in 91.43% and 57.46% in the non-athletic group ( Table 2). ...

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... No differences occurred in pain tolerance on both upper limbs. The data from previous studies on healthy people and athletes have emphasized the significant influence of physical activity on the range of pain tolerance and less influence on the pain threshold [31,32]. According to the studies, the pressure pain threshold is relatively constant and is less influenced by psychological and psychosocial factors [33,34]; however, the available pressure pain threshold data do not present a uniform picture. ...
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... In the case of Leźnicka et al. [25][26][27], the control group was identified as students from the 'Physical Culture' department of the university, and no additional information was offered to determine if these students were otherwise active or inactive despite being classified as untrained individuals. In the case of Hawrylak et al. [23], students were also used as a control group, but similarly, no precision was given about the level of physical activity. ...
... Threshold Combat sport [23][24][25][26] Non-athletes [23][24][25][26] Higher pain threshold in contact sport athletes Tolerance Team sport [9,21,22] Combat sport [21,22,25,26] Non-athletes [9,21,22,25,26] Non-contact athletes [9,21,22] Higher pain tolerance in contact sport athletes Intensity Team sport [9] Combat sport [24] Non-athletes [24] Non-contact athletes [9] Contact sport athletes perceive the stimulus as less painful Decrease in intensity ratings after contact sport training Cold pressor test Threshold Team sport [10] Combat sport [25][26][27] Non-athletes [25][26][27] Non-contact athletes [10] Similar pain threshold to controls Tolerance Team sport [10,28] Combat sport [25][26][27][28] Non-athletes [25][26][27][28] Non-contact athletes [10,28] Higher pain tolerance than the control group Intensity Team sport [29] Combat sport [29] Non-athletes [29] Non-contact athletes [29] Contact sport athletes reported lower pain intensity ratings than controls Ischaemic pain Tolerance Team sport [21,28] Combat sport [21,28] Non-athletes [21,28] Non-contact athletes [21,28] Higher pain tolerance than the control group with a wider gap between groups after experience gain [28] Higher pain tolerance in contact sport group than non-contact sports group. Higher tolerance in non-contact sports group than non-athletes [21] Thermal pain (heat) Threshold Team sport [21] Combat sport [21] Non-athletes [21] Non-contact athletes [21] No significant difference in heat pain threshold between contact sport athletes, non-contact sport athletes and non-athletes randomly on a grid in the correct order using pen and paper. ...
... Threshold Combat sport [23][24][25][26] Non-athletes [23][24][25][26] Higher pain threshold in contact sport athletes Tolerance Team sport [9,21,22] Combat sport [21,22,25,26] Non-athletes [9,21,22,25,26] Non-contact athletes [9,21,22] Higher pain tolerance in contact sport athletes Intensity Team sport [9] Combat sport [24] Non-athletes [24] Non-contact athletes [9] Contact sport athletes perceive the stimulus as less painful Decrease in intensity ratings after contact sport training Cold pressor test Threshold Team sport [10] Combat sport [25][26][27] Non-athletes [25][26][27] Non-contact athletes [10] Similar pain threshold to controls Tolerance Team sport [10,28] Combat sport [25][26][27][28] Non-athletes [25][26][27][28] Non-contact athletes [10,28] Higher pain tolerance than the control group Intensity Team sport [29] Combat sport [29] Non-athletes [29] Non-contact athletes [29] Contact sport athletes reported lower pain intensity ratings than controls Ischaemic pain Tolerance Team sport [21,28] Combat sport [21,28] Non-athletes [21,28] Non-contact athletes [21,28] Higher pain tolerance than the control group with a wider gap between groups after experience gain [28] Higher pain tolerance in contact sport group than non-contact sports group. Higher tolerance in non-contact sports group than non-athletes [21] Thermal pain (heat) Threshold Team sport [21] Combat sport [21] Non-athletes [21] Non-contact athletes [21] No significant difference in heat pain threshold between contact sport athletes, non-contact sport athletes and non-athletes randomly on a grid in the correct order using pen and paper. ...
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... This is one of the first studies to assess the MTMP of individuals with different levels of PA and not related to the sport practiced such as the those studies by Ellingson et al. 21 ; Naugle and Riley, 22 Umeda et al., 23 Manning et al., 27 Awied et al., 28 and Leznicka et al. 29 In our study, there was a minor relationship between PA and the MTMPAndrzejewski et al. 24 found that the higher the PA level, the higher the PPT in 13 points of the body among the different ages and level of PA. However, the level of PA was only reported by the participants as low and moderate according to the number of times per week that the activity was practiced. ...
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Background A difference in maximum tolerance to mechanical pain (MTMP) between the sexes is widely studied but there is still no consensus on whether the level of physical activity (PA) influences pain. Objectives To compare the MTMP between men and women with different levels of PA. Methods 65 individuals were divided in female (n = 35) and male group (n = 30). The main outcome measures were PA level and MTMP by pressure algometry. Pressure was applied three times on both sides at the following points: cervical (5th and 7th) and lumbar (3th and 5th) vertebrae; trapezius, rhomboid, gluteus, gastrocnemius, pectoralis major, tibialis anterior, and deltoid muscles, elbow, hand, knee, and ankle. Results It was observed that the PA level has little influence on the MTMP at all the assessed points and that men have greater MTMP than women. Conclusion Sex, not the PA level, influences the MTMP.
... 20,34 These studies mostly included physically active individuals (athletes) who experienced pain as a consequence of active participation in sports and for whom pain, as an indicator of acceptable limits of bodily strain, became an element of sports experienced. 19 Few studies, on the other hand, pertain to the impact of injuries on pain sensitivity in nontraining healthy individuals who experience solely normal daily physical activity. In this context, it would be interesting to investigate whether pain sensitivity in such individuals is determined in the same way as in athletes, or whether the awareness of functioning in 2 parallel worlds-the world of sports, chosen voluntarily and treated in a special way, and the world of family and work-modulates their approach to pain and sports injuries. ...
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Full-text available
Contact sports athletes are regularly facing acute physical pain in part of their practice. However, the literature investigating pain perception in these athletes remains scarce. This scoping review aimed to explore the literature surrounding pain perception in contact sport athletes and to compile and understand how it is studied. The search strategy consisted of using index terms and keywords in Medline, EMBASE, Sport-Discus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global search engines. Results revealed that a mix of team contact sports and combat sports are studied and included under the umbrella of contact sports. These athletes are being compared to non-athletes as well as athletes from non-contact sports. The cold pressor test and the pain pressure test are the two predominant methods used to investigate physical pain. This review highlights the need to clearly define sports based on contact levels expected in play to better define the types of pain athletes are facing in their practice. Athlete’s level of play as well as years of experience should also be more rigorously reported. While contact sport athletes seem to have a higher level of pain tolerance than both active controls and non-contact athletes, the methods of pain testing are not always justified and appropriate in relation to the pain induced during contact sports. Future experimental studies should use pain testing methods relevant to the pain experienced during contact sports and better justify the rationale for the choice of these methods.