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Paid sick days and sick leave in 22 countries, worker at median earnings, full-time equivalent working days. For full-time worker with 6 months or more job tenure, earning the national median, and, where relevant, with two dependents. Sources: See Methods section for more information on calculating FTE paid sick days. See Rho et al. (23) for specific sources of data for each country. (Note: "50-Day Cancer" indicates days of treatment.) 

Paid sick days and sick leave in 22 countries, worker at median earnings, full-time equivalent working days. For full-time worker with 6 months or more job tenure, earning the national median, and, where relevant, with two dependents. Sources: See Methods section for more information on calculating FTE paid sick days. See Rho et al. (23) for specific sources of data for each country. (Note: "50-Day Cancer" indicates days of treatment.) 

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Article
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National paid sick day and paid sick leave policies are compared in 22 countries ranked highly in terms of economic and human development. The authors calculate the financial support available to workers facing two different kinds of health problems: a case of the flu that requires missing 5 days of work, and a cancer treatment that requires 50 day...

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Context 1
... Flu. We first analyze the total full-time equivalent pay the median- wage worker receives if he or she is out of work for 5 days with the flu. Figure 1 (page 15) shows the portion of a median-wage worker's earnings that is replaced by the national paid sick day system in each country over a 5-day ...
Context 2
... Policies. U.S. federal law provides no financial support for a worker with a 5-day flu. Canada and Japan are the only other countries of the 22 analyzed here that have no mandated support for workers at the national level. Japanese law provides paid sick days for "serious" illnesses (lasting up to 18 months), but Figure 1 assumes that many cases of the 5-day flu would not meet the serious illness standard. In Canada, decisions regarding job protection for short-term sick leave are made at a provincial level, though long-term illness insurance is provided nationally and described below ...
Context 3
... Policies. In our second policy experiment, we tally the full-time equiv- alent pay the same worker receives if he or she is out of work for 50 days while undergoing treatment for an illness such as cancer. The full-time equivalent benefits paid to a worker who is absent from work for 50 working days are summarized in Figure 1. In this case, the United States is the only country that has no guaranteed paid sick leave. Luxembourg and Norway provide full pay for the 50 missed days. Three countries mandate more than 40 FTE days of paid leave: Finland, Austria, and Germany. Ten countries guarantee between 20 and 40 days of full-time equivalent leave: Belgium, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Greece, Japan, France, and Canada. The rest mandate at least 5 days: Iceland, Ireland, Switzerland, Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand. In most countries, the costs of paid long-term sick leave are covered by government social insurance programs rather than employer mandates (23). In Canada, under the National Employment Insurance, employees who have worked for 600 hours in the last year receive up to 15 weeks of benefits after a 2-week unpaid waiting period, paid at 55 percent of earnings up to a weekly ...

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... As such, those in other occupations, of whom 75.3% were part-timers and selfemployed, were considered as diagnosed late. Paid sick leave is necessary for infectious diseases [30,31]; many developed countries, including Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and the UK, have universal access to paid sick leave, while Canada, Japan, and the USA do not have universal access to paid leave, even for full-time employees [32]. If non-regular employees test positive for COVID-19, they are not paid for sick leave; they are more likely to be reluctant to test vs. regular employees. ...
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Background Low back pain is the greatest contributor to the global burden of disease and can result in work disability. Previous literature has examined the influence of personal factors, the healthcare system, workplace, and income support systems on work disability due to low back pain. Income support systems may also influence healthcare and the workplace, leading to an impact on healthcare quality and functional capacity. However, there has been little insight as to how or in what contexts this influence occurs. This realist review aims to provide an explanation of how and in what contexts income support systems impact the healthcare quality and functional capacity of people who are unable to work due to low back pain. Methods Realist reviews are a type of literature review that seek to determine how and in what contexts a social programme such as income support leads to an outcome, rather than simply determining whether or not it works. Five initial theories about how income support systems impact healthcare quality and functional capacity are posited in this protocol. An iterative search of electronic databases for academic literature will be used to acquire and synthesise evidence that may support or refute these initial theories. Grey literature such as policy documents will be identified to characterise income support and healthcare systems and supplement contextual details. Semi-structured interviews with income support, healthcare, and low back pain experts will also be performed to complement literature searching with anecdotal and experiential evidence. At the conclusion of the review, initial theories will be supported or refuted and refined into programme theories that will be explained by evidence in context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Discussion Income support and healthcare systems are highly complex and fluid programmes. At the intersection between these systems are those with low back pain. By using realist review methods, we will provide explanatory rather than judgemental findings. The resulting multi-dimensional and contextual understanding of the impact of income support systems on important low back pain outcomes will provide valuable insight for future income support and healthcare policy development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13643-019-1003-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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