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PROs and CONs of Urban Agriculture.

PROs and CONs of Urban Agriculture.

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In recent years, urban agriculture (UA) projects have bloomed throughout the world, finding large applications also in the developed economies of the so-called Global North. As compared to projects in developing countries, where research has mainly targeted the contribution to food security, UA in the Global North has a stronger multifunctional con...

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... farming takes place closer to cities or even inside them, several differences from conventional agriculture arise, translating into both advantages and limitations (Table 1), whose perception among societal groups and initiatives may largely vary (Sanyé-Mengual et al., in review). It appears that, according to Sanyé- Mengual et al. (2019), in order to be viable among the three sustainability dimensions (social, economic and environmental) and overcome the constraints related to the urban environment, the development of UA needs to combine both social and technological innovations. ...

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1.In many tropical areas, forests have almost undergone complete decline. In this context, agroforestry has often been acknowledged as fostering compromises between crop production, local income diversification and the preservation of forest ecosystem services. 2.Cocoa agroforestry capacity to provide ecosystem services has mainly been studied thro...

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... It is an industry that includes food crops as well as non-food crops and livestock activities, CHAPTER-8 and the people, materials, products and services required for agriculture (including production, sales, processing and marketing) (Mougeot, 2000). Socio-cultural benefits include community health and nutrition promotion (Siegner, 2020), recreation, mental and physical health, tourism, and spiritual experiences (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al., 2020). According to Milligan et al. (2004), UA can help older people overcome social isolation and contribute to the growth of social networks. ...
... It aids in pollution reduction (Gómez-Villarino et al., 2021), air and soil quality regulation, greenhouse gas storage, and flood and disease control (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016; Orsini et al. 2020). Furthermore, they promote biodiversity and provide habitat for urban faunaOrsini et al., 2020). ...
... It benefits the environment as open-green spaces and promotes urban sustainability. It aids in pollution reduction (Gómez-Villarino et al., 2021), air and soil quality regulation, greenhouse gas storage, and flood and disease control (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al. 2020). Furthermore, they promote biodiversity and provide habitat for urban fauna Orsini et al., 2020). ...
... It aids in pollution reduction (Gómez-Villarino et al., 2021), air and soil quality regulation, greenhouse gas storage, and flood and disease control (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al. 2020). Furthermore, they promote biodiversity and provide habitat for urban fauna Orsini et al., 2020). ...
... Socio-cultural benefits include community health and nutrition promotion (Siegner, 2020), recreation, mental and physical health, tourism, and spiritual experiences (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al., 2020). According to Milligan et al. (2004), UA can help older people overcome social isolation and contribute to the growth of social networks. ...
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The dangerous environmental and social problems caused by production oriented urbanization and intensive agricultural activities have reached dangerous dimensions a nd their global impacts have led to the necessity of intensive examination of ecological principles to ensure sustainability in these two areas. While urban ecology studies for cities have gained weight, the contributions of urban agriculture (UA) to urban ecology and ecosystem services have started to be understood. In rural areas, it is increasingly recognized that sustainability can be achieved by addressing agricultural activities in line with agroecological principles. Urban agroecology (UAE) has a potential to explore the ways to reinstate agriculture in urban life in a manner that bolsters the sustainability of city ecosystems, city social life and participative policy making by offering principles in order to contribute to making the existing UA into making it shape more sustainable, egalitarian, autonomous and less human and production centered cities. This chapter reviews the consequences of rapid urbanization and specialized agriculture and presenting agroecological principles to recreate a holistic agricultural approach adapted to urban ecosystems.
... It aids in pollution reduction (Gómez-Villarino et al., 2021), air and soil quality regulation, greenhouse gas storage, and flood and disease control (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016; Orsini et al. 2020). Furthermore, they promote biodiversity and provide habitat for urban fauna(Lin et al., 2015;Orsini et al., 2020).Socio-cultural benefits include community health and nutrition promotion (Siegner, 2020), recreation, mental and physical health, tourism, and spiritual experiences(Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al., 2020). According toMilligan et al. (2004), UA can help older people overcome social isolation and contribute to the growth of social networks. ...
... It aids in pollution reduction (Gómez-Villarino et al., 2021), air and soil quality regulation, greenhouse gas storage, and flood and disease control (Camps-Calvet et al., 2016; Orsini et al. 2020). Furthermore, they promote biodiversity and provide habitat for urban fauna(Lin et al., 2015;Orsini et al., 2020).Socio-cultural benefits include community health and nutrition promotion (Siegner, 2020), recreation, mental and physical health, tourism, and spiritual experiences(Camps-Calvet et al., 2016;Orsini et al., 2020). According toMilligan et al. (2004), UA can help older people overcome social isolation and contribute to the growth of social networks. ...
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In This Book, the theme of urban agriculture, which is seen as an important opportunity for food supply and safety in cities, is discussed, and different approaches to the urban area and surrounding agricultural areas are presented. Thus, in 16 different Book Chapters, current issues and problems have been examined from the perspective of urban agriculture and suggestions have been made
... To answer the research question and fulfill the aims we perform a regionalized LCA at the individual plot scale level for peri-UA. We focus on peri-UA for several reasons, its potential for urban food production (Mohareb et al., 2017), its proximity to urban demand centers yet avoiding some challenges of UA including high competition for land, its development at scale by professional farmers, and also because extensive periurban farms have been found as one of the most representative UA systems for the global north cities (Orsini et al., 2020), which we will further study. The high-resolution regionalized LCA developed in this study provides a fundamental baseline needed for further exploration of UA development pathways such as circular, organic, or under climate change future scenarios. ...
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Peri urban agriculture (peri-UA) can supply food locally and potentially more sustainably than far-away conventional agricultural systems. It can also introduce significant environmental impacts depending on the local biophysical conditions and resources required to implement it and, Fon the practices used to manage crops, which could vary widely among growers. Sophisticated methods to account for such variability while assessing direct (on-site) and indirect (up/down stream) environmental impacts of peri-UA implementation are thus needed. We implemented an attributional, regionalized, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) for which we derive spatially explicit inventories and calculate 14 impacts due to peri-UA using the ReCiPe method. Further, to show the importance of impact assessment regionalization for the environmental assessment of peri-UA, we regionalize eutrophication impacts characterization. We use the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (AMB) to illustrate these methodological developments. Vegetables and greenhouses, the prevalent peri-UA land uses, had the largest impacts assessed, of all peri-UA land uses. European NPK mineral fertilizer production to cover N demand of these crops drives all impacts. For fruit crops, onsite N emissions drive marine eutrophication impacts while for irrigated herbaceous crops, phosphate runoff drives freshwater eutrophication impacts. Geographic variability of peri-UA metabolic flows and impacts was displayed. Management practices at the plots, which are linked the land use, are responsible for impacts variability. Regionalization of eutrophication impacts highlights the importance of accounting for the biophysical aspects at the geographic scale at which peri-UA takes place, which is a much finer scale than those implemented in current regionalization of impact assessment methods in LCA. This study provides a fundamental baseline needed to assess transition scenarios of peri-UA at an appropriate geographic level of analysis and gives essential knowledge to guide appropriate circular and sustainability strategies for the sector.
... Since most people live in towns and cities, urban green spaces are key points of influence for pollinator conservation but also provide diverse health benefits [46]. Private urban gardens, and urban agriculture in general, constitute conspicuous landscape features directly sustained by healthy human behaviours [47], hosting a high diversity of vegetation that depends on the action of pollinators to produce seeds or fruits [41,43]. Some benefits of urban agriculture include promoting therapeutic and recreational activities, social inclusion, increase in livability, awareness of good dietary habits and food commerce and education [47]. ...
... Private urban gardens, and urban agriculture in general, constitute conspicuous landscape features directly sustained by healthy human behaviours [47], hosting a high diversity of vegetation that depends on the action of pollinators to produce seeds or fruits [41,43]. Some benefits of urban agriculture include promoting therapeutic and recreational activities, social inclusion, increase in livability, awareness of good dietary habits and food commerce and education [47]. Urban green public spaces are also important for human health, reducing emotional and physiological stress by the contact with nature and by promoting physical activity and socialization [48][49][50]. ...
Article
Despite recent advances in understanding the role of biodiversity in ecosystem-service provision, the links between the health of ecosystem-service providers and human health remain more uncertain. During the past decade, an increasing number of studies have argued for the positive impacts of healthy pollinator communities (defined as functionally and genetically diverse species assemblages that are sustained over time) on human health. Here, we begin with a systematic review of these impacts, finding only two studies that concomitantly quantified aspects of pollinator health and human health. Next, we identify relevant research relating to four pathways linking pollinator health and human health: nutrition, medicine provisioning, mental health and environmental quality. These benefits are obtained through improved pollination of nutritious crops and an estimated approximately 28 000 animal-pollinated medicinal plants; the provisioning of pollinator-derived products such as honey; the maintenance of green spaces and biocultural landscapes that improve mental health; and cleaner air, water and food resulting from pollinator-centred initiatives to reduce agrochemical use. We suggest that pollinator diversity could be a proxy for the benefits that landscapes provide to human health. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes’.
... On the other hand, other reviews assessing the topic from a broader perspective are focused on specific regions, either Global South or Global North (e.g. Dossa et al., 2011;Follmann et al., 2021;Gulyas and Edmondson, 2021;Opitz et al., 2016;Orsini et al., 2020Orsini et al., , 2013. However, there have been recent attempts in trying to map urban and peri-urban farming (e.g. ...
... Studies on UPF are typically focused on measuring some specific variables belonging to a specific dimension (social, ecological, economic, health, technological), or they are focused on the business model -or strategy -they use (cost-reduction, diversification, differentiation, share economy, experience, or experimental) (Orsini et al., 2020). On the other hand, very often even the systematic reviews do not consider grey literature, thus missing many relevant studies that are not published in indexed scientific journals (Haddaway and Bayliss, 2015). ...
... Due to other lighting conditions in Bavaria than in South America, avocado plants tend to struggle during the short winter days in Bavaria (R. Schmitt, personal communication, 18.06.2021). A solution to this problem could be found in artificial lighting, which is already standard in many innovative greenhouse systems like e.g., vertical farming systems (Orsini et al., 2020). A modern lighting structure with LEDs instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps can save 40% of the greenhouse's lighting demand. ...
... A possible alternative to further land use changes would be the usage of existing structures. For urban areas, the idea to use rooftops, walls and green areas could be an interesting option and is backed up by several studies (Thomaier et al., 2015;Gondhalekar and Ramsauer, 2017;Orsini et al., 2020). ...
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Avocados, which have been labeled a superfood and are very popular around the world, are often grown in areas with water scarcity and have long-distance transports to their end consumer. Water and carbon footprints could be reduced by using greenhouse farming, waste heat and rainwater. This study aims to determine whether avocados and other exotic fruits could be locally or regionally grown in greenhouse systems in Bavaria heated using waste heat and examines whether this approach decreases the resulting water and carbon footprints. To test these hypotheses, the waste heat potential is estimated by analyzing a database provided by the Bavarian Environment Agency. Data on water and carbon footprints are extracted from databases by The Water Footprint Network and FAOSTAT. As a local case study, a greenhouse system using waste heat of a nearby glass factory in Upper Franconia is considered. The results show a tremendous waste heat potential for Bavaria and Munich with reduced carbon, but similar water footprints compared to international avocado production. The required area for these avocado farms would only amount to 0.016% of Bavaria's or 0.02% of Munich's total area. With more uncomplicated handling and earlier fruit bearing, fruits like papaya, guava, or carambola seem to be better suited for greenhouse farming than avocados. Waste heat supported farming in controlled environments can require significantly less water through modern irrigation techniques and should be considered when designing new food security concepts for urban or rural areas.
... The results from the synergies reviewed suggest INTRODUCTION Urban farming has been identified by a number of authors to provide promising solutions to secure food supplies, produce more sustainable food, and reduce pressure on agricultural land by shifting food production to urban environments and buildings (Cockrall-King, 2012;Thomaier et al., 2014;Eigenbrod and Gruda, 2015;Goldstein et al., 2016;Bustamante, 2018). Urbanvertical farming is primarily promoted for its potential to extend the seasonal availability of regional foods, especially in Northern Europe (Graamans et al., 2018;Orsini et al., 2020). Examples of urban-vertical farming have seen a dramatic increase in recent years, attracting considerable interest and funding (Weidner et al., 2019;Orsini et al., 2020;S2G, 2020;Agritecture, 2021). ...
... Urbanvertical farming is primarily promoted for its potential to extend the seasonal availability of regional foods, especially in Northern Europe (Graamans et al., 2018;Orsini et al., 2020). Examples of urban-vertical farming have seen a dramatic increase in recent years, attracting considerable interest and funding (Weidner et al., 2019;Orsini et al., 2020;S2G, 2020;Agritecture, 2021). ...
... In recent years increased interest in the academic literature has been directed to address this topic, with studies identifying how different urban farming techniques can be integrated with urban residual flows and infrastructure; see, e.g., Mohareb et al. (2017), Chance et al. (2018), Marchi et al. (2018), Sanjuan-Delmás et al. (2018), Gentry (2019), , and Dorr et al. (2021). However, the literature is abundant with examples of integration with urban systems by employing vacant plots for urban gardening and rooftop greenhouses (Thomaier et al., 2014;Goldstein et al., 2016;Dorr et al., 2017;Sanjuan-Delmás et al., 2018;Jones and Franck, 2019;Orsini et al., 2020;Pulighe and Lupia, 2020). Despite their prevalence, such examples are scarce in the context of Northern Europe, the focus in this article, and few examples have been highlighted for the integration of urban vertical farming and urban residuals (Chance et al., 2018;. ...
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Article
Vertical farms have expanded rapidly in urban areas to support food system resilience. However, many of these systems source a substantial share of their material and energy requirements outside their urban environments. As urban areas produce significant shares of residual material and energy streams, there is considerable potential to explore the utilization of these streams for urban agriculture in addition to the possibility of employing underutilized urban spaces in residential and commercial buildings. This study aims to explore and assess the potential for developing more circular vertical farming systems which integrate with buildings and utilize residual material and energy streams. We focus on the symbiotic development of a hypothetical urban farm located in the basement of a residential building in Stockholm. Life cycle assessment is used to quantify the environmental performance of synergies related to energy integration and circular material use. Energy-related scenarios include the integration of the farm's waste heat with the host building's heating system and the utilization of solar PV. Circular material synergies include growing media and fertilizers based on residual materials from a local brewery and biogas plant. Finally, a local pickup system is studied to reduce transportation. The results point to large benefits from integrating the urban farm with the building energy system, reducing the vertical farm's GHG emissions up to 40%. Synergies with the brewery also result in GHG emissions reductions of roughly 20%. No significant change in the environmental impacts was found from the use of solar energy, while the local pickup system reduces environmental impacts from logistics, although this does not substantially lower the overall environmental impacts. However, there are some trade-offs where scenarios with added infrastructure can also increase material and water resource depletion. The results from the synergies reviewed suggest Martin et al. Urban Symbiotic Vertical Farming that proximity and host-building synergies can improve the material and energy efficiency of urban vertical farms. The results provide insights to residential building owners on the benefits of employing residual space for urban food provisioning and knowledge to expand the use of vertical farming and circular economy principles in an urban context.
... Also, home gardening can be considered common and productive agroforestry systems that are cultivated in many tropical and non-tropical regions of the world, including urban and periurban areas (Orsini et al., 2020). These and similar growing spaces have potential to improve farmers' income while securing food for their families and communities. ...
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Agriculture constitutes the major planetary force, which over the course of the past century has been changing forever the connotations of terrestrial ecosystems, due to its dependence on resources and impacts (e.g.: global climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, and eutrophication of fresh and coastal waters). The purpose of this work aimed at demonstrating the compelling need to design and manage modern farms in a way that these may conserve, and even foster biodiversity because its restoration offers resilience, longevity, and productivity to 21st century farms. Therefore, special emphasis in this work was given to the management of agricultural soils and agroforestry. These approaches enhance biological diversity, while strengthening the health of plants, animals, and human communities thus, contributing to the health of planet Earth. Agroecology is the science, practice and social movement that effectively, can assist with a conversion of farming systems toward sustainability and a restoration of agrobiodiversity.
... It is expected that to be able to keep urban and peri-urban agricultural lands consistently relevant, it is imperative to properly understand how to integrate them into urban land use planning (Bates et al., 2014;Cortinovis and Geneletti, 2018). This will prevent urban farmers from continuing to operate informally (Orsini et al., 2020) and on unauthorized public lands (see Kuusaana and Eledi, 2015a). ...
... De Bon et al. (2010) argue that urban agriculture could provide employment opportunities for the teaming unemployed youth in urban areas. Urban agriculture also has the potential to provide city markets with fresh fruits and vegetables, reduce the urban waste, as well as improve urban biodiversity (Orsini et al., 2020). Mariwah and Drangert (2011) have earlier argued that urban agriculture provides opportunity for the use of urban household waste such human excreta to improve crop yield and enhance food security among urban households and the larger city. ...
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Article
Increasingly, urban land use planning is getting more complex as limited urban spaces are continuously allocated among diverse land uses. From previous urban food system studies in Ghana, it has become apparent that large portions of urban land parcels are unsustainably converted to urban infrastructure. Hence, the sustainability of the food system is significantly threatened by inefficient spatial and infrastructure planning mechanisms that fail to protect urban agricultural zones. Of critical concern is the fact that agricultural land use allocations on planning schemes are easily converted to residential uses under demand driven expropriations. In that respect, this study was undertaken in the Bolgatanga Township to understand how urban dwellers sustain urban agricultural practices within the city. Using field surveys, key informant interviews and GIS mapping, the study found that, the total sizes of agricultural lands have decreased significantly since 1996 as urban Bolgatanga began sprawling from the inner city through to the urban fringes. In the process, agricultural lands have decreased in terms of both size and contiguity at the household level, compelling farmers to create multiple segregated farmlands within residential neighborhoods in the form of compound farms or fenced urban gardens. Hence, some urban farmers continue to rely on undeveloped residential plots and open public spaces in the inner city for production, but they easily lose these as developments in residential neighborhoods intensifies. From the physical development pattern of the city, we conclude that urbanization in agrarian cities will exacerbate the challenges of food production if relevant policy interventions are unavailable to provide for and protect agricultural lands. The study recommends that, food-inclusive planning schemes should be the basis of future physical plans to guide land uses in the peri-urban and rural zones. This will require both political will and community consensus building on the necessity to preserve urban agricultural space to sustain food supply.