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PROPERTIES OF BETA BLOCKERS AND RECOMMENDED DOSAGE FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION 

PROPERTIES OF BETA BLOCKERS AND RECOMMENDED DOSAGE FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION 

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It has been reported that beta blockers are not effective antihypertensives in black populations. A review of the literature revealed that, for the most part, studies drawing this conclusion were of small sample size, lacked controls, and did not represent the demographics of the US black population. The largest US study (Veterans Administration Co...

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... property, known as intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), basically means that a drug with this feature can minimize the very response it is meant to achieve by acting both as an agonist and antago- nist at the receptor sites. So in the balance, a drug that has ISA would tend, for the treatment of hy- pertension, to minimize side effects at unintended receptor sites and counterbalance any exaggerated response at its primary receptor site (Table 1). Selecting any one of these drugs for hypertension treatment alone may not be so critical a decision, because selectivity and ISA properties have been disputed at the higher dose requirements for hypertension treatment.2-4 ...

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... Lipid-soluble beta-blockers that cross the blood brain barrier have been known to produce neurotoxic side effects as well as cold in the bodily extremities (Thodani, 1983). Some evidence indicates that beta-blockers are more effective in Caucasian than Negro hypertensives (Veiga and Taylor, 1986). Longterm use of beta-blockers, more than two to three years, is probably contraindicated for most patients. ...
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The idea of personalized medicine came to fruition with sequencing the human genome; however, aside from a few cases, the genetic revolution has yet to materialize. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally, and hypertension is a common prelude to nearly all cardiovascular diseases. Thus, hypertension is an ideal candidate disease to apply tenants of personalized medicine to lessen cardiovascular disease. Herein is a survey that visually depicts the polymorphisms in the top eight antihypertensive targets. Although there are numerous genome-wide association studies regarding cardiovascular disease, few studies look at the effects of receptor polymorphisms on drug treatment. With 17,000 + polymorphisms in the combined target proteins examined, it is expected that some of the clinical variability in the treatment of hypertension is due to polymorphisms in the drug targets. Recent advances in techniques and technology, such as high throughput examination of single mutations, structure prediction, computational power for modeling, and CRISPR models of point mutations, allow for a relatively rapid and comprehensive examination of the effects of known and future polymorphisms on drug affinity and effects. As hypertension is easy to measure and has a plethora of clinically viable ligands, hypertension makes an excellent disease to study pharmacogenomics in the lab and the clinic. If the promises of personalized medicine are to materialize, a concerted effort to examine the effects polymorphisms have on drugs is required. A clinician with the knowledge of a patient's genotype can then prescribe drugs that are optimal for treating that specific patient.
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In the contemporary United States, matters of life and health have become key political concerns. Important to this politics of life is the desire to overcome racial inequalities in health; from heart disease to diabetes, the populations most afflicted by a range of illnesses are racialized minorities. The solutions generally proposed to the problem of racial health disparities have been social and environmental in nature, but in the wake of the mapping of the human genome, genetic thinking has come to have considerable influence on how such inequalities are problematized. Racial Prescriptions explores the politics of dealing with health inequities through targeting pharmaceuticals at specific racial groups based on the idea that they are genetically different. Drawing on the introduction of BiDil to treat heart failure among African Americans, this book contends that while racialized pharmaceuticals are ostensibly about fostering life, they also raise thorny questions concerning the biologization of race, the reproduction of inequality, and the economic exploitation of the racial body. Engaging the concept of biopower in an examination of race, genetics and pharmaceuticals, Racial Prescriptions will appeal to sociologists, anthropologists and scholars of science and technology studies with interests in medicine, health, bioscience, inequality and racial politics.