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PCL-R Scores for the Incarcerated Women

PCL-R Scores for the Incarcerated Women

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In this study, PCL-R scores were used in correlational analyses with PAI scales in a sample of incarcerated women (N = 133). The total PCL-R score was significantly correlated with many PAI scales including ANT, DRG, and AGG. Categorical analyses were also used where the psychopathic women (N = 71; PCL-R ≥ 30) were significantly higher on the PAI s...

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... = 0.401) or IQ (t [97] = 0.944, p = 0.348). As expected, when separating the women into two groups (PCL-R ≥ 30 & PCL-R ≤ 24), PCL-R T-Scores and all PCL-R Factor and facets scores were significantly different (p < 0.001; see Table 2). Significant positive correlations were found with high PCL-R total score and the following PAI scales: MAN, BOR, ANT, AGG, DRG, ALC, DOM, SOM-C, MAN-I, PAR-P, SCZ-T, BOR-A, BOR-S, ANT-A, ANT-E, ANT-S, AGG-A, AGG-P, AGG-V, and VPI (see Table 3 for correlational analyses). ...

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... While the PAI cannot determine psychopathy level, it has several scales that add to our understanding of the prisoner's personality functioning and aggressive behavior (Conn et al., 2010;Edens et al., 2001;Edens & Ruiz, 2005;Morey & Quigley, 2002;Skopp et al., 2007;Smith et al., 2020b). The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale correlated with the PCL-R total score especially in forensic male samples ($r ¼ 0.50; Douglas et al., 2007;Edens et al., 2000). ...
... This may be an artifact related to the PCL-R being normed on males and using male pronouns throughout the PCL-R manual (Hare, 2003). confident, forceful) scales (Conn et al., 2010;Edens et al., 2000;Kimonis et al., 2010;Salekin et al., 1997Salekin et al., , 1998Smith, Gacono, Kivisto, et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2020bSmith et al., , 2021 and female inmates scoring higher on the AGG, VPI, and ANT scales had more violent and nonviolent incident reports . This suggested that those women who have institutional misconduct had more aggressive and antisocial attitudes, hostility, and stimulus-seeking behaviors. ...
... Two other PAI scales, Borderline features (BOR 4 ) and Paranoia (PAR 5 ) have been correlated with higher PCL-R total scores and increased institutional incident reports Smith et al., 2020b). Psychopathic females (PCL-R ! ...
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Managing the incarcerated population is the primary task within correctional settings. Using psychological assessment to predict institutional behavior, the psychologist has a unique set of skills essential to the management of prisoners. PCL-R, PAI, and Rorschach data were compared with institutional infractions (total, physical, verbal, non-aggressive) among 126 incarcerated women. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used which found significant correlations between PCL-R total score, PAI scales (BOR, ANT, VPI), and Rorschach variables (ROD, EGOI, TCI, AgPot, AgPast, SumV, SumC’, MOR) with total, verbal, physical, and nonviolent incident reports. Each of these measures adds incrementally to the assessment and understanding of institutional misbehavior for incarcerated women. Clinical implications of the findings were presented.
... Additionally, mislabeling traits such as self-centeredness, impulsivity, impaired empathy, and irresponsibility as inherently psychopathic, returns psychology to the pre-1900s pejorative trend of including all personality disorders under the rubric of psychopathy or the antiquated term "sociopathy." Even established self-report measures, such as the MMPI-2 or PAI, are never appropriate for establishing psychopathic groups (Hare, 1991(Hare, , 2003Smith et al., 2020b). Some self-reports, additionally, lack the necessary validation within appropriate antisocial and psychopathic populations (e.g., attempting to validate an instrument to assess psychopathy within a college population where no psychopath exists). ...
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Recently in Psychoanalytic Psychology, Gullhaugen et al. (2021) proposed a Dynamic Model of Psychopathy (DMP) to better understand psychopathic traits. Several issues with the authors' methodology, including the use of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) as an independent measure and a small sample size (N = 16) relative to their conceptual approach and the number of statistical analyses conducted, limit the conclusions that can be drawn from their data. Additionally, the authors discuss their findings as if the data from this study with all males could apply to women. In this article, we use the methodological issues presented in the Gullhaugen study to discuss problems with the broader psychopathy literature. We also provide a psychodynamic model of psychopathy consistent with theory and empirical data.
... Additionally, mislabeling traits such as self-centeredness, impulsivity, impaired empathy, and irresponsibility as inherently psychopathic, returns psychology to the pre-1900s pejorative trend of including all personality disorders under the rubric of psychopathy or the antiquated term "sociopathy." Even established self-report measures, such as the MMPI-2 or PAI, are never appropriate for establishing psychopathic groups (Hare, 1991(Hare, , 2003Smith et al., 2020b). Some self-reports, additionally, lack the necessary validation within appropriate antisocial and psychopathic populations (e.g., attempting to validate an instrument to assess psychopathy within a college population where no psychopath exists). ...
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Erratum--please note on page 116, the total score of 34 should be 37. Also, the text should read "might receive" instead of receive, accounting for the potential individual items scoring.
... The PAI has been used extensively with forensic populations (Edens & Ruiz, 2005;Morey, 1991). Higher total PCL-R scores in females were related to PAI ANT (Antisocial), AGG (Aggression), BOR (Borderline), mania (MAN), and dominance (DOM) scales, and negatively related to the warmth (WRM) scale (Conn et al., 2010;Kimonis et al., 2010;Salekin et al., 1997;Smith et al., 2020b). Female inmates had higher scores on the PAI Drug (DRG) and Anxiety-Related Disorders-Traumatic Stress (ARD-T) than male inmates (Davidson et al., 2016). ...
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In this chapter, we provide a theoretical and empirically based understanding of antisocial and psychopathic women. We begin by clarifying the differences between psychopathy, sociopathy, and ASPD, and then provide a historical perspective of hysteria. While the underlying personality of the female psychopath is paranoid, malignant hysteria is their predominant personality style (Gacono & Meloy, 1994). Overviews of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and Rorschach are offered as a refresher for those experienced clinicians and as a resource for those that are not. Finally, we present group PAI and Rorschach data (also Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 [TSI-2]) for 337 female offenders including subsets of psychopathic (N = 124) and non-psychopathic (N = 57) females. We make note of the differences between female and male psychopaths.