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Overview of the Tell el-Daba area with an overlay of the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile (Bietak et al. 2009). The Pelusiac branch, like many of the other ancient Nile branches (see Figure 1 inset), has long disappeared, but was eventually identified by Bietak (1975) and Tronchère et al. (2008). Individual excavation areas are marked with capital letters/Roman numerals: Areas R/I, FI, FII, A/I-IV, A/V, and H/I-VI are summarized in Figure 3.

Overview of the Tell el-Daba area with an overlay of the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile (Bietak et al. 2009). The Pelusiac branch, like many of the other ancient Nile branches (see Figure 1 inset), has long disappeared, but was eventually identified by Bietak (1975) and Tronchère et al. (2008). Individual excavation areas are marked with capital letters/Roman numerals: Areas R/I, FI, FII, A/I-IV, A/V, and H/I-VI are summarized in Figure 3.

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Radiocarbon dating at the Tell el-Daba site in the Nile Delta has created an enigma for many years. Despitegreat efforts, the difference of about 120 yr between the chronology based on 14C dates and the one based on archaeologicalevidence linked to the Egyptian historical chronology has not been solved. In order to foster open discussions on this d...

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... overview of the Tell el-Daba area is shown in Figure 2, where the individual excavation sites are marked ( Bietak et al. 2009). One of the challenging tasks was to establish a general stratigraphic sequence from the various excavation sites covering different, but largely overlapping, time periods. ...

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... According to the latest calibration, IntCal20, the same date cuts through a wider zone, with the result that any of three ranges have a fair probability of being true: 1687-1651 BC (22%), 1645-1607 (55%) or 1581-1544 BC (16%). Meanwhile, pumice stones unearthed from a workshop at Tell el-Daba have been interpreted to show that the eruption took place not long before the reign of Thutmose III, perhaps as late as 1500 BC (Kutschera et al. 2012). How much time passed between the eruption (assuming there was only one) and the collection of the washed-up stones is unknown. ...
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... Whether or not the eliminated dates are in agreement with those considered reliable and the fact that two dates adjudged to be reliable (Bln-5626 and Ly-9190 from Oarţa de Sus) are in clear disagreement with each other is methodologically irrelevant: absolute dates obtained by faulty methodology remain uncertain even if by chance they deliver dates that later prove to be correct; alternatively, a well applied radiocarbon dating methodology does not always lead to successful dating. There are some famous case studies in which the differences of over one hundred years between the historical-archaeological absolute dating and radiocarbon dating could not be explained (see, for example, Kutschera 2012;Higham et al. 2010). Based on archaeological expectations alone, these radiocarbon dates are often rejected without much concern; however, they have the potential to lead to improvements in the radiocarbon dating method. ...
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