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Overall weighted scores for each of the drugs The coloured bars indicate the part scores for each of the criteria. The key shows the normalised weight for each criterion. A higher weight indicates a larger diff erence between the most harmful drug on the criterion and no harm. CW=cumulative weight. GHB=γ hydroxybutyric acid. LSD=lysergic acid diethylamide.

Overall weighted scores for each of the drugs The coloured bars indicate the part scores for each of the criteria. The key shows the normalised weight for each criterion. A higher weight indicates a larger diff erence between the most harmful drug on the criterion and no harm. CW=cumulative weight. GHB=γ hydroxybutyric acid. LSD=lysergic acid diethylamide.

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Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive wor...

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... this display shows the two axes before weighting, a score on one cannot be compared with a score on the other, without knowing their relative scale constants. Figure 4 shows the contributions that the part scores make on each criterion to the total score of each drug. Alcohol, with an overall score of 72, was judged to be most harmful, followed by heroin at 55, then crack cocaine with a score of 54. ...

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... Excessive alcohol use constitutes a major public health concern, being a key contributor to the burden of disease and mortality worldwide (Rehm et al., 2017). Severe alcohol use disorder (SAUD) is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions (Rehm and Shield, 2019), and has well-established physical (Nutt et al., 2010), cognitive (Stavro et al., 2013), and cerebral (Bühler and Mann, 2011) consequences. Beyond SAUD, recent research showed an association between excessive alcohol use patterns (e.g., heavy, hazardous or binge drinking) and physical or mental health issues (Hermens et al., 2013;Jacobus and Tapert, 2013). ...
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... The difficulties in quitting smoking relate to the effects of the psychoactive substance found in tobacco-nicotine. Its addictive potential can be compared to substances like heroin or crack (Nutt et al., 2010). ...
... The fear of being a secondhand smoker is one of the important factors in the stigmatization of smokers (Stuber et al., 2008). According to the analysis of Nutt et al. (2010), harms caused by smoking tobacco are mainly personal and outweigh the harm to others. This means, that contrary to using alcohol and other psychoactive substances, cigarette smoking does not lead to problems such as crime, direct injuries to others (e.g. ...
... This means, that contrary to using alcohol and other psychoactive substances, cigarette smoking does not lead to problems such as crime, direct injuries to others (e.g. domestic violence), or family adversities (Nutt et al., 2010), and the negative consequences of smoking are primarily individual and health-related (Barta et al., 2019;Nutt et al., 2010;Sung et al., 2021). In most countries, cigarettes are still legal for parts of the population (e.g., adults over a certain age) (Rehm et al., 2019), despite some tobacco control legislations such as introducing smoke-free laws or high tobacco taxation [see: MPOWER Report issued in 2008 by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2019)], or disapproval from people (Alamar & Glantz, 2006). ...
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Rapid, accessible, and highly accurate biosensors for the detection of addictive and abused drugs are needed to reduce the adverse personal and societal impacts of addiction. Modern sensors that utilize next‐generation technologies, e.g., nanobiotechnology and nanoarchitectonics, have triggered revolutionary progress in the field as they allow accurate detection and tracking of trace levels of major classes of drugs. This paper reviews advances in the field of biosensors for the detection of commonly abused drugs, both prescribed such as codeine and morphine, and illegal narcotics like cocaine. Here, the basics of biosensors and next‐generation technologies in biosensor designs via nanoarchitectonics, which have triggered revolutionary progress in the accurate, rapid, and reliable detection of commonly abused drugs, are reviewed.