Overall summary of cases.

Overall summary of cases.

Source publication
Article
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This article focuses on Public Procurement for Innovation as a relevant demand-side instrument to be exploited in the mitigation of grand challenges. It intends to provide some clarification on what should (and what should not) be regarded as innovation procurement. It defines what is meant by Public Procurement for Innovation and categorizes it ac...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... PCP may be an important preparation and specification phase before a PPI process is started. Table 1 classifies the six cases to be presented in the next two sections by using the previous concepts. As the reader will know, direct PPI has historically been a much more commonly used instrument than catalytic PPI. ...
Context 2
... Type of PPI: as specified in Section 3 ( Table 1). e. ...

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Citations

... Three such horizontal policy goals are: to reduce long-term unemployment, stimulate small and medium enterprises and to reduce the environmental impact of procured goods, works and services. Furthermore, public procurement can play an important role in addressing societal challenges (Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia 2012;OECD 2017). As such, public procurement and innovation are recognized as two important elements in the global effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the ambitions of the public client, civil engineering projects and programmes also entail a high risk and uncertainty profile that needs to be allocated and managed by the public client (Lenderink et al. 2022). ...
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Stimulating innovation through public procurement can lead to improved performance, contribute to organizational and policy goals, but can also play a key role in addressing societal challenges that cannot be adequately addressed by conventional solutions. A significant amount of research has been carried out on stimulating innovation through the public procurement of goods and services. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on which procurement strategies and tendering methods can be effectively used to encourage specific types of innovation within larger public initiatives such as civil engineering projects and programmes. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a coherent overview of innovation-encouraging procurement strategies and tendering methods, and to relate their potential effective use to the technology readiness of the targeted innovations, the required level of cooperation between public client and contractor and the willingness of public clients to bear innovation risks, and to provide incentives, budget and solution space for these innovations. Based on a literature review and a multiple case study, an innovation-encouraging procurement typology is developed. In addition, a guideline is provided that can be used by public clients to select an appropriate procurement strategy for their innovation projects and programmes.
... One instrument that public contracting authorities can use to achieve such environmental missions is green public procurement (GPP), as purchasing that reduces environmental impacts across product or service life cycles [10]. As an innovation procurement mechanism, GPP is a tool that supports the uptake of ecoinnovations by markets [11] and can be conceptualized as mission-oriented innovation policy (MIP) [12] and thereby offers a mission-oriented approach to furthering sustainable development progress. GPP stimulates the development, commercialization, and market penetration of products and services with the best environmental performance [10]. ...
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Mission-oriented approaches such as green public procurement (GPP) are emerging as popular solutions for governments to tackle contemporary sustainability challenges. Voluntary standards are instruments that can be used in GPP to drive innovation toward sustainability goals. However, there exists a lack of understanding of how to theoretically situate and practically execute GPP and voluntary standards within missions-oriented innovation systems (MIS). To address this research gap, this paper investigates how voluntary standards can be used to help formulate and achieve missions for sustainable urban development (SUD) at the municipal level, followed by what role green public procurement can play in this process. To do so, it establishes a first theoretical synthesis of GPP and MIS. Next, focusing on the Municipality of Amsterdam, it conducts an empirical investigation of 95 SUD projects, of which 55 were public tender projects (in which the municipality is the landowner) and 40 were non-public tender projects (in which a private entity is the landowner), supplemented by stakeholder interviews. Based on this, it (1) conceptualizes six sustainability ambitions as missions and examines each for their formulation in terms of targets and associated standards (problem-solution diagnosis), and (2) it maps the various actors engaged in the process of implementing these missions through SUD projects, defining their positions and interrelations within the MIS at the municipal level (structural analysis). Conclusions and reflections are made regarding the relationship between changing standards and regulations over time, the potential for GPP to increase progress toward missions via use of voluntary standards in public tenders. Until programmatic approaches to measuring progress toward missions are fully implemented, the presence of voluntary standards is suggested as a potential metric.
... The supplier has some freedom in translating the functional specifications and may suggest new solutions that fulfil the buyer's needs while simultaneously providing productivity and innovation gains (Araujo et al., 1999). Studies of PPfI underline functional specifications as beneficial for innovation because suppliers can use their creativity and suggest alternative solutions to the buyer's need (Edler & Georghiou, 2007;Edquist & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012). ...
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... Other studies further reinforce the importance of citizen participation, including engaging beneficiaries of social innovation (Silva-Flores 2017) and users in the first stages of innovation, so that innovative ideas may be viable (Annanperä, Liukkunen, and Markkula 2015). This strengthens the finding that citizen participation can accelerate social innovation (Edquist and Zabala 2012) in emerging ecosystems and consolidate expanding ecosystems. Figure 2 shows the relationship between the three lines of action to suggest public policies that will promote innovation strategies and overcome the social innovation restraints by: linking mechanisms between the different actors in the ecosystem (xii); common frameworks for action (xiii); and citizen participation (xiv). ...
... Incorporating these strategies is considered viable not only because these strategies have been reported and analysed in other studies (this is identified in Section of this article), but because they were revealed through the interactions and connections between actors in the GDL and BCN ecosystems. Furthermore, based on these, thought can be given to the pertinence of policies based on public demand as an engine for the development and diffusion of innovations (Edquist and Zabala 2012), innovation strategies and development plans that orient the efforts of the ecosystem actors towards their region's development. ...
... Given our aim to develop suggestions for how MDEs could be evaluated, we depart from the literature outlining ways to evaluate MDEs, "experimental policy," and TIPs 11 because these by and large overlap. These literatures use and extend previous research on policy science and economic development (Foray et al., 2012), industrial policy (Rodrik, 2008), and technological innovation systems (Edquist & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012). 12 We draw primarily on Janssen (2019a, 2019b) and colleagues (e.g., 2021) because their work aims to develop principles for evaluating environments similar to the five Vinnova-funded MDEs in focus here. ...
Technical Report
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Background. Mission-driven innovation (MDI) policies are founded on governmental attempts to address fundamental but complex societal challenges. The rationale behind such attempts is typically to influence the directionality of innovation towards addressing the perceived challenge. This report focuses on a particular instance of MDI policy executed by Sweden’s innovation agency, Vinnova: the funding of five so-called “mission-driven environments” (MDEs) in 2019. The policy in question is called ‘Vision-Driven Health’ and was initiated in 2019 to support the establishment of inter-organizational and cross-disciplinary coalitions that work towards a common vision and a long-term systemic transformation within the Swedish health care and life science sector. Aim. The report aims to provide a framework for evaluating five MDEs funded by Vinnova. Vinnova asked us to consider, in particular, the role of eight “Work Principles” (WPs) they recommended the MDEs implement.
... The extant literature stresses suppliers' contribution to the innovation process. The stream of research that emphasizes using public procurement to foster innovation is a relevant example (Edler and Georghiou 2007;Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia 2012;Uyarra et al., 2014). Edler and Georghiou (2007) suggested that purchasing innovative solutions offers strong potential for improving public services. ...
... It seems that municipalities that are able to transfer the tacit knowledge of their specific needs to providers properly, and properly understand the range of opportunities that innovation opens up to them are also able to create public value. This finding confirms the salience that many researchers have attached to public procurement as a form of innovation (Edler and Georghiou 2007;Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia 2012), particularly in digital innovation contexts (Manville et al., 2014;Pittaway and Montazemi, 2020). ...
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This research studied the effect of different combinations of government capabilities (innovation capability mix) on public value in smart city-framed innovation projects. The study drew on the public value theory, the collaborative public innovation approach and the dynamic capabilities theory to devise a conceptual framework that links government capabilities and public value. Insights from smart cities and literature on public innovation were also used to identify a range of intra-organizational and external collaboration capabilities of governments that should lead to valuable public sector innovation. These capabilities were combined inductively through factor analysis, which was applied to a sample of 143 innovation projects in Spanish municipalities, leading to four forms of innovation capability mix. A factor analysis regression was then estimated. Overall, the study found that ‘citizen-oriented management’ (i.e., outstanding innovation-oriented internal management coupled with strong collaboration with citizens) and ‘provider focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with providers) seem to have a positive influence on three dimensions of public value (i.e., efficiency, effectiveness and societal challenges). By contrast, ‘citizen and expert focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with experts and citizens) and ‘peer focus’ (i.e., outstanding collaboration with other governments) do not contribute to any of the three dimensions of public value. While project type was studied, it was found that its isolated effect was limited, although analyzing it provided some interesting findings.
... Grand challenges are 'wicked', i.e. characterized by complex interdependencies, necessitating solutions which radically replace unsustainable practices and go beyond technological advancements to include behavioural and cultural change as well as social innovation (Amanatidou et al., 2014;Coenen et al., 2015a). While this is acknowledged also by proponents of the new generation of missions-oriented policy (Cagnin et al., 2012;Foray, 2018b;Mazzucato, 2016), other authors argue that addressing grand challenges is much more complex than the next generation of mission-oriented policy, and that such challenges rather should be seen as "open-ended missions", i.e. missions that induce system transformation (Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012;Kuhlmann and Rip, 2018). ...
... Steward (2012), for example, argues that regional actors play a key role since they are practice-oriented, quick to experiment, and learn from various policy experiments. Similarly, Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia (2012) argue that certain types of public procurement for innovation might be more effective at a local level. ...
Article
This paper reviews the emerging literature on “transformative” innovation policy (TIP) in order to (1) identify unique TIP characteristics and the challenges they imply for policymakers throughout the policy cycle and (2) examine the literature's contribution to practical policymaking. We identify five main distinguishing TIP characteristics and analyse the literature's understanding of how they influence the policymaking process. The analysis shows that the literature discusses TIP-related challenges in all stages of the policy cycle but does not provide much guidance on how to address key cross-cutting policymaking challenges such as how to achieve broad stakeholder involvement, evaluate transformative outcomes, and build up dynamic policymaker capabilities. In order for TIP ideas to be implemented in real-life policymaking, TIP scholars, therefore, need to more explicitly consider the practitioners’ perspective and develop concrete models, tools and guidelines that help policymakers address the identified challenges.
... The ambiguous concept of innovation involves many interpretations, leading to a multiplicity of activities that can be solved through innovative actions. It involves the internal organisation (De Vries et al., 2016;Osborne & Brown, 2013) as well as the conditions for the business sector and ambitions to use procurement to drive change in other organisations (Edler & Georghiou, 2007;Edquist & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012). Moreover, there is an increasing emphasis on transformative innovation policies where municipalities participate and facilitate collaborations to solve common challenges (Schot & Steinmueller, 2018). ...
Thesis
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Contemporary planning and governance of cities involves practices of experiments and trials in urban experiments, collaborative platforms, and urban development projects with high ambitions for sustainability and innovative solutions. The introduction of experimental governance establishes a new logic of public administration that results in multiple opportunities and challenges. This thesis aims to examine the municipalities’ organisational capacity for experimental governance and the opportunities to ensure legitimacy. The thesis involves a case study of the City of Stockholm and its innovative practices in general and experimental governance practices in particular. The focus is on the municipal organisation and how it has developed over the past decade, rather than single experiments, collaborations, and projects. Using a qualitative research approach, empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews, participatory observations, and document studies. The thesis comprises four research articles. The first article provides a discussion of municipal innovation approaches and their influence of institutional logics. The second article is about municipal functions related to experiments, and how these functions challenge the local government. The third article examines the work of experiments and partnerships in policy and practice from a legitimacy perspective. The fourth article explores the institutional capacity for translating innovation actions from high-profile urban development projects into regular processes of the municipality. The findings point towards the need for a more nuanced understanding of practices of experimental governance, and the development of permanent organisational structures and cultures to support and steer these practices. There is also a need for organisational procedures to ensure legitimacy, related to both input in terms of transparency, accountability and equality, and output in terms of results and effectiveness, with a capacity to implement the results.
... By forcing firms to use less energy in their production, these firms have very strong incentives to quickly increase their R&D efforts within that area. A similar but more direct intervention involves mandating firms to be more innovative to obtain access to funds from public procurement (Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia 2012). With this approach, the vast funds that governments directly control can be used to pressure firms to increase efficiency in targeted areas. ...
... Public procurement has an impact on innovation goals because it shapes the valuation of goods and markets through which offerings are exchanged and the responsiveness of the supplier to actual needs by using technological specifications rather than functional requirements (Miller and Lehoux, 2020;Uyarra et al., 2014;Meehan and Bryde, 2015). Functional requirements are more beneficial for innovators than strict specifications (Edquist and Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, 2012). Demand articulation of a public organization has a facilitating impact on the innovation process of small firms (Selviaridis, 2021). ...
Article
Purpose Buyer–supplier relationships in public procurement have garnered increasing attention in research, yet studies on the perspective of suppliers on public procurement have remained limited. This research takes the perspective of suppliers and aims to investigate the innovativeness of suppliers and the impact of supply chain ambidexterity strategies on their perceptions about public procurement in terms of innovation enablers and customer attractiveness. Design/methodology/approach This research draws from a survey of 137 suppliers to the public sector in Finland and applies PLS-path modeling to test its hypotheses. Findings The findings reveal that the ambidexterity strategy of suppliers in the supply chain influences how they perceive the innovation enablers and customer attractiveness of public organizations since processes of public procurement do not support these strategies fully. Supplier innovativeness has an influence on the perceived innovation enablers of public procurement, which, in turn, influences customer attractiveness. Practical implications The innovativeness and strategies of suppliers for the supply chain have an impact on how attractive they perceive public procurement. The findings of this research provide insights on why the customer attractiveness of public procurement may not be high enough to secure the competition in their bidding processes. Originality/value The study’s contribution adds to the field of buyer–supplier relationships and customer attractiveness in public procurement by showing the importance of innovation enablers and highlighting the impact of supplier's ambidexterity in the supply chain on their perceptions about public procurement.