Outline of the historical
development of MAR in Europe
showing the number of MAR
sites opened or closed per decade
between the 1870s and 2000s
Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the availabl...
Esta obra es la segunda parte del legado que Antonio García-Cubas dejó como obra póstuma. En ella se compila el conocimiento sobre los moluscos bivalvos de las porciones mexicanas del Golfo de México y Mar Caribe, con fichas de caracteres diagnósticos, hábitos de vida, distribución geográfica e imágenes de 200 especies registradas en el curso de lo...
The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas.
Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reser...
Causas e condicionantes para a o “avanço do mar” (ou diminuição / recuo da costa) e seus impactos em Atafona, São João da Barra. Possibilidades de solução / minimização dos impactos (especialmente humanos) trazidos pela questão, passando pelos caminhos institucionais, normativos e técnico-científicos para tanto, apontando, se possível, as possibili...
Continuous and high-resolution records of the content, mass accumulation rate (MAR) and δ13C values of black carbon obtained from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1430 in the southwestern Japan Sea have been established and combined with previous results obtained from Central Asia. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct the...
As an alternative to the use of tracers, easy-to-measure soil moisture dynamic parameters (e.g., water content) provide in situ estimates of the infiltration rate reduction state of a soil medium. For instance, managed aquifer recharge operations control the hydraulic state of their infiltration basins by measuring the infiltrated volume under constant head conditions. Instantaneous profile measurement systems can be used to manage the basins by determining the reduction of the infiltration rate over time. This study combines the empirical methods of Libardi, the self-developed water content and root mean square difference-based procedures and the trigger time method, to get a similar reproduction of tracer results from river water spreading basins. The methods based on water content showed a good fitting in comparison to the results obtained with the tracer experiment and represent a promising source for detecting changes in the flow impedance during infiltration events.
Where surface-functionalized engineered nanoparticles (NP) occur in drinking water catchments, understanding their transport within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for risk assessment of drinking water resources. The transport of NP is mainly controlled by (i) their surface properties, (ii) water chemistry, and (iii) surface properties of the stationary phase. Therefore, functionalization of NP surfaces by organic coatings may change their fate in the environment. In laboratory columns, we compared the mobility of CeO2 NP coated by the synthetic polymer polyacrylic acid (PAA) with CeO2 NP coated by natural organic matter (NOM) and humic acid (HA), respectively. The effect of ionic strength on transport in sand columns was investigated using deionized (DI) water and natural surface water with 2.2 mM Ca²⁺ (soft) and 4.5 mM Ca²⁺ (hard), respectively. Furthermore, the relevance of these findings was validated in a near-natural bank filtration experiment using HA-CeO2 NP. PAA-CeO2 NP were mobile under all tested water conditions, showing a breakthrough of 60% irrespective of the Ca²⁺ concentration. In contrast, NOM-CeO2 NP showed a lower mobility with a breakthrough of 27% in DI and < 10% in soft surface water. In hard surface water, NOM-CeO2 NP were completely retained in the first 2 cm of the column. The transport of HA-CeO2 NP in laboratory columns in soft surface water was lower compared to NOM-CeO2 NP with a strong accumulation of CeO2 NP in the first few centimeters of the column. Natural coatings were generally less stabilizing and more susceptible to increasing Ca²⁺ concentrations than the synthetic coating. The outdoor column experiment confirmed the low mobility of HA-CeO2 NP under more complex environmental conditions. From our experiments, we conclude that the synthetic polymer is more efficient in facilitating NP transport than natural coatings and hence, CeO2 NP mobility may vary significantly depending on the surface coating.
The annual average temperature in Lower Saxony rose by 1.5 °C since 1881, with maximum summer temperatures and the frequency of summer droughts increasing. At the same time, the length of the growing season has extended and annual mean precipitation amounts have risen by 17 % during the period between 1881 and 2011. While winter precipitation increased significantly, summer precipitation exhibited a downwards trend and low water indices for inland waters indicate a growing severity since 1960. Multi-model ensembles of a variety of climate studies suggest that the climate trends started in the past century will continue at least until 2050. The averaged change signal of the annual mean temperature is projected by different studies to lay in the range between 0.9 and 1.4 °C for the 2021 to 2050 period and 1.0 to 3.5 °C until 2100 (independent of the emission scenario, reference period 1971-2000). Precipitation projections made in various publications, on the other hand, yield a broad range of seasonal rainfall changes, which, at the moment, limits
the possibility of reaching reliable conclusions concerning changes in groundwater recharge. However, averaged trends of multi-model
ensembles indicate as a tendency a further increase of annual precipitation amounts by 4 to 7 % for the period 2021-2050 and by 1 to 11 % until 2100 (independent of the emission scenario, reference period 1971-2000). This development will likely be accompanied by a shift in rainfall amounts from summer to winter. Possible impacts of climate change on groundwater management include seasonal changes in both water availability and water demand and are already to be expected for the period 2021 to 2050. If adaption strategies are not implemented, the situation is likely to cause tensions in the water sector due to conflicts between sustainable management objectives
and a climatically influenced changing societal groundwater demand.
Intensive groundwater withdrawals in California have resulted in depletion of streams and aquifers in some regions. Agricultural managed aquifer recharge (Ag-MAR) initiatives have recently been piloted in California to mitigate the effects of unsustainable groundwater withdrawals. These initiatives rely on capturing wet-year water and spreading it on large areas of irrigated agricultural lands to enhance recharge to aquifers. While recharge studies typically consider local effects on aquifer storage, few studies have investigated Ag-MAR benefits and challenges at a regional scale. Here we used the Integrated Water Flow Model, to evaluate how Ag-MAR projects can affect streamflows, diversions, pumping, and unsaturated zone flows in the southern Central Valley, California. We further tested the sensitivity of three different spatial patterns of Ag-MAR, each chosen based on different thresholds of soil suitability, on the hydrologic system. This study investigates how the distribution of Ag-MAR lands benefit the regional groundwater system and other water balance components. The results suggest that Ag-MAR benefits vary as a function of the location of Ag-MAR lands. Stream-aquifer interactions play a crucial factor in determining the ability to increase groundwater storage in overdrafted basins. The results also indicate that Ag-MAR projects conducted during the November–April recharge season have implications for water rights outside of the Ag-MAR season. If not properly monitored, Ag-MAR can cause a rise of groundwater table into the root zone, negatively impacting sensitive crops. Our work also highlights the benefits of using an integrated hydrologic and management model to evaluate Ag-MAR at a regional scale.
Induced bank filtration (IBF) is a water abstraction technology using different natural infiltration systems for groundwater recharge, such as river banks and lake shores. It is a cost-effective pre-treatment method for drinking water production used in many regions worldwide, predominantly in urban areas. Until now, research concerning IBF has almost exclusively focussed on the purification efficiency and infiltration capacity. Consequently, knowledge about the effects on source water bodies is lacking. Yet, IBF interrupts groundwater seepage and affects processes in the sediment potentially resulting in adverse effects on lake or river water quality. Securing sufficient source water quality, however, is important for a sustainable drinking water production by IBF. In this study, we analysed the effects of five predicted mechanisms of IBF on shallow lake ecosystems using the dynamic model PCLake: declining CO 2 and nutrient availability, as well as increasing summer water temperatures, sedimentation rates and oxygen penetration into sediments. Shallow lake ecosystems are abundant worldwide and characterised by the occurrence of alternative stable states with either clear water and macrophyte dominance or turbid, phytoplankton-dominated conditions. Our results show that IBF in most scenarios increased phytoplankton abundance and thus had adverse effects on shallow lake water quality. Threshold levels for critical nutrient loading inducing regime shifts from clear to turbid conditions were up to 80% lower with IBF indicating a decreased resilience to eutrophication. The effects were strongest when IBF interrupted the seepage of CO 2 rich groundwater resulting in lower macrophyte growth. IBF could also enhance water quality, but only when interrupting the seepage of groundwater with high nutrient concentrations. Higher summer water temperatures increased the share of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community and thus the risk of toxin production. In relative terms, the effects of changing sedimentation rates and oxygen penetration were small. Lake depth and size influenced the effect of IBF on critical nutrient loads, which was strongest in shallower and smaller lakes. Our model results stress the need of a more comprehensive ecosystem perspective including an assessment of IBF effects on threshold levels for regime shifts to prevent high phytoplankton abundance in the source water body and secure a sustainable drinking water supply.
This work discussed the conditions for the successful implementation of managed aquifer recharge, with various case studies in Jordan. The motivation behind this study was that many managed aquifer projects have been implemented in Jordan without adequate studies and they have since failed. Examples from Jordan were provided to serve as an illustration of Middle Eastern and North African countries, with their semi-arid to arid climates and increasing demand for water. The methodology included the evaluation of the implemented managed aquifer projects in Jordan and whether they achieved success or failure in fulfilling the purposes of aquifer recharging, as well as to clarify the reasons for the failure or success. The results showed that a minimum level of study must be carried out before starting any artificial recharge projects, such as defining the aquifer parameters and the water quality evolution after recharge, in addition to understanding of the fate of the recharged water. Managed aquifer recharge can alleviate the impacts of climate change by making use of unused water, and in the case of Jordan, it can alleviate the implications of dropping groundwater levels.
Physical models such as surface infiltration experiments in the lab and field are an approach to understand processes in the unsaturated soil zone. In the case of mapping processes influencing the operation of real-world managed aquifer recharge schemes they are helpful tools to determine interactions between processes in the unsaturated soil zone, and site-specific as well as operational parameters. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over-or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Various real-world managed aquifer recharge operational scenarios were simulated in three physical models, a 1D-lab column, a rectangular shaped stainless steel 3D-lab infiltration tank and a rectangular shaped 3D-field unit, to understand the impact of the experimental setup on the assessment of processes and to identify the experimental setup which is most-suitable to describe these processes. Results indicate that water flow velocity, water saturation and oxygen consumption are often overestimated in 1D-column experiments due to sidewall effects and no existing lateral flow. For precise analysis of infiltration processes in general as well as during operation of managed aquifer recharge, 3D experiments are recommended due to their more realistic representation of flow processes.
La Siembra y Cosecha del Agua (SyCA) consiste en una serie de procedimientos ancestrales con los que el hombre recolecta e infiltra (siembra) el agua de lluvia y de escorrentía (subterránea, superficial e hipodérmica) en el subsuelo para poder capturarla (cosecharla) tiempo después. Esta forma de manejo del agua ha permitido que las zonas de regadío históricas de Iberoámérica, donde se ha hecho SyCA, hayan podido superar los drásticos cambios climáticos y culturales acaecidos durante los últimos siglos. Hidrológicamente, la SyCA aumenta el caudal de los ríos y los manantiales en los periodos secos. Los principios que rigen la SyCA son los mismos que persigue el actual paradigma de la Gestión Integral del Agua (uso coordinado de aguas subterráneas y superficiales para conseguir un balance justo entre el bienestar social y económico y las necesidades de los ecosistemas, en el espacio y en el tiempo). Más SyCA conllevará un mejor uso del agua, una mejor conservación del medioambiente y del patrimonio y el reconocimiento de las comunidades campesinas como guardas y custodios del territorio y de nuestra cultura. En esta ponencia se describen los principales sistemas de SyCA que se realizan en Iberoamérica y se presenta un resumen de los resultados de la investigación hidrológica e hidrogeológica que el IGME y distintas universidades, fundamentalmente andaluzas, están llevando a cabo en relación con los sistemas de recarga de agua ancestrales (acequias de careo) de Sierra Nevada, en el Sur de España.
The current trends in Mediterranean climate indicate longer periods of drought and hot temperature in summer and shorter and more intense precipitation in spring and autumn, which require reconsidering the current water management. The Emilia-Romagna coastal area (Northeastern Adriatic Sea, Italy) is entirely drained by a network of channels connected to more than 70 water pumping stations. Although drainage is fundamental in wet periods to keep the land dry, during long periods of stable weather, the fresh portion of drainage water could be reused for irrigation or managed aquifer recharge purposes. The proposed Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) project involves the reuse of drainage water towards infiltration trenches for both irrigation and natural infiltration purposes. Four possible locations in the Ravenna area were assessed and recommended for the implementation of drainage/irrigation/infiltration projects. It was estimated that, maintaining a raised level of +0.5 m respect to the current water level, a freshwater recharge of about 0.4 million m 3 could be achieved in 120 days of operation by the combined-use of the trenches (total length of 8200 m). If water level in the trench was maintained at +1 m respect to the current level, the freshwater amount available for the aquifer recharge could reach about 0.7 million m 3. This additional freshwater availability would allow irrigation for over 1500 hectares of land and could increase the agricultural gross marketable production of 50%.
Studies on induced bank filtration (IBF), a cost-effective and reliable drinking water production method, usually focus on processes affecting the target drinking water quality. We aim to expand this view by assessing potential impacts of IBF on surface water quality. We suggest that IBF can directly and indirectly affect several physical, chemical and biological processes in both the sediment and open water column, eventually leading to positive or negative changes in source water quality. Direct effects of IBF comprise water level fluctuations, changes in water level and retention time, and in organic content and redox conditions in littoral sediments. Indirect effects are mainly triggered by interrupting groundwater discharge into the surface water body. The latter may result in increased seasonal temperature variations in sediment and water and reduced discharge of solutes transported by groundwater such as nutrients and carbon dioxide. These changes can have cascading effects on various water quality, e.g., by facilitating toxic phytoplankton blooms. We propose investigating these potential effects of IBF in future field and laboratory studies to allow for more detailed insights into these yet unknown effects and their magnitude in order to assure a sustainable application of this valuable technique in the future.