Table 4 - available via license: CC BY
Content may be subject to copyright.
Outcomes of TB treatment

Outcomes of TB treatment

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death in HIV patients worldwide. Here we describe the epidemiology and outcome of HIV-TB co-infections in a high-income country with low TB incidence and integrated HIV and TB therapy according to European guidelines. Methods This study was based on the HIV cohort of the Helsinki University Hospital...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... 53 HIV-TB co-infected patients were classified (Table 4) according to WHO's definition of tuberculosis treatment outcomes [1]. Three of the patients died during the TB treatment and 13 after the treatment. ...

Similar publications

Thesis
Full-text available
The criminal justice system’s response to the opioid crisis exacerbates risks faced by people using drugs and is harmful to public health. Through a literature review, caselaw analysis, and key-informant interviews in the Greater Vancouver area, this thesis analyzes elements of the criminal justice system’s response to the opioid crisis and provide...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Analysis of data on hepatitis C, collected as part of epidemiological surveillance in 2018, compared to previous years. Material and methods: Analysis of: 1) individual data from surveillance in 2018 2) diagnosis rate from bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" for the years 2012-2018 and 3) data about deaths due to...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The main aim and purpose of C-EHRN monitoring activities is to improve knowledge and information and complement existing data and monitoring efforts in Europe in specific areas of harm reduction based on the perspective of civil society organisations (CSOs). The data collected helps us to assess the implementation of certain drug and health policie...
Article
Full-text available
Background Substance use significantly impacts health and healthcare of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), especially their ability to remain in hospital following admission. Supervised injection services (SIS) reduce overdoses and drug-related harms, but are not often provided within hospitals/outpatient programs. Leading us to question, what ar...
Poster
Full-text available
The New Synthetic Opioids (NSO) arise as an alternative for illegal drugs or prescribed medications since they emulate them (Perez-Mañá, 2018). Since 2012, a total of 28 new fentanyls have been identified on Europes drug market. As a consequence, there has been a large increase in seizures reported by customs at international borders and police at...

Citations

... HIV care in Finland is free of charge, and patients can initiate ART upon diagnosis. There have been clinical studies of physical health outcomes among HIV patients in Finland and of HIV epidemiology in the country (e.g., Holmberg et al., 2019). However, social sciences empirical research into the experience of living with HIV in low prevalence countries, such as Finland, has been lacking. ...
Article
Full-text available
A qualitative interview study was conducted to understand the psychological impact of living with HIV among gay men in Finland. Seventeen gay men living with HIV were recruited at HIV support charities in Finland. The data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. The analysis yielded three themes: (1) Self-Stigma and Threatened Self-Esteem; (2) Managing the Assimilation-Accommodation of HIV; and (3) Reconstrual of HIV, Its Meaning and Implications. Self-stigma was pervasive across participants’ accounts and appeared to impede the assimilation-accommodation of HIV in identity. The ability to reconstrue the meanings of HIV and its implications (from something negative to something positive) can facilitate the assimilation-accommodation of HIV in identity, restoring self-esteem, continuity and self-efficacy. The ability to reconstrue HIV may be an important determinant of psychological wellbeing. This should be the focus of behavioral and clinical interventions for enhancing psychological wellbeing in this population.
... In present study we have observed that mean age of the patients was 38.46± 8.94 years and most of the patients were between 26 to 50 years of age and there was male predominance. This finding is supported by the work of Manjareeka et al, Holmberg et al and Zhang et al. [10][11][12] It was more common in daily labourer and BMI was 18.22±3.21 kg/m2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in India contributing to 30% of total global burden. Approximately 0.5 million people dies of TB annually and 5% of the incident TB cases in India have HIV. So it is important to understand the effect of tuberculosis and HIV on each other. HIV epidemics have leads to increased number of tuberculosis cases with various presentations.Methods: It is an observational cross-sectional study of patients with HIV positive and pulmonary TB. Patients were investigated for HIV positivity by HIV coomb's test, if positive confirmed by capillaries and tridot method. Some patients, who are diagnosed as having pulmonary Koch, are sent for HIV testing. CD4 cells count as tested in all patients with HIV positive and severity of pulmonary TB and relation with CD count is studied in all patients.Results: In chest x-ray of patients we have observed that upper zone infiltration was found in 10 (16.67%) patients, mid and lower zone infiltration was found in 19 (31.67%) patients, bilateral infiltration and miliary tuberculosis was found in 22 (36.67%). We have found that 9 (15%) patients were presented with fibro cavitary lesion.Conclusions: From present study we can conclude that tuberculosis and HIV is common between 3rd and 5th decade of life with male predominance. It was more common in daily labourer and BMI was 18.22±3.21 kg/m2. Fever, weight loss and cough was most common presentation and present in more than 90% patients pallor and lymphadenopathy was common finding and present in more than 50% patients.
... The results must be interpreted and communicated with caution to avoid stigmatization of vulnerable groups. Still, experiences from HIV and tuberculosis research have shown that acknowledging risks specific to certain vulnerable groups can help in tailoring public health policies and programmes to reduce the disease burden in these populations [16,17]. In addition, using a person's first language as a risk factor may be less stigmatizing than relying on other markers of ethnicity, as language involves a practical aspect which can be addressed within the healthcare system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Motivated by reports of increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in ethnic minorities of high-income countries, we explored whether patients with a foreign first language are at an increased risk of COVID-19 infections, more serious presentations, or worse outcomes. Methods In a retrospective observational population-based quality registry study covering a population of 1.7 million, we studied the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), admissions to specialist healthcare and the intensive care unit (ICU), and all-cause case fatality in different language groups between 27th February and 3rd August 2020 in Southern Finland. A first language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sámi served as a surrogate marker for a foreign ethnic background. Results In total, 124 240 individuals were tested, and among the 118 300 (95%) whose first language could be determined, 4005 (3.4%) were COVID-19-positive, 623 (0.5%) were admitted to specialized hospitals, and 147 (0.1%) were admitted to the ICU; 254 (0.2%) died. Those with a foreign first language had lower testing rates (348, 95%CI 340–355 versus 758, 95%CI 753–762 per 10 000, p < 0.0001), higher incidence (36, 95%CI 33–38 versus 22, 95%CI 21–23 per 10 000, p < 0.0001), and higher positivity rates (103, 95%CI 96–109 versus 29, 95%CI 28–30 per 1000, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in ICU admissions, disease severity at ICU admission, or ICU outcomes. Case fatality by 90 days was 7.7% in domestic cases and 1.2% in those with a foreign first language, explained by demographics (age- and sex-adjusted HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.21–1.15). Conclusions The population with a foreign first language was at an increased risk for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, but when hospitalized they had outcomes similar to those in the native, domestic language population. This suggests that special attention should be paid to the prevention and control of infectious diseases among language minorities.
... Kluger et al., 2019) and HIV epidemiology in Finland (e.g. Holmberg et al., 2019), social sciences research into the identities, experiences and psychological wellbeing of gay men living with HIV in Finland has been scarce. The role of social stigma is a conspicuous lacuna in research in this context. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored experiences of HIV stigma among gay men in Finland and the impact of these experiences on decision-making concerning HIV status disclosure. Seventeen gay men living with HIV in Finland participated in a qualitative interview study and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results focus on the following themes: (1) “Social support impedes social stigma;” (2) “Social support and the risk of HIV stigma,” which describes how the pursuit of social support can expose some individuals to stigma; and (3) “HIV concealment motivation as a coping strategy,” focusing on the motivation to conceal one’s HIV status from others to avoid stigma. It is necessary to promote awareness and understanding of HIV in Finnish society, to challenge HIV stigma and, crucially, to facilitate access to social support among those diagnosed with HIV. This is likely to have favorable implications for both psychological and public health.
... It has been shown that TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can develop when ART is initiated (Worodria et al., 2011;Abay et al., 2015;Haridas et al., 2015;Boulougoura and Sereti, 2016). Importantly, ART-controlled HIV infection appears to interfere with TB infection (Worodria et al., 2018;Holmberg et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although white AT can contribute to anti-infectious immune responses, it can also be targeted and perturbed by pathogens. The AT’s immune involvement is primarily due to strong pro-inflammatory responses (with both local and paracrine effects), and the large number of fat-resident macrophages. Adipocytes also exert direct antimicrobial responses. In recent years, it has been found that memory T cells accumulate in AT, where they provide efficient secondary responses against viral pathogens. These observations have prompted researchers to re-evaluate the links between obesity and susceptibility to infections. In contrast, AT serves as a reservoir for several persistence pathogens, such as human adenovirus Ad-36, Trypanosoma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A virus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The presence and persistence of bacterial DNA in AT has led to the concept of a tissue-specific microbiota. The unexpected coexistence of immune cells and pathogens within the specific AT environment is intriguing, and its impact on anti-infectious immune responses requires further evaluation. AT has been recently identified as a site of HIV persistence. In the context of HIV infection, AT is targeted by both the virus and the antiretroviral drugs. AT’s intrinsic metabolic features, large overall mass, and wide distribution make it a major tissue reservoir, and one that may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic HIV infections. Here, we review the immune, metabolic, viral, and pharmacological aspects that contribute to HIV persistence in AT. We also evaluate the respective impacts of both intrinsic and HIV-induced factors on AT’s involvement as a viral reservoir. Lastly, we examine the potential consequences of HIV persistence on the metabolic and immune activities of AT.