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Other characteristics of copper pipes

Other characteristics of copper pipes

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The aim of this paper was to study the influence of microbial biofilms on the high copper levels measured in the drinking water of rural houses. Drinking water parameters and copper pipe surfaces were analysed in the copper plumbing systems of rural and urban houses. The water in rural houses had pH values of 6.2 and alkalinity values of 63 mg/L as...

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Context 1
... The surface of the copper pipes in two rural houses was completely and uniformly covered with bluish green corrosion products, which were identified as mala- chite by XRD analysis (Table 3). The copper pipe sampled from one of the rural houses did not contain bluish green corrosion products and the surface had a reddish brown colour. ...
Context 2
... copper pipe sampled from one of the rural houses did not contain bluish green corrosion products and the surface had a reddish brown colour. In this case, only cuprite was detected by XRD (Table 3). In addition, the SEM images show that the corrosion scales covering the surfaces of copper pipe samples of the three rural houses were porous. ...
Context 3
... SEM analysis of copper pipe sections from the urban houses showed no presence of biofilms (Figs. 1d and e) and XRD analysis showed that the inner surface was covered solely with cuprite and tenorite (Table 3). Visual inspection of these samples showed more uniform and compact corrosion scales in comparison with the rural houses. ...
Context 4
... observed in rural houses, such as infrequently used pipes, giving rise to very long stagnation periods (472 h) and the length of the pipes (Table 3) contributed to the biofilm growth such as that which has been reported ( Bremer et al., 2001;Geesey et al., 1994). Due to the multiple evidences shown before, we concluded that the microbial biofilms along with the aggressive water quality could be the main factors involved in the high levels of copper by-product liberation in rural houses. ...

Citations

... The metal content of copper with the minimum amount of nickel alloys is susceptible to several types of localized corrosion (Little et al. 1991). Meanwhile, microbes accelerate the material deterioration which causes the high release of Cu byproducts in the water bodies (Critchley et al. 2004;Reyes et al. 2008). Therefore several techniques (mechanical, chemical, electrochemical and biological etc.) have been performed to reduce the biocorrosion in CWS ( Li et al. 2018;Narenkumar et al. 2017a). ...
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The development of environmentally acceptable benign techniques using purely natural methods is a cost-effective procedure with long-term benefits in all areas. With this consideration, myco synthesized silver nano particles (AgNPs) were studied and it acted as an impending corrosion inhibitor in the environment. Initially, AgNPs were evaluated by physical and surface characterizations and this evidence demonstrated that RYREʼs water-soluble molecules played an essential role in the synthesis of AgNPs in nano spherical size. The myco synthesized of AgNPs has showed an antibacterial activity against corrosive bacteria in cooling water system (CWS). Hence, the AgNPs were used in biocorrosion studies as an anticorrosive agent along with AgNO3 and RYRE was also checked. For this experiment, the copper (Cu) metal (CW024) which is commonly used was selected, the result of corrosion rate was decreased, and inhibition efficiency (82%) was higher in the presence of AgNPs in system IV. Even though, AgNO3 and RYRE had contributed significant inhibition efficiency on Cu at 47% and 61%, respectively. According to XRD, the reaction of AgNPs on Cu metal resulted in the formation of a protective coating of Fe2O3 against corrosion. EIS data also indicated that it could reduce the corrosion on the Cu metal surface. All of these findings point out the possibility that the myco-synthesized AgNPs were an effective copper metal corrosion inhibitor. As a result, we encourage the development of myco-synthesized AgNPs, which could be useful in the industrial settings. Graphical abstract
... Reyes et al. investigated the MIC of copper pipes at a low pH. This was to simulate the drinking water conditions in a typical rural home [112]. They took various sections of the water system's copper pipes and analysed them using XRD. ...
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Almost every abiotic surface of a material is readily colonised by bacteria, algae, and fungi, contributing to the degradation processes of materials. Both biocorrosion and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) refer to the interaction of microbial cells and their metabolic products, such as exopolymeric substances (EPS), with an abiotic surface. Therefore, biofouling and biodeterioration of manufactured goods have economic and environmental ramifications for the user to tackle or remove the issue. While MIC is typically applied to metallic materials, newly developed and evolving materials frequently succumb to the effects of corrosion, resulting in a range of chemical reactions and transport mechanisms occurring in the material. Recent research on biocorrosion and biofouling of conventional and novel materials is discussed in this paper, showcasing the current knowledge regarding microbial and material interactions that contribute to biocorrosion and biofouling, including biofilms, anaerobic and aerobic environments, microbial assault, and the various roles microorganisms’ play. Additionally, we show the latest analytical techniques used to characterise and identify MIC on materials using a borescope, thermal imaging, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and epifluorescence microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, and chemometrics.
... However, enhanced localized corrosion, which subsequently resulted in failure of the infrastructure, has been observed. This issue was linked to the growth of biofilms on copper pipes, which was also found responsible for increased metal concentration in drinking water (Bremer et al., 2001;Beech, 2004;Reyes et al., 2008;Kip and van Veen, 2014). These phenomena have been reported as an expensive problem in countries around the world like Scotland, Germany, England, Saudi Arabia, and United States (Keevil, 2004). ...
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Regardless of the long record of research works based on microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), its principle and mechanism, which lead to accelerated corrosion, is yet to be fully understood. MIC is observed on different metallic substrates and can be caused by a wide variety of microorganisms with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) being considered the most prominent and economically destructive one. Copper and its alloys, despite being used as an antimicrobial agent, are recorded to be susceptible to microbial corrosion. This review offers a research overview on MIC of copper and its alloys in anaerobic aqueous environments. Proposed MIC mechanisms, recent work and developments as well as MIC inhibition techniques are presented focusing on potable water systems and marine environment. In the future research perspectives section, the importance and possible contribution of knowledge about intrinsic properties of substrate material are discussed with the intent to bridge the knowledge gap between microbiology and materials science related to MIC.
... The acidic nature of the sampled groundwater may be due to dissolved carbon dioxide or increase in groundwater temperature (Robinson et al., 2009). Low-pH water can pose a threat to the structural integrity of the borehole and its casts, amongst others, long term, and affect humans and geology as well as environmental flora and fauna (Reyes et al., 2008;Singh et al., 1999). It is worthy of note that the other parameters investigated were within the standard limits. ...
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Water is essential for humankind’s existence, providing food security, amongst others, as well as promoting industrial and economic development. The physicochemical composition, potentially toxic metals, water quality index, human health, and ecological risks of groundwater in a residential estate in Lagos, Nigeria, were studied to assess their possibility for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater samples were collected from twelve designated sites and analysed using standard methods. TDS and pH values of 5.4 ± 1.7–20.8 ± 0.84 and 5.08 ± 0.26–5.56 ± 0.57, respectively, were recorded for the groundwater samples whereas DO and BOD were detected at 4.2 ± 1.2–5.45 ± 0.52 mg O2/L and 2.6 ± 1.2–24.6 ± 5.7 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, water conductivity ranged from zero to 0.60 ± 0.89 µS/cm. Of the seven PTMs (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, & Fe) analysed, Pb was present, over the standard limit, in all the samples whereas Fe was detected below the limit in over 83.3% of the groundwater sampled. The hazard index (HI) indicated that 83.3% and 100% of the samples were within the acceptable limits, with no health risks, for the children and adult groups, respectively. WQI showed that 75.0% of the samples was of good quality and suitable for domestic purposes, with low ecological and carcinogenic health risks. The results show that the groundwater samples are good for domestic purposes but require pre-treatment to make them safe for drinking.
... (Reyes et al., 2008) . Mahmoodlu et al., 2018 ) : ...
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Background and Adjective: Corrosion and precipitation are physicochemical processes that reduce the amount of the water flow in water transfer pipes and the effective life of water supply facilities, increase the energy consumption for water transfer, and cause some diseases among consumers. The present study was conducted to investigate the corrosion tendency and precipitation along the Gorganroud River from the highlands to the Gorgan Golf.Materials and Methods: In this study, the results of 11 physicochemical parameters analysis (Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Chloride, Total dissolve solids, Electrical Conductivity, Temperature, pH) of Gorganroud River during a period of 10 years were used (2004-2014).First, the annual mean changes of the qualitative parameters of water samples during the statistical period of the studied stations were investigated. Then, triangular diagrams were used to assess Gorganroud River hydrochemical at the studied stations. Next, changes in water hardness as an important qualitative parameter in the industrial, agricultural and drinking sectors along the Gorganroud River were investigated. Saturation indices were used to predict and probability of precipitation or dissolution of some carbonate minerals (such as calcite, dolomite) and evaporite (such as anhydrite, gypsum and halite) along the Gorganrood River. Then, the trend of changes in Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius, Larson-Skold corrosion indices, corrosion ratio, and the calcium carbonate precipitation potential of Gorganroud River at four stations were investigated. Next, one-way ANOVA test was used to investigate the significance level of indices in the studied stations. Finally, the relationship between mineral saturation indices and corrosion indices was investigated.Results:Hydrochemical study results of Gorganroud River showed that the concentration of most physicochemical parameters increases as the water moves from upstream to outlet. Based on the accumulation and distribution pattern of the samples in the triangular diagram, the dominant water type in the Gorganroud River is bicarbonate on the margin of heights, and as it enters the plain and the chloride ion concentration increases, it tends to reach full maturity, the sodium chloride type. The results of hardness in the studied stations showed that this parameter increases along the water movement path. Also, mentioned parameter changes shows a linear relationship with the total solids dissolve in Gorganroud River. The results of saturation indices showed that the river water is supersaturated with carbonate minerals and undersaturated with evaporite minerals. Based on Ryznar, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices, Gorganroud River water has tendency to corrosion. However, precipitation rate increases from margin of highlands to Gorgan Golf. The results of the calcium carbonate precipitation potential and Langelier index indicate that Gorganroud River has tendency to precipitation over the study area. Investigation of the relationship between saturation indices with corrosion indices and calcium carbonate precipitation potential shows linear relationships between qualitative indices and saturation indices. However, the Larsson-Skold index is less correlated than the other three qualitative indices. The results of the statistical test showed a significant difference between the calculated indices in the studied stations. Conclusion: Although based on the hydrochemical results, the main factor controlling water chemistry of the Gorganroud River is the water-rock reaction, but factors such as saline water intrusion of Gorgan Gulf in the lower part of the river and inflow of untreated effluents into the river caused rapid hydrochemical evolution of the river and reached the sodium chloride type. Increasing the amount of physicochemical parameters along the river path in addition to increasing the water hardness, has reduced corrosion and increased precipitation rate. Statistical results show a clear linear relationship between saturation indices and corrosion and sequestration indices in water.
... Only OTUs with more than 10 findings are shown. The genomic tests have identified numerous microbes previously known to cause metallic corrosion [2,6,8,11,31,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50], thus identifying novel candidates affecting the stability of the passive layer spontaneously formed on the AISI 304 SS. Analysis of the microbial community evidenced that bacteria and archaea introduced by the pressurized WW test generated corrosive biofilms on welded AISI 304 SS which induced pitting corrosion [40,41]. ...
... Several authors associated the acceleration of corrosion processes to the cathodic reduction by the catalase enzyme secreted by Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas [44,45,50]. These bacteria in conjunction with Variovorax and Massilia are capable of oxidizing steel (iron) ions as electron donors and gaining energy from the oxidation of iron to iron oxides, this process is favored at low pH (~5) occasioning pitting corrosion [46,48,49]. ...
... Table 7 List of genera of bacteria from the corroded AISI 304 SS pipes. In order of abundance, which may cause MIC [2,6,8,11,31,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. ...
... Copper pipes in the drinking water service are highly valued in domestic plumbing systems owing to their corrosion resistance [7,8] and antiseptic properties [9,10]. However, bacteria living in copper plumbing systems have reported [1,7,11,12]. Microorganism settlement can promote and enhance copper corrosion in pipes [2,3], causing a phenomenon known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion [6,13]. ...
Article
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Deficient disinfection systems enable bacteria to form in drinking water; these can invade plumbing systems even if the pipes are composed of antibacterial materials such as copper. Severe copper corrosion by microorganisms and their subsequent release into the water system are evidenced by the blue water phenomenon. Proper monitoring and control can reduce such undesirable effects on water quality. However, a lack of data from analysis under actual conditions has limited the development of useful predictive tools and preventive strategies. In this work, an experimental aging system was connected to a drinking water network affected by the blue water phenomenon. The microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) was evaluated by studying the dynamics of the formed bacterial community and its relationship with copper corrosion and the release of copper. The results suggest that the conformation and composition of the biofilm attached to the surface influence the measured parameters. The corrosion rate was variable throughout the sampling time, with the highest value recorded after one year of aging. The composition of biofilms also changed with time; however, the genus Pseudomonas was ubiquitous over the sampling time. No relationship between the corrosion rate and the biofilm age was observed, thereby suggesting that MIC is a dynamic phenomenon that requires further study.
... 4,10-12 and such substantial quantity may consequence in alarming adverse health effects ranging from shortness of breath to numerous types of cancers. 13,14 Copper, lead and zinc enter the water, usually through pipelines, 3,4,8,12,16,17 air pollution 18,19 and water stagnation in distribution system may cause significant rise in their levels. 13 Lead is a potent neurotoxin and its occurrence in drinking water is the cause of various adverse health issues in humans. ...
... 27 Zinc concentration in tap water can be much higher as a consequence of its leaching through piping and fittings. 11,16,20,27 In humans higher concentration of Zn may cause demyelinating disease. 23 Provision of safe drinking water to the public is one of the major concerns in the water sector in Pakistan. ...
... 27 Zinc concentration in tap water can be much higher as a consequence of its leaching through piping and fittings. 11,16,20,27 In humans higher concentration of Zn may cause demyelinating disease. 23 Provision of safe drinking water to the public is one of the major concerns in the water sector in Pakistan. ...
... 4,10-12 and such substantial quantity may consequence in alarming adverse health effects ranging from shortness of breath to numerous types of cancers. 13,14 Copper, lead and zinc enter the water, usually through pipelines, 3,4,8,12,16,17 air pollution 18,19 and water stagnation in distribution system may cause significant rise in their levels. 13 Lead is a potent neurotoxin and its occurrence in drinking water is the cause of various adverse health issues in humans. ...
... 27 Zinc concentration in tap water can be much higher as a consequence of its leaching through piping and fittings. 11,16,20,27 In humans higher concentration of Zn may cause demyelinating disease. 23 Provision of safe drinking water to the public is one of the major concerns in the water sector in Pakistan. ...