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Open and Closed Loop Systems. Both can be found in the project management domain. But only the Close Loop control system can provide indicators of performance variances needed to take corrective actions to maintain the needed activities to arrive on or before the need date, at or below the planned cost, and with the needed capabilities.

Open and Closed Loop Systems. Both can be found in the project management domain. But only the Close Loop control system can provide indicators of performance variances needed to take corrective actions to maintain the needed activities to arrive on or before the need date, at or below the planned cost, and with the needed capabilities.

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Traditional project management methods are based on scientific principles that would be considered "normal science," but lacks any theoretical basis for this approach. [31, 32, 63] These principles make use of linear stepwise refinement of the project management processes based on a planning-asmanagement paradigm. Plans made in this paradigm and ad...

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... one in which the output signal has direct impact on the control action, as shown in Figure 5. In a Closed-Loop system the error signal, which is the difference between the input and the feedback, is fed to the controller to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to a desired value. ...
Context 2
... one in which the output signal has no direct impact on the control action, as shown in Figure 5. In an open loop system the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input. ...

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... But for example, project management has origins rooted in practice. An overall theory is elusive (Alleman, 2002;Koskela Gregory, 2002). One searches in vain for a rigorous basis for ITIL, TOGAF, COBIT, or CMMI. ...
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... Exploratory research intended to displace the existing dated theory has been limited, with a few notable exceptions such as the application of Adaptive Control Theory (Alleman, 2002) and a growing body of literature on the application, often using simulation techniques, of Complex Systems (Benbya and McKelvey, 2006;Morris, 2002;Williams, 2005). Exploratory practice-led research is all but absent in the IS project management literature. ...
... Exploratory research intended to displace the existing dated theory has been limited, with a few notable exceptions such as the application of Adaptive Control Theory (Alleman, 2002) and a growing body of literature on the application, often using simulation techniques, of Complex Systems (Benbya and McKelvey, 2006; Morris, 2002; Williams, 2005). Exploratory practice-led research is all but absent in the IS project management literature. ...
... For example, as early as 1997, there were over 1,000 methodologies in use by the IS community (Fitzgerald, 1998). Exploratory research intended to displace the existing dated theory has been limited, with a few notable exceptions such as the application of Adaptive Control Theory (Alleman, 2002) and a growing body of literature on the application, often using simulation techniques, of Complex Systems (Benbya and McKelvey, 2006; Morris, 2002; Williams, 2005). Exploratory practice-led research is all but absent in the IS project management literature. ...
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