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Older DPM (Deep pectoral myopathy) lesion, with pale yellow-green colour and reduction of the haemorrhages in the affected muscle.  

Older DPM (Deep pectoral myopathy) lesion, with pale yellow-green colour and reduction of the haemorrhages in the affected muscle.  

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Article
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of DPM (deep pectoral myopathy) in young broiler chickens according to their live weight during slaughtering inspection. Chickens (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) reared under intensive conditions and slaughtered on 7 weeks of age were allotted in 2 flocks of 20 000 birds each, named flock A and flo...

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... the oldest lesions, the colour intensity of the muscle was alleviated, 1 Flocks were characterized by the ratio mean live weight / mean carcass weight; Different superscripts a,b in the same column indicate significant differences between flocks (P < 0.05) with a chi 2 test. becoming pale yellow-green, and haemorrhages were reduced ( figure 3). The necrotic muscle bundles appeared dry and brittle and usually the entire lesion was enclosed by a thick connective tissue capsule sequestrating it from the remaining muscle tissue. ...

Citations

... During the process of regeneration of the injured tissue, the damaged fibers were probably replaced with adipose tissue, which may explain the increased fat content of the meat. In an anatomopathological study of DPM, Dinev and Kanakov (2011) reported adipose tissue deposition in substitution of injured fibers in the muscle tissue regeneration process. ...
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Article
Deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) considerably affects the meat quality of commercial poultry, thus representing a challenge to the poultry industry. In this study, we examined the breast meat quality of turkey breeder hens at disposal age affected by different degrees of DPM. Samples were collected from Nicholas turkeys at disposal age (385 days), at an average weight of 12.5 kg, which were reared and slaughtered in the south region of Brazil. The breast was first classified according to the degree of DPM and then samples of the Pectoralis major were collected from birds affected (DPM degrees 2 and 3; n = 20 of each) and non-affected (normal, absence of lesions; n = 20) by the myopathy. After the affected Pectoralis minor muscle was discarded, the carcasses were released for human consumption by the Federal Inspection Service. The meat affected by the myopathy exhibited color changes (L*, a* and b*) (P<0.05), especially in the inner surface. Higher (P<0.05) water-holding capacity, pH, sarcomere length and fat concentration and lower (P<0.05) shear force and moisture percentage were observed when compared to the normal samples. From this study, can be concluded that the severe condition of deep pectoral myopathy which affects the Pectoralis minor muscle, causes variations in the quality of Pectoralis major muscle of turkey on disposal age. As a raw material, this type of meat has a higher fat content and greater capacity for retaining intracellular water, important attributes to the manufacture of processed products. In this way, the processing is an economically viable alternative to the commercialization of breast meat from birds affected by myopathy.
... In latest studies, it has been reported an incidence of DPM of 16.7% of the total carcasses studied in Italy (Bianchi et al., 2006), 0.06% in Polonia (Kijowski & Konstańczak, 2009), 0.51% in Bulgaria (Dinev & Kanakov, 2011), and 0.33% in Iran (Pajohi-alamoti et al., 2016). Bilgili and Hess (2008) developed an industrial classification, divided into three categories based only on the visual appearance of the Pectoralis muscle. ...
Article
The growth of poultry production has led to an increase in the incidence of internal defects in chicken and turkey broilers, such as Deep Pectoral Myopathy (DPM). DPM is an ischemic hemorrhage or necrosis caused by the inadequate blood supply of Pectoralis minor and major muscles. Currently, visual appearance is the only parameter used to categorize the damage level. The aim of this research was to develop a scientific methodology to determine the level of damage in poultry breast tenders affected by this myopathy. For this purpose, microstructure, pH, protein and ion content and color were studied. Results allowed identifying three damage levels: normal, hemorrhagic samples with hematomas and blood clots, and necrotic tissues, based on significant variables (p<0.05) measured in Pectoralis minor (pH, L* and a*), where muscles with myopathy presented L* values lower than 47, and necrotic muscles presented pH values higher than 6.05.
... The cross section of muscles with myopathy revealed cells without the characteristic polygonal shape, whereas individual cells changed into disc-shaped derivatives. Dinev and Kanakov [28] investigated the prevalence of DPM in young broiler chickens according to their live weight during slaughtering inspection. They showed that the muscle tissue was almost completely replaced by fibrous and/or adipose tissue as a result of degeneration. ...
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Article
Changes in the biophysical traits of the pectoral muscles of chickens with deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) were analysed with selected instrumental techniques. For comparative purposes, the research used both samples of pectoralis minor muscles of 39–42-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens and pectoralis major muscles with DPM symptoms, as well. Computer Image Analysis (CIA) revealed that the pectoral minor muscles with DPM were characterised by smaller area of muscle fibres’ cross-sectional area (CSA) than normal muscles. A longitudinal section of DPM muscles also confirmed the presence of large spaces between the bundles of muscle fibres. The results of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that all the temperatures of transformations referring to minor muscles with myopathy symptoms were significantly lower than the temperatures noted in the muscles without DPM. The enthalpy values observed in both pectoral muscles with DPM were significantly lower than the values noted in healthy muscles. The water dynamics analysed by low-field NMR showed that the values of spin–lattice relaxation time T1 in p. major muscles without DPM were higher than the values in the muscles with the defect. On the other hand, an inverse dependence was observed in p. minor muscles samples. The value of the long relaxation time T22 was reduced in both muscles with pathological lesions. In conclusion, three advanced analytical tools used in this study (CIA, DSC, and LF NMR) provide new insight into the characterization of protein changes observed in the pectoral muscles of chicken broilers with DPM.
... The first two stages are also defined as 'acute' lesions. The estimated minimum and maximum incidence of DPM under commercial conditions ranged from 0.0 to 1.88% in Poland ( Kijowski and Konstanczak 2009), from 0.0 to 16.67 in Italy ( Bianchi et al. 2006) and from 0.05 to 0.51% in Bulgaria ( Dinev and Kanakov 2011). It is not yet clear whether DPM is associated with body weight of broilers. ...
Article
1. The objective of this study was to determine muscle structure and gene expression in pectoralis major (p. major) muscle of broilers in response to deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) induction. 2. A total of 160 chickens from slow- and fast-growing broilers were raised under same conditions. Half of the broilers from each strain were encouraged to wing flap when they reached to 2800 g body weight. Pectoralis minor (p. minor) muscle of the broilers was inspected for the occurrence of DPM and p. major samples were collected from broilers with or without DPM. The muscle fibre area and number, capillary number and the signaling pathways of vascular development (vascular endothelial growth factor A, VEGFA) and muscle contraction regulation (actin alpha 1, ACTA1; myosin light chain kinase 2, MYLK2 and ATPase Ca⁺² transporting gene 1, ATP2A1) were studied in p. major muscle. 3. DPM induction increased fibre area of p. major muscle with a greater rate in the slow- growing strain compared to fast-growing. Although the capillary number was higher in slow-growing broilers compared to fast-growing, in the case of DPM induction, the number of capillaries was similar between strains. 4. Expression of VEGFA, MYLK2 and ATP2A1 was greater in slow- than in fast-growing broilers. DPM induction increased expression of ACTA1, VEGFA and ATP2A1 in p. major muscle of broilers from both strains; however, MYLK2 expression was downregulated. 5. Changes in capillary density and expression of VEGFA found in the p. major muscle of broilers with DPM suggest increased blood flow to increase oxygen availability. The upregulation of ATP2A1 by DPM induction could be attributable to alterations in calcium ion transportation from the cytoplasm into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6. The results are evidence of changes in muscle structure and gene expression pathways in p. major muscle of broilers with DPM.
... The first two stages are also defined as 'acute' lesions. The estimated minimum and maximum incidence of DPM under commercial conditions ranged from 0.0 to 1.88% in Poland (Kijowski and Konstanczak 2009), from 0.0 to 16.67 in Italy (Bianchi et al. 2006) and from 0.05 to 0.51% in Bulgaria (Dinev and Kanakov 2011). ...
Article
1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of slaughter weight on the incidence and intensity of deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) of M. pectoralis minor (p. minor muscle) in commercial conditions in Turkey and to evaluate the impact of DPM on meat quality traits of pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in broilers. 2. In Experiment 1, a total of 116 250 carcasses from 59 Ross-308 broiler flocks, classified according to slaughter weight as 2.0-2.2, 2.2-2.4, 2.4-2.6 and >2.6 kg, were evaluated for occurrence of DPM. In Experiment 2, p. major samples from unaffected broilers and each DPM stage were evaluated for meat quality, oxidant and antioxidant properties, nutritional value and fatty acid profile. DPM was characterised as 1: muscles with coagulative necrosis, 2: muscles with fibrous tissue texture and pink to plumb and 3:” muscles with green necrotic area. 3. The average incidence of DPM was found to be 0.73% in Experiment 1 and independent of slaughter weight. 4. In Experiment 2, p. major muscle of broilers with DPM 1 and 2 had higher pH values with higher redness and drip loss. All DPM stages resulted in an increase in lipid content and malondialdehyde activity and lowered ash content of p. major muscle compared with unaffected birds. DPM 2 increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in M. p. major. The p. major of broilers with DPM had lower content of C18:2 conjugated linoleic and C20:3n-6 fatty acids than those of unaffected broilers. Lower Δ6 desaturase and thiosterase activities and 18:2n-6 to 18:3 n-3 ratio were observed for all DPM stages compared to Normal. 5. It was concluded that these changes obtained in p. major muscle of broilers with DPM might indicate biochemical characteristics of muscle degenerations.
... Deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) or Oregon green muscle disease is a hidden and degenerative condition characterized by focal necrosis of the pectoral muscle in poultry. The disease involves the wing elevating muscle known as the deep pectoral muscle or M. supracoracoidus; hence, it is referred to as degenerative myopathy of the supracoracoideus [1][2][3] . The lesions often affect the muscle symmetrically and vary in color from hemorrhaged to a green discoloration. ...
... The disease was first described in 1968 in turkeys, in 1975 in broiler breeder hens, and in 1980 in young broiler chickens [4,6,7] . DPM has been reported in North America and Europe [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] . There is no report about DPM in Turkey, and this is the first study about DPM in Turkey. ...
... In chronic cases, the muscle is necrotic and green in color. The cut surface of a lesioned muscle is dry and friable [2,3] . All lesions in the present study were chronic and characteristic because of the older and heavier birds. ...
Full-text available
Article
Deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) is a disease characterized by focal necrosis, hemorrhages, and green discoloration in the pectoral muscle of broilers and turkeys. The lesions of the affected muscles are usually detected during dissection after slaughter. DPM causes significant economic losses in the poultry meat industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gross and microscopic findings in a housereared broiler flock with DPM. In this study, the pathological findings of 12 house reared 100-120-day-old broilers with DPM were examined. All birds were clinically healthy but hemorrhages and green discoloration were detected on the pectoral muscle mass during dissection. Samples were collected from the lesioned muscles for a histopathological examination, which revealed necrosis, hyalinization, and hemorrhage. Inflammatory cell infiltration and atrophy of breast muscles was present in some cases. DPM was diagnosed based on gross characteristics and microscopic findings.
... In the study of Bilgili and Hess (2002) in the USA, involvement rate in the flocks having green muscle disease was 19 %. During the studies of Dinev and Kanakov (2011) in Bulgaria, recorded carcasses total's rate was 0.51 %. In our study, 0.33 % of slaughtered chickens had green muscle disease. ...
... Macroscopic lesions are seen in two ways, in which the acute phase of hemorrhage, inflation is seen in one or both sides of the pectoral in deep muscles. In chronic lesions, hemorrhagic points are rare, and muscle color will go green limited by one capsule (Dinev and Kanakov 2011). In the flock A of conducted examination, chronic phase of the disease was more frequent. ...
... Outbreak of the disease in the flock could relate to mismanagement and gender. Females and males show involvement possibility after days 36 and 26, correspondingly (Dinev and Kanakov 2011). A reasonable management practice could control losses by prevention of the stress resulting from food, water, and light fluctuations. ...
Full-text available
Article
The study was descriptively conducted to determine incidence of green muscle disease (Oregon disease) in slaughtered broiler chickens from west of Iran. During the study, five million broiler chickens were slaughtered out of which 29,255 (0.53 %) carcasses were condemned. Almost 1850 (0.033 %) carcasses were diagnosed with green muscle disease. The lowest and highest rate of the disease were seen in August (6.6 %) and February (14.2 %), respectively. There were significant relationships between chicken’s age, weight, and occurrence of the disease (P < 0.05). However, no relationship was found between ration and the disease. The results indicated that a good management program could control occurrence of the disease and prevent economic losses. Of course, no viral or bacterial agents are to be blamed for this disease; therefore, it is not problematic for public health.
... Microscopic histopathological analyses of tissues affected by the DPM revealed several significant changes occurring at the cellular level (Wight et al., 1981b;Pastuszczak et al., DPM Dinev and Kanakov, 2011). As revealed by microscopic examinations, myopathy of the pectoral muscle in chickens leads to the damage of its structure at the cellular level, i.e. the muscle fibre. ...
... Histopathologically changes of muscle cause disintegration of Z lines, breakdown of actin filaments, destruction of nuclei and other organelles (Wight et al., 1981a). Dinev and Kanakov (2011) conducted routine histological analyses on ten DPM muscle samples from chickens of the Ross 308 and Cobb 500 lines. In the early stages of DPM they found acute inflammation, oedema, hyperaemia and haemorrhages. ...
... At that time, the common belief (based on the available genetic material) was that it would not be a problem in commercial production of young broiler chickens. However, other studies, including those reported by Bilgili and Hess (2002), further investigations on 7-8 week old chickens conducted by Georgopoulou et al. (2005), heavier roaster chickens aged 7-9 weeks (Bianchi et al., 2006), a report by concerning 6-7-week chickens, another study by Kijowski and Konstańczak (2009) on 5-6-week chickens, work reported by Dinev and Kanakov (2011) on seven-week chickens, and other work by Kijowski and Kupińska (2012) revealed an increasing incidence of DPM cases in commercial broiler chicken flocks. ...
Article
Deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) of musculus pectoralis minor is an anomaly observed in gallinaceous poultry. To date its cases have been reported in adult pedigree turkeys and hens and in recent years also in broiler chickens. This degeneration is manifested in an abnormal appearance of breast muscles, with changes in colour from pink to green, as well as changes in the texture of the muscle tissue. The anomaly is found most frequently in genetic lines of chickens characterised by dynamic weight increment in the rearing period as well as a considerable increase in the proportion of pectoral muscles. The mechanism for the development of myopathy is already well known. It is related with ischemic necrosis initiated by rapid physical activity of birds, which mobilises pectoral muscles, normally relatively inactive in modern intensive animal management systems. Absence of symptoms manifested in vivo results in a situation when muscles affected by myopathy are identified only during carcass dissection. An increasing number of cases of this anomaly, as well as the fact that necrotic lesions affect valuable carcass elements make this problem one of great importance for chicken growers and abattoirs and poultry processing plants. In recent years DPM cases have been reported with increasing frequency in the USA, Italy, Greece and Bulgaria in commercial genetic lines. In Poland, a number of DPM cases have been recorded in large populations in flocks of five to seven week old chickens from 0.02% up to 1.9%. Risk factors for the occurrence of DPM on farms have been analysed, and are considered mainly due to intensive wing flapping. Identification of these factors may result in better farm management and constitute the basis for the DPM prevention system. A solution to this problem is not available currently.
... Te badania dotyczą 54-tygodniowych indyków [19]. Dinev i Kanakov [5], którzy przeprowadzili badania na mięśniach 7-tygodniowych kurcząt z objawami DPM, w zasadniczej mierze potwierdzili wcześniejsze obserwacje indyków. Na podstawie własnej dokumentacji zdjęciowej wyglądu mięśni pectoralis minor zaproponowano wzorzec rozpoznawania czterech stadiów/faz narastających zmian charakterystycznych dla objawów anomalii DPM (fot. ...
... Ważne są oceny częstotliwości występowania DPM we współczesnych komercyjnych liniach genetycznych kurcząt. Takich danych dostarcza szereg publikacji [1,2,3,5,9,12]. Natężenie występowania miopatii jest zróżnicowane (tab. 2). ...
Article
Genetic improvement in the raising of broiler chickens contributes to the increase in effectiveness of this agricultural production branch. At the same time, a new phenomenon is reported: the occurrence of numerous metabolic disorders and diseases of the bone and muscle systems. A particular example thereof is the anomaly of pectoral muscles in broiler chickens referred to as deep pectoral myopathy (DPM). The objective of the paper was to analyze the issue of myopathy of musculus pectoralis minor including the identification of DPM symptoms, frequency, causes, and possibility to limit this anomaly. Changes typical of developing DPM are, initially: ecchymoses, edemas, pink colouring of m. pectoralis minor, and, during subsequent phases, green and greenish-grey muscle colouring with symptoms of necrosis. The occurrence frequency of myopathy depends on many factors. It was found that in Poland the incidence rate in large populations of broiler chickens ranged from 0.15% to 0.9%, and, also, in some cases, to 1.9%. A similar intensity was also recorded in several EU countries. In the USA, the frequency of incidence was estimated to be 0.7% on average, although some cases are known with a rate ranging from 3 to as much as 17%. There are considerable economic losses owing to the utilisation of m. pectoralis minor as well as to the reduced value in use by consumers and the reduced technological usefulness of m. pectoralis major. The experimental forced and controlled wing flapping in fast-growing commercial Ross and Hubbard Flex genetic lines caused the DPM symptoms to occur. Based on the risk analysis of DPM occurrence, it was possible to determine that the flock selection, disturbance in the flock hierarchy (unsynchronized removal of birds from the same facility/birds are picked up from the same facility more than once), noise, and sounds near the rearing unit are factors to cause the highest risk in the chicken production on the Polish commercial poultry farms.
... calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D) or, more usually, from dietary errors (Whitehead, 2010). However, although in decline, it is thought that permanent skeletal deformities that arise as a consequence of rickets experienced at the beginning of the growth cycle may increase the likelihood of a flock developing additional pathological states (FHN, osteomyelitis, fractures, TD, spondylolisthesis) during the finisher period (Dinev and Kanakov, 2011). ...
... A low prevalence (0.51%) of deep pectoral myopathy within intensively reared Bulgarian flocks has been reported (Dinev and Kanakov, 2011). ...