Oil palm production efficiency compared to other major oil crops 

Oil palm production efficiency compared to other major oil crops 

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Worldwide efforts are being made to increase the use of renewable energy in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Africa is blessed with abundant resources of fossil fuels as well as renewable energy resources. Yet the continent, especially sub-Saharan Africa, is afflicted with power crisis. For example, in Nigeria, erratic electricity...

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... oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) could be the best choice among the various plant biomasses for renewable energy production due to the intensive development in palm-oil production during the last decade. Oil palm is the most efficient oilseed crop in the world. One hectare of oil palm plantation is able to produce up to eight times more oil than other leading oilseed crops as shown in Fig. 3 [51]. The efficiency of its production (4000 kg/ha), low cost, and stability of the oil makes it the most at- tractive and widely used vegetable oil in the world [51]. Palm oil is ubiquitous in global products, including food, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, industrial chemicals, and biofuels. The global demand of palm oil is continuously growing, and thus, the production worldwide is also in- creasing as shown in Fig. 4 [52]. Indonesia and Malaysia produce over 80% of the world's palm oil. Other produ- cer countries include Thailand, Columbia, Nigeria, Pa- pua New Guinea, and Ecuador. This increase has been favored due to the high yield and versatility of palm oil which is suitable for edible and non-edible applications. Palm oil is being increasingly used for non-food pur- poses. In 2000, when production was 24.3 million tonne, 3.5 million tonne (15%) was used for industrial purposes. In 2010, production rose to almost 46 million tonne and 14 million tonne was used for industrial purposes [53,54]. The industrial usage will further increase when palm biodiesel is widely used as biofuel especially in European countries and US. Without the large volume of palm oil, there would be a major problem in meeting world de- mand for vegetable oil. As global demand increases and available land becomes increasingly scarce in the trad- itional production countries, governments of developing and emerging countries such as Brazil, Peru, and Central and Western Africa are increasingly promoting oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to poverty alleviation, food, and energy independence [55][56][57]. Palm oil industry generates a huge quantity of residues which can be processed to produce biofuel. Generally, an oil palm tree starts to bear fruit after 3-4 years. The palm fruit is oval (Fig. 5) and weights up to 30 g; it grows in bunches with up to 1500 fruits with a total weight of 20-30 kg. After harvesting, the oil palm fruits are transported quickly to the palm oil mill to be proc- essed into palm oil. Two distinct types of vegetable oil can be produced from oil palm fruit--crude palm oil (CPO) which is produced from the mesocarp and palm kernel oil which is produced from the kernel or endo- sperm. The extracted oil constitutes only 10% of the total biomass generated while the other 90% is consid- ered as wastes. With ever growing palm oil industry, amount of residues generated will escalate, adding com- plexity to the current waste management procedures. On average, 50-70 tonnes of biomass residues are pro- duced from each hectare of oil palm plantation [58]. The by-products or wastes generated from palm oil produc- tion includes oil palm trunk (OPT), oil palm frond (OPF), empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fruit fiber (MF), palm kernel shells (PKS), and palm oil mill efflu- ent (POME) [59]. Except POME, these wastes have high fiber content. Figure 6 shows a typical palm oil produc- tion process in ...

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... To achieve the twin goals of reducing gasoline fuel consumption and motor vehicle exhaust pollution in Delhi, the author undertook a three-year field demonstration-cummonitoring trial of a fleet of government vehicles filled with a ten percent ethanol gasoline blend dispensed from a captive petrol pump at the request of the Government of India, Ministry of Nonconventional Energy Source (MNES) (Nomanbhay et al., 2017). The Indian Oil Corporation supplied the essential infrastructure facilities for mix storage and dispensing, while the Government of the National Capital Region of Delhi contributed a fleet of around 100 cars of various brands and ages for these testing (Guiotoku et al., 2009). ...
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... Biomass refers to the biological material from living or dead plants [16] and signifies an abundant carbon-neutral resource from which biomaterials and bioenergy can be derived [34]. It primarily consists mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, small extractives [49][50][51], water, sugars and ash. ...
... Therefore, many researchers have investigated the production of biochar in response to the disposal problems faced. Nomanbhay et al. [16] performed a feasibility study into the MAP of residual solid matter from the palm oil industry in Nigeria, as a possible solution to challenges faced within the electricity generation sector. Also, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) had authorized an increased utilization of Africa's renewable energy resources for sustainable development. ...
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... One of the useful product, biochar, has been widely studied as a potential solution to the biomass environmental challenges since it has been proven to be a potential feedstock for activated carbon production [10,11], as catalysts [12], carbon nano-filaments [13] and wastewater treatment applications [14]. In addition to high biochar yields of up to 80% being obtained, large surface areas of 215 m 2 g − 1 and higher heating values comparable to that of coal have been reported, thereby extending its use as a possible fuel [15] and microwave energy absorber in microwave-assisted processes [16]. Catalyst and absorbers have been investigated to be used to improve the MAP process since biomass as a feedstock is a low microwave absorber which need a high microwave absorber to aid in catalysing the reaction [17]. ...
... Biomass refers to the biological material from living or dead plants [16] and signifies an abundant carbon-neutral resource from which biomaterials and bioenergy can be derived [34]. It primarily consists mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, small extractives [49][50][51], water, sugars and ash. ...
... Therefore, many researchers have investigated the production of biochar in response to the disposal problems faced. Nomanbhay et al. [16] performed a feasibility study into the MAP of residual solid matter from the palm oil industry in Nigeria, as a possible solution to challenges faced within the electricity generation sector. Also, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) had authorized an increased utilization of Africa's renewable energy resources for sustainable development. ...
... Table 1 Overview of the major oil crops, typical production cycle, yields, main production countries, biomes in which impacts primarily occur, carbon emissions, the number of threatened species according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2019) for which the specific crop is mentioned as a threat, and the median species richness and median range-size rarity (amphibians, birds and mammals) of species occurring within the footprint of each crop with first and third quartile in brackets (IUCN Red List). Carbon emissions include carbon opportunity costs and production emissions, oil yield (Katiyar et al., 2017;Nomanbhay et al., 2017), and species data (IUCN, 2019). "n/a" indicates that no data are available A study comparing bird diversity in oil palm, forest fragments within oil palm, and contiguous natural forest indicated that abundances of imperiled bird species in oil palm were 60 times lower in fragments and 200 times lower in oil palm than in contiguous forest. ...
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Preprint
Full-text available
Background Economic benefit has been analyzed for the yield of farming products when designing a farming system, while waste treatment also generates profitable energy products for this system. The economic factor is decisive in decision-making for applying waste treatment solutions for a small-scale farming system. A household farming system in the Mekong Delta generates many kinds of organic wastes, but most of the agricultural waste resources are disposed of into the environment. Methods This study approaches an analysis of economic-environmental-energy (EEE) efficiency for waste treatment of an integrated livestock-orchard (LO) system on a household scale in the Mekong Delta. This novel analysis method is based on the energy content of biomass and its cost. The EEE efficiency is optimized to gain objective functions regarding energy yield efficiency, system profit, and CO 2 sequestration for the treatment model. The algorithms are built for optimizing these objective functions. ResultsThe optimization results show the treatment model of pyrolysis and pelleting gain all the objective functions with high efficiency. The model is efficiently applied for the LO system that generates more than 100 kilograms of orchard residues and 3,000 kilograms of pig manure. The system with a charcoal oven and pellet machine is capable to gain energy efficiency due to its potential biofuel products, such as biochars and pellet products. A treatment model of composting, pyrolysis, and pelleting gives the best performance of overall EEE efficiency. Conclusions This work has proven economic benefits from integrating biogas tank, charcoal oven, and pellet machine in an integrated LO system. The system contributes not only for reducing CO 2 emissions but also for supplementing secondary renewable bioenergy, as well as for increasing incomes and thus supporting livelihoods for the local farming households.
... In conclusion, the operational considerations are met by the accurate and well-regulated nature of microwave technology and its prospective portable processing capability (owing to the comparatively small size of a reactor) [98]. The suitability of microwave heating to process human bio-wastes arises from their comparatively elevated water molecule, which is easily coupled with electromagnetic fields that cause "microwave dielectric heating" [99][100][101]. ...
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Pyrolysis of one of the most underutilized lignocellulosic biomasses, namely rice straw (RS) has been carried out through solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered microwave heating with biochar as an additive for the microwave absorption. Through the preliminary studies, microwave power of 700 W and reaction times of 20 min have been chosen optimum for maximizing the yield of bio-oil, a desired product for the study along with biochar ignoring gas, due to their easy collection, storability and transportation and higher commercial value. The results of the study revealed the highest yield of bio-oil as 25% and 23% with and without additive respectively. The net energy recovery percentage was calculated to be around 71 and 56 in using solar PV and grid electricity respectively. The exergy efficiency of pyrolysis system under this study was estimated to be about 55%. The payback period of the set-up is 6.5 and 3.12 years if solar PV system and grid electricity are respectively used. The monthly income of $ 33 may be earned from the pyrolytic products such as biochar, wood vinegar and tar by pyrolysing 675 kg of RS annually (2.25 kg per day at 450 g per batch with 5 batches per day and 300 days per year). The potential of mitigating CO2 emission during the total life time of 30 years from the existing set-up is 55 tons and the earning of carbon credit is $ 1600 considering the current price of carbon credit as $ 30/ton.