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Occurrence of V. doniana in West Africa  

Occurrence of V. doniana in West Africa  

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Article
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Sustainable management actions are needed for several indigenous agro forestry plant species like the black plum (Vitex doniana Sweet) because they are facing increasing pressures due to the rapid human growth and threats such as climate change. By combining species distribution modelling using the Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and representat...

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... In the same line, future increases in temperature would significantly reduce suitable habitats of baobab tree by 41 to 100% in Ethiopia (Birthane et al., 2020). In the contrary, future climate conditions are likely to increase the potential suitable area of V. doniana by 3 to 12% in Benin (Hounkpèvi et al., 2016). Likewise, Fandohan et al. (2013) revealed that increase in rainfall is likely to convert some currently highly suitable zones of Tamarindus indica (semi-arid and sub-humid dry) into poorly suitable areas at horizon 2050, in Benin. ...
Article
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This study assessed the vulnerability of five indigenous agroforestry trees to climate change: Adansonia. digitata, Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Tamarindus indica, and Vitex doniana, using the vulnerability of rural communities that rely on these species as a proxy. An integrated assessment approach, encompassing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted. Individual questionnaires were administered to 340 farmers, across seven Local Government Areas (LGA): Bosso, Rafi, Lavun, Lapai, Mashegu, Kontagora, and Borgu in Niger State. Data were collected on farmers’ perceptions about species vulnerability to climate change. The vulnerability index was computed based on nineteen indicators. Trend analysis of rainfall and temperature dataset over 40 years, indicated on one side no trend of annual rainfall, but a significant increase of annual temperature on the other side, supported by high intra-annual variability. Although observed variabilities in the climate were confined within the known tolerance limits of these species, reduction in productivity was the most reported impact (58.21% of the respondents). A change in species’ distribution, progressive extirpation, premature fructification, and tree mortality were also mentioned among the impacts of climate change. V. doniana was perceived to be the most vulnerable by 68.75% of the respondents followed by A. digitata, while V. paradoxa and T. indica seemed not to be vulnerable to climate change according to 48.65% and 27.00% of the respondents, respectively. There was a spatial variability of species vulnerability. The study concluded that the cultural importance of the species influences the extent to which the species are perceived to be vulnerable to climate change. This conclusion draws more attention toward the promotion of sustainable use and conservation of indigenous tree species to reduce their vulnerability to future climate conditions.
... To date, priority setting for the domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the region has been done mostly on three fronts: (i) climate change and habitat suitability, e.g., [124,160,400,413]; ...
... For instance, black plum (Vitex doniana) is a highly valued multipurpose tree in Benin. Currently, the species can potentially be cultivated in about 85% of the country, but this area is expected to increase by 3-12% under future climatic conditions [413]. In contrast, nearly 51% of Burkina Faso is presently suitable for the cultivation of V. paradoxa, and that the area may decline by 13% by 2070 [124]. ...
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This paper follows the transition from ethnobotany to a deeper scientific understanding of the food and medicinal properties of African agroforestry tree products as inputs into the start of domestication activities. It progresses on to the integration of these indigenous trees as new crops within diversified farming systems for multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. From its advent in the 1990s, the domestication of indigenous food and non-food tree species has become a global programme with a strong African focus. This review of progress in the third decade is restricted to progress in Africa, where multi-disciplinary research on over 59 species has been reported in 759 research papers in 318 science publications by scientists from over 833 research teams in 70 countries around the world (532 in Africa). The review spans 23 research topics presenting the recent research literature for tree species of high priority across the continent, as well as that in each of the four main ecological regions: the humid zone of West and Central Africa; the Sahel and North Africa; the East African highlands and drylands; and the woody savannas of Southern Africa. The main areas of growth have been the nutritional/medicinal value of non-timber forest products; the evaluation of the state of natural resources and their importance to local people; and the characterization of useful traits. However, the testing of putative cultivars; the implementation of participatory principles; the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights; and the selection of elite trees and ideotypes remain under-researched. To the probable detriment of the upscaling and impact in tropical agriculture, there has been, at the international level, a move away from decentralized, community-based tree domestication towards a laboratory-based, centralized approach. However, the rapid uptake of research by university departments and national agricultural research centres in Africa indicates a recognition of the importance of the indigenous crops for both the livelihoods of rural communities and the revitalization and enhanced outputs from agriculture in Africa, especially in West Africa. Thus, on a continental scale, there has been an uptake of research with policy relevance for the integration of indigenous trees in agroecosystems and their importance for the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. To progress this in the fourth decade, there will need to be a dedicated Centre in Africa to test and develop cultivars of indigenous crops. Finally, this review underpins a holistic approach to mitigating climate change, as well as other big global issues such as hunger, poverty and loss of wildlife habitat by reaping the benefits, or ‘profits’, from investment in the five forms of Capital, described as ‘land maxing’. However, policy and decision makers are not yet recognizing the potential for holistic and transformational adoption of these new indigenous food crop opportunities for African agriculture. Is ‘political will’ the missing sixth capital for sustainable development?
... R.Br. ex G.Don (Dotchamou et al., 2016), Vitex donania Sweet (Hounkp evi et al., 2016), Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. ...
... For future climate projections, six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, CNRM-CM5, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5 and NorESM1-M) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) were selected (Table 1). Among the set of selected GCMs, three models (HadGEM-ES, CNRM-CM5 and MIROC5) have been used in previous studies related to species distribution modelling in West Africa (Dotchamou et al., 2016;Hounkp evi et al., 2016;Guidigan et al., 2018;Dimobe et al., 2020). Climate models were downloaded at a spatial resolution of 30 s (1 km  1 km) under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 at the horizons 2050 and 2070. ...
... The current spatial extent of A. africana reported in this study is lower than those reported on other high socio-economic plants of West Africa. Indeed, a study by Hounkp evi et al. (2016) reported that about 85% of Benin area was suitable for the cultivation of Vitex doniana Sweet. Similarly, about 52% and 53% of Benin territory was reported to be very suitable for the conservation of Kigelia africana (Lam.) ...
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Afzelia africana Sm – a multipurpose leguminous tree species – is threatened in West Africa – a climate change hotspot region. Yet, although the impacts of land use on this species dynamics have been widely reported, there is a little literature on the impacts of climate change on its spatial distribution. This study aimed to predict the impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of A. africana in Burkina Faso. A total of 4,066 records of A. africana was compiled from personal fieldwork and vegetation database. Current and future bioclimatic variables were obtained from WorldClim website. For future climatic projections, six global climate models (GCMs) were selected under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5) and two horizons (2050 & 2070). Presence data and bioclimatic variables were processed in ArcGIS software and used in the algorithm MaxEnt (maximum of entropy) to predict the species distribution. Findings showed that maximum temperature of warmest month and mean temperature of coldest quarter mostly affect the habitat suitability of A. africana. About 25.54% of Burkina Faso land surface was currently suitable for A. africana conservation. Under future climatic projections, all the climate models predict climate-driven habitat loss of the species with a southward range shift. Across the two emission scenarios, the spatial extent of suitable habitats was predicted to decline from 9.43 to 23.99% and from 12.29 to 25% by the horizons 2050 and 2070, respectively. Habitat loss and range shifts predicted in this study underline the high vulnerability of A. africana to future climate change. Reforestation actions and the protection of predicted suitable habitats are recommended to sustain the species conservation.
... The reduction of nearly 57.1% (scenario RCP 2.4), 57.2% (scenario RCP 4.5) and 60.2% (scenario RCP 8.5%) in the predictive power of the observed model when the variables studied are permuted justify their determining roles in the prediction of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the sorghum growing areas. Indeed, these variables act in direct symbiosis on the plants and constitute the major climatic parameters in plant ecology and are determinant for the prediction of the spatio-temporal dynamics of species production areas (Dossou et al., 2016;Hounkpêvi et al., 2016;Fandohan et al., 2015;Soufiyanou et al., 2019). The current climatic conditions (scenario RCP 2.5) indicate that the production areas in the East and West of the Sudanian region are and will remain completely suitable for the cultivation of Sorghum bicolor by 2050. ...
... Sensitivity and specificity of the model was assessed using area under curve (AUC). When, the AUC value of a model is (AUC ≥ 0.75), such models are said to accurately predict the spatial and temporal occurrence of species ( Idohou et al., 2016 ;Hounkpèvi et al., 2016 ). The capacity of the models to predict true presence and true absence was further validated with true skill statistic (TSS) ( Elith et al., 2006 ;Pearson et al., 2007 ). ...
... The logistic probability distributions generated by MaxEnt using the 10th percentile training presence logistic threshold were used to assess the potential habitat suitability of the species in Nigeria. Suitability of occurrence was based on areas above the threshold, whereas areas below the threshold were considered not suitable ( Hounkpèvi et al., 2016 ;Scheldeman and van Zonneveld, 2010 ). Map production for habitat suitability and unsuitability was done in ArcGIS 10.3 ( ESRI, 2014 ). ...
... Modelling species distribution have been used extensively to ascertain suitable habitat and large scales cultivation, to produce maps that will be useful for identifying areas where conservation efforts can be successful. Previous works ( Hounkpèvi et al., 2016 ;Sommer et al., 2010 ;Walther, 2003 ) had reported the potential role of biotic and abiotic factors for species distribution modelling and habitat suitability patterns. IPCC (2007) gave evidences that change in climatic conditions will significantly influences the distribution of several species. ...
Article
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Garcinia kola is an indigenous multipurpose tree species, with significant cultural value and medical benefits, commonly found in the tropical rain forest zone of West and Central Africa. The species has been reported to be over-used and are now classified as vulnerable species close to commercial extinction. Hence, requires immediate conservation action. This study assessed the impact of climate on habitat for cultivation of G. kola in Nigeria. Ecological niche modelling approach was used to estimate the current geographical range and predicts the future distribution of G. kola in Nigeria, using the nineteen (19) bioclimatic environment layers at a 30 arc seconds resolution. Two climate models were used (HadGEM2-ES and CNRM-CM5) with two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios as predictor variables for projections of the potential geographical range of this species for 2050 horizon. Results revealed that about 397,094 km² area, corresponding to 43.6 % of Nigeria land surface, are currently suitable for cultivating G. kola. The future projections showed a significant decrease in area suitable for propagating G. kola under the RCP scenarios used in the two climate models. HadGEM2-ES predicts 27.2 and 26.1 % loss of suitable habitats under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively, by 2050 while CNRM-CM5 projects 26.7 and 35.8 % decrease for the corresponding RCPs. Furthermore, the HadGEM2-ES predicts that 149,365 and 159,384 km² corresponding to 16.4 % and 17.5 % of total land area will be suitable for cultivation of G. kola in Nigeria under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively. The model results showed that climate change would have significant influence on the future suitable habitat of G. kola in Nigeria and the species is more subservient in moist, humid area and some part of derived savanna zone in Nigeria. The results underscore the significant influences of climate change on the ecology of G. kola. Based on these results, immediate action should be initiated to conserve this valued species and secure their inherent agro-ecosystems services
... Hypsipyla robusta will face upon 2055, a severe regression of its areas of distribution. Hounkpèvi et al. (2016) found that climate changes will make ...
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Khaya senegalensis Desr & Juss and Garcinia kola Heckel are two medicinal forest trees species that provide as well lots of meaningful Non Timber Forest Products as Forest Timber Products. Those two species are undergoing many threats including climate change and forest pest attack. In order to provide forest resources managers and planted forest promoters with forest pest prevention means, forest species restoration and conservation strategies, this study was aimed at assessing the vulnerability of Khaya senegalensis to climate change and to the invasion of Hypsipyla robusta Moore in Benin over time and space; and analyzing how far climate changes can help to restore and conserve Garcinia kola, an extinct species in the wild in Benin. To this end, MaxEnt approach for Ecological Niche Modelling was used to compute suitable areas for target species under current, and future climates (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 of AfriClim Ensemble mean,). Biodiversity presence data were gathered on the database of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Gap analysis and Spatio-temporal Analysis were performed using Geographic Information System Tools. In the case of K. senegalensis, projections at horizon 2055 from AfriClim Ensemble mean showed that it can occur in the future with some areas left out and some gained. The loss was assessed at 15-16% of Benin superficies while the gain was 2-3% of the country’s total area. As for Hypsipyla robusta, climate change will provide only habitat loss of about 66% of the country’s total area. So, some plantation sites being currently exposed to biological attack from the pest could no more exist in the future, giving hope for Khaya senegalensis’ high quality wood production. Meanwhile, there will be an ecological imbalance due to the drastic potential habitat loss for the insect. It is worth that future investigations focus on the economics of attacks in plantations. As for Garcinia kola, results revealed that climate change proved to have only positive consequences on its distribution. Considering the High Confidence Projection Areas (HCPA), the percentage of municipalities predicted suitable for the species is far above the percentage of Protected Areas Network (PAN) predicted as such (7.44% versus 0.93%). RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 of AfriClim Ensemble mean indicated respectively 3.00% and 6.27% of PAN as positive climate change impact zones, predicted respectively 13.60% and 17.60% of the total municipalities’ areas as such. Therefore, it is worth relying not only on PAN but also and mainly on urban forestry and reforestation to restore and conserve the species. Further studies focusing on the introduction of Garcinia kola in urban areas, and its use for reforestation are compulsory. Key Words: Khaya senegalensis, Hypsipyla robusta, Garcinia kola, Ecological niche Modelling, Forest pest outbreak, Climate change.
... Climate variability doesn"t provide only negative effects on natural resources (Rosenzweig et al., 2008) but our findings on Hypsipyla robusta in West Africa in general and especially in Benin indicated that climate change could have only negative impacts on a species. Hounkpèvi et al. (2016) found that climate changes will make Vitex doniana distribution increases about 14 to 23% in the Protected Area Network of Benin by 2050, but the contrary shift is going to be observed for Hypsipyla robusta by 2055. In fact, Hypsipyla robusta, seen as natural resource will suffer from these changes. ...
Article
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Khaya senegalensis Desr & Juss is an urban tree species with high quality wood, unfortunately disturbed by Hypsipyla robusta Moore. However, how vulnerable this species is with regard to climate change and to Hypsipyla robusta over time and space is unknown. This study aimed at assessing as well the climate change impacts on both species as the overlapping extent of their suitable areas over time and space. To this end, the MaxEnt approach for Ecological Niche Modelling was used to compute suitable areas for both species under current and future climates (Africlim RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Spatio-temporal Analysis was performed using Geographic Information System. Upon 2055, climate change will impact negatively 15-16% of Benin while the positive impacts will account only for 2-3%, and the stable areas will represent 74-75%. As for Hypsipyla robusta, climate change will provide only habitat loss of about 66% of the country. So, many plantation sites are exposed to biological attack from the pest, but wouldn"t be more in future, giving hope for Khaya senegalensis' high quality wood production. Meanwhile, there will be an ecological imbalance due to the drastic potential habitat loss for the insect.
... En plus de la forêt dense, les individus de V. doniana sont également rencontrés dans différents types de formations végétales. Orwa et al. (2009) et Hounkpèvi et al. (2016 ont rapport que V. doniana était présente dans des habitats variés allant de la forêt à la savane. ...
Article
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Rural populations are closely dependent on plant resources for their daily needs. Fruit productivity of these species is an indicator of their economic potential and their capacity to regenerate. This is also fundamental to define sustainable management strategies of species. The present study assessed the fruits and seeds productivity of four forest species such as Vitex doniana, Afraegle paniculata, Diospyros mespiliformis and Kigelia africana according to the diameter class of trees. The study was carried out in the Nassou forest in soudanian zone of Benin. 09 to 90 trees belonging to four diameter classes (10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and≥ 40 cm) were sampled for each species. The method used is the counting of fruits fallen under the tree through a periodic collection carried out every five days from the fructification to the end of the cycle and the fall of the last fruit. Seeds were then extracted from fruits. Generalized linear models of Poisson family were used to analyse data. Results revealed that the diameter class on the one hand influence significantly (Prob. ≤ 0.01) the production of fruits of K. africana and V. doniana, and on the other hand the production of seeds of A. paniculata, D. mespiliformis and V. doniana. Overall, fruits and seeds production is higher for the biggest tress (≥ 40 cm). Therefore, the diameter of the four studied species would be very useful for genetic improvement aiming the increasing of their productivity.
... Ecological restoration of a forest therefore requires that the intervention be in line with the pathways of forest succession with a careful choice of the species to be used (Bongers et al., 2006). Yet, climate change is a source of uncertainty for the survival of both species used for restoration and on-site species and a great challenge to the long-term stability of natural ecosystems (IPCC, 2007;Hounkpèvi et al., 2016). Climate change is likely to reduce the physiological abilities of species, and may alter forest composition by modifying the distribution of species and by increasing invasion of forest ecosystems by exotic species (Araújo et al., 2011;Fandohan et al., 2015). ...
... However, in West Africa, cultivation of tree species to restore degraded areas is usually recommended to forest managers (Hounkpèvi et al., 2016;Adjahossou et al., 2016) without any consideration of the species life-history and of natural pathways of forest succession in the area. As a result, species used in enrichment of degraded areas in Benin are faced with competition from on-site species (Djodjouwin et al., 2011). ...
... The two rcp give the same result for A. leiocarpa. Hounkpèvi et al. (2016) also found an increase of the potential area of Vitex doniana Sweet, which had also a large ecological amplitude with a rainfall requirement (700 mm to 2000 mm). However, the increase of temperature in the north will reduce a little the suitable area of L. sericeus. ...
Article
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In this study, species distribution modelling (SDM) was applied to the management of secondary forests in Benin. This study aims at identifying suitable areas where the use of candidate pioneer species, such as Lonchocarpus sericeus and Anogeissus leiocarpa, could be targeted to ensure at low cost, currently and in the context of global climate change, fast reconstitution of secondary forests and disturbed ecosystems and the recovery of their biodiversity. Using occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) website and current environmental data, the factors that affected the distribution of the species were assessed in West Africa. The models developed in MaxEnt and R software for West Africa only, for both species, showed good predictive power with AUC > 0.80 and AUC ratios well above 1.5. The results were projected in future climate at the horizon 2055, using AfriClim data under rcp4.5 and rcp8.5 and suggested a little reduction in the range of L. sericeus and any variation for A. leiocarpa. The potential distribution of the two species indicated that they could be used for vegetation restoration activities both now and in the mid-21st century. Improvement are needed through the use of complementary data, the extension to others species and the assessment of uncertainties related to these predictions.
Article
Bombax costatum is one of the multipurpose indigenous species in Mali, found in the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean climatic zones with an important socio-economic contribution. This study assessed the potential impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of B. costatum in Mali, using the 19 bioclimatic variables downloaded from Worldclim at a 2.5 arc-minute resolution and 2013 occurrence points across west-Africa gathered from GBIF and fieldwork. The future niche of species was predicted using three climate models (CanESM5, CNRM-CM6, MIROC6) and four climatic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: SSP126; SSP245; SSP370 and SSP585) at two time periods (2021-2040 and 2041-2060). The study shows that the current suitable habitats for B. costatum species represent 10.780% of Mali territory. According to the climatic scenarios, the species distribution range especially its highly suitable areas will increase by 2040 and 2060. Moreover, the species could be found in some parts of the Sudano-Sahelian zone in the future. Therefore, sustainable management measures are necessary for B. costatum and should be integrated in reforestation policies to ensure its availability for its multiple uses in the coming years in Mali.