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Occupational accidents in India and China

Occupational accidents in India and China

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Information of occupational accidents is not standardized worldwide. Especially, developing countries do not have reliable information on their occupational accidents due to lack of proper recording and notification systems. The number of accidents is under-reported but figures are still used as a baseline for occupational safety work. In this pape...

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... fatality rate is 11.4 per 100 000 workers and accident rate is 8700 per 100 000 workers. India did not actually report any occupational accidents to ILO (Table 5). In China both rates are close to those in India. ...

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... Workers operating in manufacturing are exposed to several hazards depending to the nature of task and working conditions. Deaths, injuries and working diseases have been unfortunately too common and undesired events with terrific individual, social (Battaglia et al, 2014) and economic consequences (Hamalainen et al., 2006;Takala et al., 2014). The problem of occupational safety was so massive and diffused in most of the European countries that several European Union policies have been focused on the promotion of workers health and safety since 1989, when the protection of the workers' health was promoted through the 89/391/EEC Directive (1989). ...
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... Accidents are essentially unanticipated events that result in unintentional and unexpected damage or injury [2]. As a result, accidents are now recognized as a global issue that can be mitigated by adhering to safety standards [3]. Accident prevention begins with a thorough understanding of the factors that contribute to causation. ...
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... As India does not report or publish statistics on occupational injuries (Hämäläinen et al. 2006), relatively little is known about construction workers injured in Delhi. We have previously shown that Indian Police records may be used as the basis of an injury surveillance system (Yadav et al. 2020a), and we have used these data to estimate annual construction site injury rates per 100,000 workers in in females) . ...
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... One of the main benefits of teleoperation is enabling the remote control of robots in disaster response scenarios or dangerous workplaces, where the human presence would rather be avoided. Studies [128], [78], [178] indicate that hundreds of thousands of workers die each year worldwide in the workplace, with a staggering cost (around 4% of global GDP) due to the time loss, worker compensation, interruption of production, and medical expenses. Not surprisingly, data show that some work activities remain inherently dangerous even with strict work regulations in place. ...
Thesis
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... The construction industry remains one of the most hazardous industries, employing about 7% of the global workforce but accounting for between 30 and 40% of all work-related fatalities [1,2]. It has been reported that these statistics are worse in developing countries [3,4]. Since the last decade, there has been an increased focus on understanding the state of construction health and safety (H&S) management in developing countries with a view to improving H&S outcomes. ...
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... Every year, millions of OA happen in the world, which causes injuries and economic losses. OA is among the main causes of disabilities and death in developing or developed countries 3,4 . ...
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... In the USA, construction-related injuries and deaths are 50% higher than in any other industry [2]; in the U.K., they are 25% of the overall accidents, 40% in Japan, and 50% in Ireland [3]. In developing nations, more extreme situations are reported [4] due to the lack of strict safety and construction legislation [5] and high rates of unskilled workers and unemployment [6]. Several research attempts have been made recently to study the efficiency of safety globally in the construction industry [1,[7][8][9]. ...
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... OSHA and Directive 92/ 57 / EEC) (Aires et al., 2010;Awwad et al., 2016). The fatality rates in developing countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America vary between 20 and 25 per 100,000 workers, compared to 4.2 per 100,000 workers in established economies (Hämäläinen et al., 2006;Manu et al., 2018). Specifically, the most recent statistics from Nigeria reveal that 238 fatalities and 3461 injuries were recorded from various industries between 2014 and 2016, where the construction industry accounted for about 39% of the recorded accidents (ILO, 2016, p. 48-49). ...
... The rate of fatalities and injuries in the construction industry in many developing countries in Africa and Asia are alarming (Hämäläinen et al., 2006;Manu et al., 2018). Falls from height are a common form of construction accidents, and one of the OSHA's Construction Focus Four. ...
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The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries globally. Falls at height due to scaffolding accidents has consistently ranked as one of the most prevalent accidents in the industry. Though safety programs to mitigate these hazards have been implemented in many countries, this is not the case in developing countries like Nigeria. Past research has suggested that the lack of guidelines, regulations, and awareness in these countries is the root cause of accidents. Bamboo scaffold is a common form of access for work at height in Nigeria due its wide availability, affordability, material strength and environmental sustainability. However, guidelines for the safe use of this equipment is lacking. This study developed a framework conveyed through a set of guidelines for the safe use of bamboo scaffolds in Nigeria. The guidelines were gathered under 35 sub-process, which were presented in 6 process groups including planning, design, erection, operation, inspection, and maintenance, and dismantling. The framework was further validated by experts in the construction industry in Nigeria. The study has implications for stakeholders in the construction industry in Nigeria, as well as other similar construction climes in developing countries.
... Various indices are used to indicate the risk level of each country, such as the fatal occupational incident rate per 100,000 persons, converted accident ratio, severity rate, and incident rate [16][17][18][19][20][21]. The fatality rate (FR) is one of the probabilistic approaches, which is used to analyze the national risk level considering the number of fatal accidents and the number of workers. ...
... Therefore, the method of calculating the number of fatal accidents and number of workers for the FR calculation varies by country. Some previous studies indicated that the direct comparison of countries is impossible even though simple comparisons are possible because the collecting method of statistical data for industrial accidents varies by country [19][20][21][22][23]. Therefore, this study compared the FR based on the national data and equivalent conditions and recommended the requirement for risk level assessment in each country under the equivalent evaluation condition. ...
... Because the sampling inspection method varies by country, we cannot conclude that the data are collected under equivalent conditions [67]. The FR calculated under different conditions can be used in simple comparisons, but a direct comparison of the risk level between countries is impossible [19][20][21][22][23]. ...
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Fatality rates such as fatalities per full-time equivalent workers are officially used to compare the risk level of the construction industry among various countries. However, each country evaluates the fatality rate using different conditions. This paper presents the comparison of fatality rates of various countries using conventional (national data) and pair (equivalent condition) methods through a time-series approach. The research was conducted in three stages. The risk level was evaluated in order in South Korea (1.54), Japan (0.84), Mexico (0.83), China (0.70), United Kingdom (0.15), and Singapore (0.13) in terms of national data. However, the risk level was re-evaluated in order in China (2.27), South Korea (2.05), Mexico (1.23), Singapore (0.98), Japan (0.80), and United Kingdom (0.47) in terms of equivalent conditions. The risk level of each can be changed when the fatality rate is compared under given equivalent conditions.
... Talking about the gap in the literature, it is also helpful to create a digital platform pool for the resources and the data, that can be used for such researches all over the world for those who desire to make different comparisons with different techniques wishing to find a better solution. The importance of such researches is not only brings more safety to workers, but also it guides us to enlighten our understanding of regulations, rules and break our misconceptions about safety [8], [16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. ...