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Observed mismatch distributions and their curve fit to simulated models of demographic expansion. MUL, Mulgundawa; SKI, St Kilda; HED, Port Hedland; DAM, Dampier; GSL, Great Salt Lake; SFB, San Francisco Bay.

Observed mismatch distributions and their curve fit to simulated models of demographic expansion. MUL, Mulgundawa; SKI, St Kilda; HED, Port Hedland; DAM, Dampier; GSL, Great Salt Lake; SFB, San Francisco Bay.

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Article
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Native American Artemia franciscana has become an introduced species in the Old World due to the rapid development of the aquaculture industry in Eurasia. The recent colonisation of A. franciscana in Mediterranean regions and Asia has been well documented, but Australia is a continent where the dispersal of this species is not well understood. In t...

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Context 1
... native populations of A. franciscana. These revealed that the SKI, HED and GSL localities had a unimodal pattern, whereas MUL and SFB localities showed a pattern likely to be multimodal. Additionally, the indices of SSD and Hri for all examined localities were non-significant, except for MUL, where we observed a significant SSD value (P < 0.001) (Fig. ...
Context 2
... native populations of A. franciscana. These revealed that the SKI, HED and GSL localities had a unimodal pattern, whereas MUL and SFB localities showed a pattern likely to be multimodal. Additionally, the indices of SSD and Hri for all examined localities were non-significant, except for MUL, where we observed a significant SSD value (P < 0.001) (Fig. ...

Citations

... Samples L. Sainz-Escudero et al. Additionally, to our data, all the available Artemia cox1 sequences available in GenBank (Valsala et al. 2005;Hou et al. 2006;Tizol-Correa et al. 2009;Muñoz et al. 2008Muñoz et al. , 2010Muñoz et al. , 2013Maniatsi et al. 2009Maniatsi et al. , 2011Maccari et al. 2013b;Eimanifar and Wink 2013;Eimanifar et al. 2014Eimanifar et al. , 2015Eimanifar et al. , 2016Asem et al. 2016Asem et al. , 2019Asem et al. , 2020Naganawa and Mura 2017;Horváth et al. 2018) and one of Branchinecta ferox used as outgroup (LT821334 [Rodríguez-Flores et al. 2017]) were retrieved in order to build a dataset represented by 1505 sequences, that allowed us to depict the structuring of the genus through the Neighbour Joining analysis and to perform phylogeographic analyses. Some dissimilar sequences that featured stop codons when traduced to amynoacids were removed from the analyses due to the existence of pseudogenes according to Rode et al. (2021). ...
Article
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Brine shrimps ( Artemia ) have undergone geographic range and demographic expansions as a result of their interaction with humans since the beginning of salt harvesting. This interaction has favoured the expansion of some species but compromising the survival of others. Mediterranean native populations of Artemia salina from coastal salterns and lagoons are facing the presence and expansion of the introduced and invasive American species Artemia monica (= A . franciscana ). However, this species could not be the only threat. Parthenogenetic populations of the Asian species A . urmiana and A . sinica are widespread along the Mediterranean and other areas of the world. In this work, with the use of large cox1 and mitogenomic datasets, phylogenetic and phylogeographic inferences, and a time calibrated tree, we confirmed the Asian origin and recent arrival of the current Western Mediterranean parthenogenetic populations of Artemia . In addition, the replacement of Iberian populations of A . salina by Asiatic parthenogenetic populations lead us to recognize parthenogens as invasive. Current salterns development and commercial importance of Artemia make human-mediated introduction probable. These results demonstrate again the impact that changing human interests have on population expansion or decline of species adapted to anthropogenic habitats. Artemia salina decline makes urgent the implementation of conservation measures such as its use in fish farming and salt production or its inoculation in inland salterns.
... Eventually, this had led to the invasion of A. franciscana into various countries (Muñoz et al., 2009;Ruebhart et al., 2008) including in Asia, Africa, and Europe, resulting in the elimination of native Artemia species (Ben Naceur et al., 2010;Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Muñoz et al., 2014;Amat et al., 2007). With the evidence of morphology, morphometric and a mitochondrial DNA (COXI) marker, recent studies confirm the invasion of A. franciscana in Egyptian and Australian hypersaline habitats (Sheir et al., 2018;Asem et al., 2020). Similarly, invasion of A. franciscana and replacement of the native population of Artemia parthenogenetica was confirmed in Indian salterns by using ITS-I gene sequences (Vikas et al., 2012). ...
... KBM haplotypes never shared their genetic character with other sampling sites while VDM, TUT, and NGC showed strong genetic dispersal between population. This observation can be supported by an earlier report on invasion and occurrence of A. franciscana from Australian salterns demonstrated by the COX1 gene (Hd = 0.533) (Asem et al., 2020). The deep-sea decapod crustacean species Aristeus antennatus also showed a high level of haplotype diversity based on the mtDNA control region analysis (H = 0.884 to 0.989) (Maggio et al., 2009;Eimanifar et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The invader brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is a micro-crustacean with diverse morphology and morphometric traits that are found in hypersaline habitats of Asian countries. In this study, we used the mtDNA control region to assess the impact of colonization of A. franciscana on genetic diversity and population structure encountered in different sampling sites of the southeast coast of India. Samples were collected from four hypersaline habitats includes Kelambakkam (KBM); Vedaranyam (VDM); Tuticorin (TUT) and Nagarcoil (NGC). Genetic diversity of the populations were assessed based on the sequence of a conserved region of the mtDNA control region (CR). For this study, a primer based on the conserved region of a closely related crustacean group was used to sequence the 493 bp of the mtDNA CR. Results indicated a clear demarcation with the existence of sequence divergence between the populations studied. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic studies revealed that the population of TUT, VDM and NGC formed a single cluster whereas the KBM formed a separate cluster with distinct genetic characteristics. The mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the four populations were found to be 0.742 ± 0.060 and 0.012 ± 0.016, respectively. Interestingly, we observed that these different populations had unique haplotypes varying with their habitats, demonstrating sequence divergence in the homogenous population of A. franciscana despite them being in a similar geographic zone.
... The mitochondrial markers, COX1 and 16S, have been successfully used in phylogeny of branchiopods [60][61][62][63][64][65]. To date only COX1 has been utilized for phylogenetic studies on Artemia, nevertheless mitogenomic results demonstrated significant difference in the nucleotide composition of ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to partheno�genetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid se�quence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
... Our results also confirmed the colonization of the same species in GL. SFB and GSL are the two major sources of Artemia that are usually used to culture in saline ecosystems for industrial aquaculture and fishery activities to produce Artemia cysts and biomass (Eimanifar et al., 2014;Muñoz et al., 2014;Asem et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019). Thus, these populations were considered in this analysis to determine the genetic alterations of colonized populations in new nonnative environments. ...
... Mitochondrial DNA presents some exceptional characteristics, including rapid evolutionary rates, maternal origin, and lack of recombination (Boore, 1999;Miller et al., 2009). Therefore, mitochondrial markers are important for the apprehension of tracing and the explanation of the source of non-indigenous species in new habitats (Ashton et al., 2008;Ficetola et al., 2008;Mabuchi et al., 2008;Gaubert et al., 2009;Asem et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
... Moreover, specific genetic patterns were confirmed using p26 gene, which revealed that changes in the genetic patterns can alter the morphology (Maniatsi et al., 2011). Similarly, recent studies have also shown that A. franciscana invasion was documented with exact morphology and genetic evidence [using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX1)] in Egyptian and Australian salterns (Sheir et al., 2018;Asem et al., 2020). ...
Article
The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana consists of a complex of phenotypes within a population confined to various salterns in southeast coast of India. Studies are scarce for their occurrence based on morphology and morphometric traits, while seldom any on their genetic variability. Therefore, the present study investigates the genetic variability among the populations of Artemia franciscana samples collected from four different hypersaline habitats Kelambakkam (KBM), Vedaranyam (VDM), Tuticorin (TCN) and Nagarcoil (NGC) from southeast coast of India. Since the genetic variability could be anywhere in their genomes the study was analyzed using two different Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers such as (i) the Operon series (OPK) and (ii) Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC). The OPK primers generated 367 fragments which indicated polymorphism of 85.29%, Nei's diversity index of 0.25 ± 0.16 and Shannon's index as 0.39 ± 0.22 among the population. Furthermore, ERIC-PCR generated 138 fragments with 20.83% of polymorphism while the Nei's diversity and Shannon's index was 0.06 ± 0.13 and 0.10 ± 0.20 respectively. Interestingly, operon primers of OPK3 and OPK17 revealed the presence of genetic variations among the populations, and the results were consistent with ERIC markers. Scatter plot and cluster analyses revealed the existence of two major groups in the population collected from the study sites; one with KBM and VDM, while other with TUT and NGC. Hence, the present investigation attributes the genetic variations in a panmictic population of A. franciscana which exist as two distinct groups.
... The mitochondrial markers, COX1 and 16S, have been successfully used in phylogeny of branchiopods [60][61][62][63][64][65]. To date only COX1 has been utilized for phylogenetic studies on Artemia, nevertheless mitogenomic results demonstrated significant difference in the nucleotide composition of ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to parthenogenetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid sequence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... The genus Artemia comprises seven (Rogers 2013) or possibly nine (Naganawa and Mura 2017) species. Although Artemia is widespread and common in hypersaline lakes in most continents, only Artemia franciscana Kellogg and Artemia parthenogenetica Bowen & Sterling are present in Australia (McMaster et al. 2007;Asem et al. 2018). A. franciscana was introduced to Australia by humans to aid in salt production and is overwhelmingly restricted to constructed evaporative ponds (salt works; Timms and Hudson 2009;Asem et al. 2018). ...
... Although Artemia is widespread and common in hypersaline lakes in most continents, only Artemia franciscana Kellogg and Artemia parthenogenetica Bowen & Sterling are present in Australia (McMaster et al. 2007;Asem et al. 2018). A. franciscana was introduced to Australia by humans to aid in salt production and is overwhelmingly restricted to constructed evaporative ponds (salt works; Timms and Hudson 2009;Asem et al. 2018). A. parthenogenetica may have also been introduced into salt works by humans (McMaster et al. 2007), but its presence in a range of lakes in south-western Australia could be the result of intercontinental bird-mediated dispersal followed by local dispersal (McMaster et al. 2007). ...
... All Artemia species, including the two species found in Australia, have high dispersal capacity because their cysts float and are effectively transported by animals and wind (Timms and Hudson 2009). Despite this, A. franciscana does not seem to be spreading (Timms and Hudson 2009;Asem et al. 2018), but the distribution of A. parthenogenetica is increasing in southwestern Australia, where it is mostly colonising degraded salt lakes (McMaster et al. 2007). It is unclear how the further spread of A. parthenogenetica may affect Parartemia species, but currently A. parthenogenetica appears limited to lakes not already occupied by Parartemia (McMaster et al. 2007). ...
Article
This study synthesises information on the biology of the unique and diverse halophilic macroinvertebrates of Australian salt lakes, focusing on gastropods and crustaceans. This information is needed to evaluate and manage the threats posed to these invertebrates by increased periods of drought and secondary salinisation. Most of these species are endemic to Australian salt lakes, and some have adapted to extreme conditions (e.g. salinities >100 g L-1 and pH <5). This study identifies key general findings regarding the taxonomy, ecology and life histories of these invertebrates, such as that many 'new' species have been uncovered in the past 20 years, with more likely to come. The study also identifies critical knowledge gaps, such as the need to elucidate the abiotic and biological drivers of the field distributions of species, including why some species are widespread and common whereas other congeneric species are rare or have narrow distributions. Those species that are either restricted to low salinity environments or survive dry periods as aestivating adults (as opposed to desiccation-resistant eggs) are probably the most vulnerable to increasing salinisation and drought. Future work should prioritise the development of a sound taxonomy for all groups, because this is needed to underpin all other biological research.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
... Our results also confirmed the colonization of the same species in GL. SFB and GSL are the two major sources of Artemia that are usually used to culture in saline ecosystems for industrial aquaculture and fishery activities to produce Artemia cysts and biomass (Eimanifar et al., 2014;Muñoz et al., 2014;Asem et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019). Thus, these populations were considered in this analysis to determine the genetic alterations of colonized populations in new nonnative environments. ...
... Mitochondrial DNA presents some exceptional characteristics, including rapid evolutionary rates, maternal origin, and lack of recombination (Boore, 1999;Miller et al., 2009). Therefore, mitochondrial markers are important for the apprehension of tracing and the explanation of the source of non-indigenous species in new habitats (Ashton et al., 2008;Ficetola et al., 2008;Mabuchi et al., 2008;Gaubert et al., 2009;Asem et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
... These findings have evidenced that these populations were at demographic equilibrium. In contrast, Asem et al. 21 found that GSL represented a unimodal mismatch distribution and have recorded this population was under demographic expansion. This difference can be attributed using sequences in different period from GSL. Asem et al. 56 have proved ecological variation could alter genetic structure of Artemia from Urmia Lake. ...
... Our results have also documented the colonization of same species in Godolphin Lakes locality.The San Francisco Bay (SFB) and Great Salt Lake (GSL) are the two main sources of Artemia that have usually been used to culture in other saline ecosystems for industrial aquaculture and fishery activates to produce Artemia cysts and biomass13,20,21,34 , for this reason these populations were considered in this analysis to find out the genetic alterations of the colonized populations in new non-native environments.Mitochondrial DNA represented some exceptional characteristics consisting rapid evolutionary rates, maternal origin, and lack of recombination35,36 . Then mitochondrial markers are important for apprehension the tracing and explanation the source of non-indigenous species in new habitats 20,21,37-40 . ...
... . The paradox between our result and previous study on Al Wathba Wetland Reserve can be referred to technical error using short sequences of COI in the previous study (446 bp vs 604 bp). Regarding to results of the current study, the geographical origin of both UAE populations might be secondary introduction from other Artemia production sources, especially Eastern Asia including Mekong Delta (Vietnam) and Bohai Bay (China) where these are commercially available in aquaculture markets21,34,41,42 .Golani et al.43 showed that the invasive populations generally possess lower genetic variation in non-indigenous new environments in comparison with the source populations. An introduced population of A. franciscana in Vinh Chau (Vietnam) has displayed low intraspecific genetic variation and reduced haplotype diversity as compared with its original population from SFB44 . ...
Preprint
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized non-indigenous populations in Eurasia, Mediterranean regions and Australia. In present we sought to evaluate the potential effects of colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in the new environments in UAE. We used the COI marker to determine population genetic structure and identify the origins of exotic populations in UAE. Our findings have confirmed the colonization of both localities by A. franciscana. Genetic variation of invasive A. franciscana were exclusively lower than native population in Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results have showed the studied population could not possibly have colonized directly from natural American localities, perhaps resulting from secondary introduction events from other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis have yielded different demographic patterns for invasive studied populations. Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) population have represented demographic expansion. In contrast, Godolphin Lakes (GL) population was at demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests have documented the excess of both recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia throughout establishment in the new environment.
... Generally, the long-distance translocations of the American species Artemia franciscana to other non-indigenous regions have occurred as a result of commercial activities, which have been fully documented previously [2,[15][16][17][18]. Artemia franciscana is a successful invader in saltwater ecosystems due to its faster filter-feeding rate, a high potential of reproduction [15,19], and a better physiological immune system, which is associated with nutritional behavior against cestode parasites [15] than the native species. ...
... Artemia franciscana is a successful invader in saltwater ecosystems due to its faster filter-feeding rate, a high potential of reproduction [15,19], and a better physiological immune system, which is associated with nutritional behavior against cestode parasites [15] than the native species. Asem et al. [17] have suggested that these biological characteristics could afford a high level of adaptive potential of A. franciscana in the new non-indigenous habitats, which would eventually result in the replacement with native species. ...
... Previous studies on A. franciscana have documented that invasive populations demonstrated genetic variations relative to the native American source populations [2,17,18,[22][23][24]. The low genetic diversity in the non-indigenous populations has been attributed to the founder effect [22] or population bottleneck due to the decreasing of population size in introduced populations during the process of establishment [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the rapid developments in the aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been introduced to Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Artemia populations (indigenous and introduced) from 14 different geographical locations in Western Asia. Based on the haplotype spanning network, Artemia urmiana has exhibited higher genetic variation than native parthenogenetic populations. Although A. urmiana represented a completely private haplotype distribution, no apparent genetic structure was recognized among the native parthenogenetic and invasive A. franciscana populations. Our ISSR findings have documented that despite that invasive populations have lower variation than the source population in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), they have significantly revealed higher genetic variability compared to the native populations in Western Asia. According to the ISSR results, the native populations were not fully differentiated by the PCoA analysis, but the exotic A. franciscana populations were geographically divided into four genetic groups. We believe that during the colonization, invasive populations have experienced substantial genetic divergences, under new ecological conditions in the non-indigenous regions.