ORAC value of sour cherry (P  cerasus L) fruit
and callus extracts. The results are expressed as micromole
Trolox equivalents per gram of fresh weight. Data is expressed as
means ± SD of two assays per extract. Fruits are taken from
the cultivars Amarena Mattarello, Visciola Ninno, and Visciola
Sannicandro. Callus has been generated in vitro from the leaves
of sour cherry cv Amarena Mattarello.

ORAC value of sour cherry (P cerasus L) fruit and callus extracts. The results are expressed as micromole Trolox equivalents per gram of fresh weight. Data is expressed as means ± SD of two assays per extract. Fruits are taken from the cultivars Amarena Mattarello, Visciola Ninno, and Visciola Sannicandro. Callus has been generated in vitro from the leaves of sour cherry cv Amarena Mattarello.

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In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention...

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... Anthocyanins are the main component of the antioxidant capacity of cherries, commonly referred to as ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity) [11]. They primarily act as antioxidants, have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, and anti-aging properties [12][13][14]. ...
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Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in Poland and ‘Łutówka’ is the dominant cultivar in commercial orchards. The experiment was carried out in 2007–2013 in three orchards; in each of them, three levels of fertilization were applied: 0 N kg ha−1, 60 kg N ha−1, and 120 kg N ha−1. The activity of dehydrogenase and protease in the soil was studied depending on nitrogen fertilization. The abundance of soil microorganisms was assessed: bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and nitrogenous bacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter) in the years during the experiments carried out with fertilization of 60 kg N ha−1 in all orchards. The enzyme activity of dehydrogenases increased after the use of 60 kg N ha−1 from 3.8 to 6.7 (cm3 H2 24 h−1 kg−1 DW soil), but a further increase in the dose to 120 kg N ha−1 caused a decrease in activity to 5.1 (cm3 H2 24 h−1 kg−1 DW soil). The activity of proteases was dependent on nitrogen fertilization, but to a large extent it was related to the course of climatic conditions. There is no relationship between the growth and the activity of proteases. The yield and selected quality parameters of the cherry fruits were associated with both dehydrogenases and proteases. The use of lower doses of nitrogen fertilizers allows for maintaining biological balance in the soil and a more efficient use of nutrients, contributing to less environmental pollution.
... constituents by many authors (Blando et al., 2004;Choi et al., 2002;Jakobek et al., 2009;Mulabagal et al., 2009;Nowicka et al., 2015;Picariello et al., 2016;Š imuníc et al., 2005). In a previous study, the chemical characterization of 33 different sour cherry cultivars reported 41 polyphenolic compounds (Wojdyło et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background : Berries, including cherries and their derived distinctive bioactive leads, are explored for the establishment of therapeutic supplements, owing to their versatile biological applications accompanied with less or no side effects to normal cells. The current research work aimed to identify the various phytocomponents of P. cerasus fruit extract (PcMFE) and investigate its chemoprevention properties employing cellular assays coupled with experimental Ascites mice models. Method : LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS (HRMS) approaches were used for chemoprofiling of P. cerasus methanolic fruit extract (PcMFE). After testing for scavenging capacities on DPPH, radical & lipid peroxidation, the In-vitro anticancer potential was investigated against five distinct human cancer cell lines A-549, THP-1, MCF-7, PC-3 and NCI-H322 using MTT and SRB assays. In case of in-vivo antitumor assessment, PcMFE was administrated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) and Methylcholanthrene-Ascites (Meth-A) experimental mice models. Results : HRMS analysis of PcMFE resulted in identification of 59 compounds belonging to diverse chemical classes. Besides significant antioxidant potential, PcMFE at 50µg/ml dose blocked 40-100% growth of various cancer cell lines, with maximum (100% growth inhibition) against NCI-H322 showing an IC50 of 5.59µg/ml and 5µg/ml respectively in SRB and MTT assays. Execution of apoptosis induced by PcMFE in NCI-H322 cancer cells revealed an increased population of apoptotic cells evidenced through nuclear morphology studies. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of PcMFE at 200mg/kg body weight reported 72.31% and 68.69% tumor inhibition in EAC & Meth-A mice model, respectively. Conclusions : The present study exhibited that P- cerasus fruit is a valuable source of diverse functional metabolites and may facilitate for development of chemopreventive supplements.
... The cv. Kutahya had 8.27 mmol Trolox/100 g antioxidant capacity, indicating lower values than the majority of wild-grown sour cherry genotypes (Table 3). In the literature, sour cherries have been investigated extensively for the total antioxidant capacity, and all studies indicated a strong genotype-dependent antioxidant capacity in sour cherry fruits (Seeram et al. 2001;Blando et al. 2004;Bonerz et al. 2007;Pedisić et al. 2007;Veres et al. 2008;Khoo et al. 2011). Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p < 0.05 ...
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Turkey has rich sour cherry germplasm and wild-grown sour cherry trees and shrubs in abundance throughout the country. Turkish people prefer to consume sour cherry fruits in processed form as jam and juice rather than fresh. This study was conducted in the Ispir district, located in northeastern Turkey. Some important morphological (aroma, fruit and juice color, fruit flesh ratio, fruit shape, fruit weight, and harvest date) and biochemical (total antioxidant capacity, soluble solid content, total acidity, total anthocyanin, total phenolic, vitamin C, and cancer cell proliferation inhibition activity) characteristics of 26 wild-grown sour cherry genotypes were evaluated. The results show that wild sour cherry genotypes differ from each other in terms of most of the morphological and biochemical characteristics. The genotypes exhibited wide variation of harvest dates (occurring between 28 June and 2 August), fruit weight (2.04 g–3.16 g), total phenolic content (240–320 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g), total anthocyanin content (135–205 mg cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside equivalent/100 g), and antioxidant capacity (7.75–11.80 mmol Trolox/100 g). The majority of wild genotypes had higher cancer cell proliferation inhibition activity than cv. Kutahya. The results indicate that the wild sour cherry fruits presented here have appropriate characteristics such as being well adapted to climate conditions. The bioactive content of fruits could provide new agricultural and industrial prospects.
... ey can be helpful as functional ingredients in dairy food industries [14,15]. However, fruit and vegetable production is affected by seasonal variation, and the excess demand for fresh fruit and vegetables in the market has led researchers to explore alternative sources and strategies for the bioproduction of naturally occurring phenolic acids and anthocyanins compounds [16]. For example, plant callus and in vitro cell cultures were considered as promising tools for polyphenolic, anthocyanin, and other compounds produced in cherries, carrots, and grapes [16][17][18]. ...
... However, fruit and vegetable production is affected by seasonal variation, and the excess demand for fresh fruit and vegetables in the market has led researchers to explore alternative sources and strategies for the bioproduction of naturally occurring phenolic acids and anthocyanins compounds [16]. For example, plant callus and in vitro cell cultures were considered as promising tools for polyphenolic, anthocyanin, and other compounds produced in cherries, carrots, and grapes [16][17][18]. Additionally, these in vitro cultures exhibited different advantages over fresh fruit extracts in the possibility of continuously forming bioactive compounds at a large scale, depending on the general needs, with a lower cost and the opportunity of changing the anthocyanin, phenolic, or other biosynthesis pathways [19,20]. ...
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Fresh fruit and vegetables are highly utilized commodities by health-conscious consumers and represent a prominent segment in the functional and nutritional food sector. However, food processing is causing significant loss of nutritional components, and the generation of waste is creating serious economic and environmental problems. Fruit and vegetables encompass husk, peels, pods, pomace, seeds, and stems, which are usually discarded, despite being known to contain potentially beneficial compounds, such as carotenoids, dietary fibers, enzymes, and polyphenols. The emerging interest in the food industry in the nutritional and biofunctional constituents of polyphenols has prompted the utilization of fruit and vegetable waste for developing enriched and functional foods, with applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the utilization of waste for developing diverse and crucial bioactive commodities is a fundamental step in sustainable development. Furthermore, it provides evidence regarding the applicability of fruit and vegetable waste in different food formulations especially bakery, jam, and meat based products.
... Sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) are rich in bioactive compounds, and they contain high levels of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins (Khoo, Clausen, Pedersen et al., 2011;Serradilla, Fotirić Akšić, Manganaris et al., 2017). Several studies have demonstrated that sour cherries contain significant levels of anthocyanins that have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity with a real impact on human health (Khoo et al., 2011;Blando, Gerardi and Nicoletti 2004;He and Giusti 2009;Levaj, Dragović-Uzelac, Delonga et al., 2010). It has been shown that consumption of sweet or sour cherries may reduce the risk of cancer, inflammatory diseases including arthritis, and muscle soreness, (Prvulović, Popović, Malenčić et al., 2012) cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis as well neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes mellitus (Kim and Padilla-Zakour, 2004;Viljevac Vuletić, Dugalić, Mihaljević et al., 2017). ...
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Bioactive compounds are produced as secondary metabolites in plants. Positive correlation between presence of bioactive compounds and health benefits of plants have been reported in many studies. Sour cherry contains high content of bioactive compounds, mostly polyphenols and anthocyanins. They are mostly consumed in fresh state, but are also used to produce jam, jelly, marmalade, juice, and syrup. Aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, anthocyanins, as well as the antioxidant activity in two sour cherry cultivars and their products, jams and juice, prepared using traditional recipes. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activity was assessed using ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. pH-Differential method was used to determine anthocyanin content. Marasca cultivar had higher content of phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity than Oblačinska cultivar. Processing of sour cherries had a greater impact on the reduction of anthocyanin content but did not have significant effect on antioxidant activity.
... Kim et al. (2005) 49.1-109.2 mg 100 g À1 , Blando et al. (2004) 27.8-804 mg 100 g À1 and Damar and Ekşi (2012) detected total anthocyanin contents ranging from 35 to 63 mg 100 g À1 in several cultivars. Homoki et al. (2014) studied the anthocyanin content of 5 Hungarian cultivars and candidate cultivars of sour cherry, with results ranging from 21 to 295 mg 100 g À1 , with a particularly high value for 'Cigánymeggy' (C59) (206 mg 100 g À1 ), while total anthocyanin content was detected in the 'Kántorjánosi' and 'Debreceni bőtermő' cultivars, 21 and 63 mg 100 g À1 , respectively. ...
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To overcome the problems of seasonality and geographical location in fruit production and processing, the production of aseptic semi-finished juice is an excellent solution. Even without refrigeration, aseptic pressing has a shelf life of more than a year, making it possible to produce finished products all year round. The production technology involves the addition of ascorbic acid to the pulp to fix or preserve colour. There is an increasing customer demand for ascorbic acid substitutes on the international market. In Hungary, one of the most important exports is aseptic sour cherry juice. In our work, ascorbic acid used for colour fixation was replaced by acerola concentrate. The anthocyanin content and colour coordinate values (L*, a*, b*, H, C) of aseptically filled sour cherry juice were determined and compared with the control sample during the 12 months of storage.
... It has been increasingly underlined that fruit juices, extracts, and powders show different biological activities, owing to which they have been used as functional ingredients in the food industry, such as dairy food industries [80,81]. Nonetheless, it is also worthy to note that the seasonal variation in vegetables and fruit production and the high demand for fresh fruits in the market have led researchers to explore alternative sources and strategies for the bioproduction of naturally-occurring bioactive compounds similar to phenolic acids and anthocyanins [82]. For example, plant callus andin vitro cell cultures were found to be promising tools for producing anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, namely cherries, grapes, and carrots [82][83][84]. ...
... Nonetheless, it is also worthy to note that the seasonal variation in vegetables and fruit production and the high demand for fresh fruits in the market have led researchers to explore alternative sources and strategies for the bioproduction of naturally-occurring bioactive compounds similar to phenolic acids and anthocyanins [82]. For example, plant callus andin vitro cell cultures were found to be promising tools for producing anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, namely cherries, grapes, and carrots [82][83][84]. For instance, thesein vitro cultures have displayed various advantages over fresh fruit extracts in the possibility of producing natural compounds continuously, at a large scale depending on general needs, with less cost and opportunity of alternating the direction of phenolic or other anthocyanin's biosynthesis [85,86]. ...
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Cholesterol is essential for normal human health, but elevations in its serum levels have led to the development of various complications, including hypercholesterolemia (HC). Cholesterol accumulation in blood circulation formsplaques on artery walls and worsens the individuals' health. To overcome this complication, different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are employed to reduce elevated blood cholesterol levels. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are the most commonly used drugs, but their prolonged use leads to several acute side effects. In recent decades, the potential benefit of ingesting yogurt on lipid profile has attracted the interest of researchers and medical professionals worldwide. This review aims to give an overview of the current knowledge about HC and the different therapeutic approaches. It also discusses the health benefits of yogurt consumption and highlights the overlooked phyto-enrichment option to enhance the yogurt's quality. Finally, clinical studies using different phyto-enriched yogurts for HC management are also reviewed. Yogurt has a rich nutritional value, but its processing degrades the content of minerals, vitamins, and other vital constituents with beneficial health effects. The option of enriching yogurt with phytoconstituents has drawn a lot of attention. Different pre-clinical and clinical studies have provided new insights on their benefits on gut microbiota and human health. Thus, the yogurtphyto-enrichment with stanol and β-glucan have opened new paths in functional food industries and found healthy andeffective alternatives for HC all along with conventional treatment approaches.
... These molecules are considered the key responsible for the organoleptic properties and biological potential demonstrated by these fruits given their multiple hydroxyl groups, and also owing to their electron deficiency, which confers to them the easy capacity to neutralize and/or reduce free radicals and reactive species. In most fruits, including red fruits, anthocyanins are commonly found conjugated with arabinose, galactose, glucose, or rutinoside sugar in order to be more stable (Figure 1 [54,70,72,73]. Additionally, trace amounts of peonidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-Oxylosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, and delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin aglycones are also detected [70,72,74,75]. ...
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Nowadays, it is largely accepted that the daily intake of fruits, vegetables, herbal products and derivatives is an added value in promoting human health, given their capacity to counteract oxidative stress markers and suppress uncontrolled pro-inflammatory responses. Given that, natural-based products seem to be a promising strategy to attenuate, or even mitigate, the development of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, and to boost the immune system. Among fruits, cherries and blueberries are nutrient-dense fruits that have been a target of many studies and interest given their richness in phenolic compounds and notable biological potential. In fact, research has already demonstrated that these fruits can be considered functional foods, and hence, their use in functional beverages, whose popularity is increasing worldwide, is not surprising and seem to be a promising and useful strategy. Therefore, the present review reinforces the idea that cherries and blueberries can be incorporated into new pharmaceutical products, smart foods, functional beverages, and nutraceuticals and be effective in preventing and/or treating diseases mediated by inflammatory mediators, reactive species, and free radicals.
... However, recent studies have revealed their contributions in plant defense mechanisms, ecophysiology, and propagation (Santos-Buelga et al., 2014). Role of Anth against heavy metals, UV-B, protection against photoinhibition, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and drought stress mitigation in plants have also been reported previously (Blando et al., 2004;Gould, 2004;Gould et al., 2000;Merzlyak et al., 2008). Under stress, Anth content and synthesis is reported to have been increased (Garriga et al., 2014). ...
... The word anthocyanin is derived from the Greek words 'anthos' and 'kyanos' that mean flower and blue respectively. Anth impart colors to plants and are also consumed in human diet given their potential as antioxidants, antimicrobial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity agents (Blando et al., 2004;Garriga et al., 2014;Turturică et al., 2015). Anth are flavonoids that exhibit a basic structure of C6-C3-C6. ...
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Currently, increased crop yield is direly needed considering the ever-increasing world population and climate change. Crops growth and production is mainly dependent upon their physiological state and vigor. Several forms of plant pigments exist naturally. They are categorized into four major groups: namely betalains (betacyanins, betaxanthins), carotenoids (carotenes, xanthophylls), chlorophylls (Chl a and b), and flavonoids (anthocyanins, aurones, chalcones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins). Out of all these, Chlorophylls (Chl) and Anthocyanins (Anth) are the two most important plant pigments that provide valuable insight into the plant physiological state. Primary function of Chl is the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy that is further utilized in the photosynthetic process, whereas Anth are multifunctional molecules that apart from coloration of plant organs also play an important role in stress mitigation. This study might serve as a guide for students interested to learn about plant physiology. Keyword: Plant pigments
... For example, lactic acid from sour milk enhances the immune system [5]. Anthocyanin, commonly found in sour cherries or other fruits, is characterised by strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [6,7]. Experiments on rats and macaque monkeys have demonstrated the activation of the gustatory cortex (the insula) and prefrontal cortex by pure sour taste [8,9]. ...
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: The anterior insula and rolandic operculum are key regions for flavour perception in the human brain; however, it is unclear how taste and congruent retronasal smell are perceived as flavours. The multisensory integration required for sour flavour perception has rarely been studied; therefore, we investigated the brain responses to taste and smell in the sour flavour-processing network in 35 young healthy adults. We aimed to characterise the brain response to three stimulations applied in the oral cavity—sour taste, retronasal smell of mango, and combined flavour of both—using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Effective connectivity of the flavour-processing network and modulatory effect from taste and smell were analysed. Flavour stimulation activated middle insula and olfactory tubercle (primary taste and olfactory cortices, respectively); anterior insula and rolandic operculum, which are associated with multisensory integration; and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a secondary cortex for flavour perception. Dynamic causal modelling demonstrated that neural taste and smell signals were integrated at anterior insula and rolandic operculum. These findings elucidated how neural signals triggered by sour taste and smell presented in liquid form interact in the brain, which may underpin the neurobiology of food appreciation. Our study thus demonstrated the integration and synergy of taste and smell.