Table 4 - uploaded by Elaine Mullan
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Number of weekly cycles for leisure or fitness by stage of change for CFT.

Number of weekly cycles for leisure or fitness by stage of change for CFT.

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Article
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate levels of cycling for transport among regular cyclists in Ireland and, second, to describe the factors that influence their decision to cycle or not cycle for transport. Ireland’s National Cycle Policy Framework 2009–2020 aims to get 10% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2020. There has been very l...

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Context 1
... those that did not, most were thinking about doing so. Table 4 shows that those who CFT regularly or sometimes report doing more leisure/fitness cycles than those who do not CFT. Table 5 lists the five most popular categories derived from analyses of 'the top three things that would encourage you to CFT', 'the top three things that would discourage you from CFT' and 'the top three reasons for choosing leisure/fitness routes'. ...

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... More specifically, the sport logic present in cycling is usually defined by a greater concern for physical performance, competitiveness, and a greater commitment to intense pedalling (Sirna 2016;Aldred 2013). Furthermore, the distances travelled and the risks taken are generally greater than in the other two forms of cycling (Mullan 2012). Clothing, equipment and the bicycle's technical characteristics also play a greater role (Gatersleben and Haddad 2010). ...
... In this way, in areas with a weak cycling culture, promoting leisure cycling could contribute to boosting transport cycling, through the development of skills and materials (Boyer 2018). In this sense, Mullan (2012) highlights the importance of promoting transport cycling among leisure/sport cyclists, given the abilities they have already acquired. Moreover, their cycling experience could develop an awareness of the logistical benefits (saving time and money), physical value (improving fitness and health, see Hansen and Nielsen 2014), and the advantages of proper cycling infrastructures for safety. ...
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... Along with distance, other studies have pointed to the decision to use the bicycle possibly being influenced by a variety of other factors that might act as facilitators or barriers. In the first group are demographic and personal characteristics, such as age (Ma, Liu, & Erdogan, 2015); cultural tradition (Rietveld & Daniel, 2004); car ownership (Wuerzer & Mason, 2015); individual activities, such as picking up/dropping off children or carrying the shopping (Mullan, 2012); bicycle users' personal preferences (Heinen et al., 2011a); or other social/psychological variables, such as the way cyclists are perceived socially in a world dominated by car transport (Nankervis, 1999). The second group includes aspects related to the terrain and design of the city, such as its size (Martens, 2004); the type of city and urban layout (Hansen & Nielsen, 2014;Ma et al., 2015); the pedestrian environment (Timperio et al., 2006); elevation of the work/study address (Cole-Hunter et al., 2015); greater residential density (Heinen, Van Wee, & Maat, 2010;Pucher & Buehler, 2006); level of urban greenness around the work/study address (Cole-Hunter et al., 2015); or mixed-use development (Pucher & Buehler, 2006); and even the city or country's socioeconomic features, such as the level of income or the costs involved in owning, driving and parking a car (Pucher & Buehler, 2006). ...
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... On the other hand, among the motives for using the bicycle, greater distances could act as an incentive for people who use the bicycle to keep fit, do sport and for whom cycling is a leisure activity (Mullan, 2012). As it is logical to suppose that private bicycles are used for these activities, this would also be consistent with the present study in associating longer distances with the private bicycle. ...
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... 61). Mullan also found in her studies on views of cycling for transportation (Mullan, 2013) and also cycling for recreation (Mullan, 2012) that distance, in terms of the length of the journey as well as trip purpose, are important in identifying willingness to cycle. For those who use cycling for transportation, the decision to do so was rarely based on health or environmental factors. ...
... There has, however, been little research on what might encourage cycling for transport among those who cycle for recreation. Disincentives to cycling for transport among leisure and fitness cyclists in Ireland included the weather, practical considerations (for example, needing the car for work, carrying shopping, bikes on trains/buses etc.), poor road conditions, poor driver behavior, and road safety and traffic concerns (Mullan, 2012). Addressing such issues may increase participation in transport cycling. ...
... Indeed, converting recreational/leisure/sport cyclists to CFT should be an important focus because this group may be considered "low hanging fruit" for increasing population levels of cycling. A survey of levels and determinants of CFT among a sample of Irish leisure/sport cyclists, as a preface to this research (Mullan, 2012), found 68.4% of the sample either regularly or sometimes cycled for transport (CFT), while 19% were thinking about doing so. However, the barriers to CFT are well documented: lack of time; lack of changing, storage, and secure parking facilities; bad weather; distance too far (Parkin, Ryley, & Jones, 2007;Shannon et al., 2006;van Bekkum, Williams, & Morris, 2011). ...
... However, the barriers to CFT are well documented: lack of time; lack of changing, storage, and secure parking facilities; bad weather; distance too far (Parkin, Ryley, & Jones, 2007;Shannon et al., 2006;van Bekkum, Williams, & Morris, 2011). In addition, Mullan (2012) also found that safety and weather concerns were the key disincentives to CFT among those surveyed. Regarding road safety, respondents specifically identified dangerous, inconsiderate, and intolerant drivers as disincentives to CFT, while indicating specifically that "safer roads," "safety," and "safer cycling conditions" would encourage them to CFT. ...
... Reasons grouped under the "practical barriers" subtheme echo many of the barriers to CFT expressed in Mullan (2012): distance too far, lack of changing/storage/ showering facilities, would need to shower or change and that would take too long, too much stuff to carry, lack of secure parking, wet weather, cannot integrate with public transport, expensive to take bike on intercity journeys, need car for work. For those who sometimes cycled for transport, decision making appeared to be a weighing up process between such concerns and the journey time or purpose. ...
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Levels of cycling for transport (CFT) in Ireland are very low—about 2% nationally—and the government has set a target of 10% of all trips to work by bicycle by 2020. The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities of leisure/sport cyclists’ views about CFT. Sixteen leisure/sport cyclists (four women and 12 men; about half cycled for transport) were interviewed about the factors that influenced their decision to cycle somewhere instead of driving and the role of the weather in that decision, whether they considered CFT to be real “exercise,” and the meaning of “safety.” The findings were that the decision to cycle for transport was dominated by practical concerns, and weather concerns added to this organizational burden. For city-dwellers, the key deciding factor was cycling’s efficiency and reliability. Safety concerns centered around negative interactions with drivers and there was a common belief that the general public had very negative attitudes to cycling and cyclists. Finally, most thought that CFT was not “proper” exercise as it would be of insufficient intensity or duration and would take from the time available to do this. These findings show that to promote CFT among leisure/sport cyclists, government and local authorities must improve and highlight the efficiency, safety, and legitimacy of cycling as a transport option. Without this, promotional activities that just focus on the exercise, health, and enjoyment potential of CFT will have little effect.